Skip to main content

Full text of "The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, and ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 



I ' 




• I* 

The Catholic Encyclopedia 


Philip— Revalidation 



















new Botli 

Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911 





Copyright, 1911 
By Robert Appleton Company 

Copyright, 191S 
By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC. 

The articles in this work have been written specially for The Catholic 
Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ- 
ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved. 

Contributors to the Twelfth Volume 

AIKEN, CHARLES F., S.T.D., Professor of 
Apologetics, Cathouc University of Amer- 
ica, Washington: Religion. 

AIMfi DE MARIE, SISTER, Monastery of the 
PREdous Blood, St. Htacinthe, Canada: 
Precious Blood, Sisters Adorers of the. 

XldXsY, ANTAL, Ph.D., Archivist of the 
Library of the National Museum, Buda- 
pest: Pray, George. 

RiOR OF Parker's Hall, Oxford : Ramsey Abbey ; 
Reading Abbey. 

AI^TON, G. CYPRIAN, O.S.B., London: Re- 

College of St. Ignatius, Sarria, Barcelona: 
Plasencia, Diocese of. 

ANTONIO, SISTER M., St. Clare's Convent, 
Hartwbll, Ohio: Poor of St. Francis, Sisters 
of the. 

bishop OF. PopayAn, Repubuc of Colombia: 
Popay&n, Archdiocese of. 

ARENDZEN, J. P., Ph.D., S.T.D., M.A. (Cantab.), 
Professor of Sacred Scripture, St. Ed- 
mund's College, Ware, England: Pneuma- 

AVELING, FRANCIS, S.T.D., London: Quality; 
Quantity; Rationalism. 

tory, Birmingham, England: Pionius, Saint; 
Polycarp, Saint; Possidius, Saint; Proclus, 
Saint; Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro; Rabbulas, 
Bishop of Edessa. 

(OxoN AND Cantab.}, Cambridge, England: 
Pilate, Pontius. 

BARRETT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Buckie, Scotland: 
Pluscarden Priory. 

BARRO, FERMfN FRAGA, Pinar del Rio, 
Cuba: Pinar del Rio, Diocese of. 

ton, England: Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old 
Testament; Pusey and Puseyism; Renaissance, 

8.T.D., Rome: Pontifical Colleges. 

BECHTEL, FLORENTINE, S.J., Professor of 
Hebrew and Sacred Scripture, St. Louis 
Untvebsity, St. Louis, Missouri: Pillar of 
Ooud; Plagues of Egypt. 

BECK, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Professor of Pastoral 
Theology, Superior Collegii Theologici 
Salesiani, University of Fribourg: Poor, 
Care of, by the Church. 

BENIGNI, Mgr. UMBERTO, Prothonotary 
Apostouc Partecipante, Professor of Ec- 
clesiastical History, Pontificia Accademia 
DEI NoBiu EccLESiASTici, Rome: Piacenza, 
Diocese of; Piatto Cardinalizio; Piazza Armer- 
ina. Diocese of; Piccolomini, Alessandro; Pic- 
colomini-Ammannati, Jacopo; Pignatelli, Giu- 
seppe Maria, Venerable; Pinerolo, Diocese of; 
Pisa, Archdiocese of; Pistoia and Prato, Diocese 
of; Pius X, Pope; Poggio Mirteto, Diocese of; 
Policastro, Diocese of; Pomponazzi, Pietro; 
Pontremoli, Diocese of; Porto and Santa Rufina, 
Diocese of; Poesevinus, Antonius; Pozzuoli, 
Diocese of; Propaganda, Sacred Congregation 
of; Ravenna, Archdiocese of; Racanti and 
Loreto, Diocese of; Reggio dell' Emilia, Diocese 
of; Reggio di Calabria, Archdiocese of. 


BERTRIN, GEORGE, Lrrr.D., Fellow of the 
University, Professor of French Litera- 
ture, Institut Cathouque, Paris: Rabelais, 

BEWERUNGE, H., Professor of Church Music, 
Maynooth College, Dublin: Plain Chant. 

BIHL, MICHAEL, O.F.M., Lector of Ecclesias- 
tical History, Collegio San Bonaventuba, 
Quaracchi, Florence: Philip of Jesus, Saint; 

BIRKNER, FERDINAND, Ph.D., Curator of 
the Pre-Historic Anthropologic Colleo- 
TioN OF Munich: Race, Human. 

BLUME, CLEMENS, S.J., Munich: Prose or 

Director, ''Canoniste Contemporain", Pro- 
fessor OF Canon Law, Institut Catho- 
uque, Paris: Pothier, Robert Joseph; Pre- 
caria; Presentation, Right of; Priest; Primate; 
Privilege; 'Protocol; Provincial CouncU; Re- 
demptions, Penitential. 

BRANN, HENRY A., S.T.D., New York: Pise, 
Charles Constantine. 

BRANTS, VICTOR, J.U.D., Member of the 
Royal Academy of Belgium, Louvain: Ram, 
Pierre Francois Xavier de. 

BRAUN, JOSEPH, S.J., St. Ignatius College, 
Valkenburg, Holland: Rationale. 

BRfiHIER, fiMILE, Lrrr.D., Rbnnes, France: 
Philo Judffius. 


BR£HIER, LOUIS-RENfi, Professor of Ancient 
AND Meddsval Histort, Uniyersitt of Cler- 
mont-Ferrand, Puy-db-DAmb, France: Polo, 
Marco; Raymond IV, of Saint Gilles; Ray- 
mond VI and VII, Counts of Toulouse. 

LocHTON Castle, Perthshire, Scotland: 
Piacenza, University of. 

BRUCKER, JOSEPH, S.J., Editor of "Etudes", 
Paris: Pr^mare, Joseph Henri Marie de; 
Protectorate of Missions; R^gis, Jean-Baptiste. 

BURTON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F. R. Hist. Soc., Vice- 
President, St. Edmund's College, Ware, 
England: Phillip, Robert; Pilgrimage of Grace; 
Pitts, John; Plantagenet, Henry Beaufort; 
Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury; Plowden, 
Edmund; Plymouth Brethren; Pullen, Robert; 
Puritans; Quin, Michael Joseph; Rathbome, 
Joseph; Recusants, English; Repington, Philip. 

BUTSCH, JOSEPH S., S.J., Rector, St. Joseph's 
Seminart, Bauhmore, Maryland: Race, 

CABOR, A., C.S.Sp., Superior of the Petit 
S£MiNAiRB-CoLii:GE, Port-au-Prince, Haiti: 
Port-au-Prince, Archdiocese of. 

CABROL, FERNAND, O.S.B., Abbot of St. 
Michael's, Farnborough, England: Prime; 

CALfiS, JEAN, S.J., Professor of Old Testa- 
ment Exegesis, Enghien, Belgium : Prophecy, 
Prophet, and Prophetess. 

CANDIDE, FATHER, O.M.Cap., Vicar and 
Professor of Theology, College" of the Ca- 
puchin Fathers, Ottawa, Canada: Preacher, 

CANEVIN, J. F. REGIS, S.T.D., Bishop of 
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania: Pittsburg, Diocese 

CARDAUNS, HERMANN, Bonn: Reichensberger, 
August and Peter. 

CATHREIN, VICTOR, S.J., Professor of Moral 
Philosophy, St. Ignatius College, Valken- 
BURG, Holland: Property. 

CERULLI, VINCENZO, Director of the Col- 
LURANiA Astronomical Observatory, Teramo, 
Italy: Respighi, Lorenzo. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Prior 
OF St. Thomas's Abbey, Erdington, Bir- 
mingham, England: Photinus; Praxeas. 

S.T.L., SOMETIME Professor of Canon and 
Moral Theology, St. Isidore's College, 
Rome: Ponce, John; Pontius, Carbonell; Porter, 

COLLARD, CHARLES, LL.D., Private Cham- 
berlain TO His Holiness Pope Pius X, 
Louvain: Prisons. 

COYLE, MOIRA K., New York: Porto Alegre 
Archdiocese of. 

CRIVELLI, CAMILLUS, S.J., Instituto Cien- 
tIpico de San Jos£, Guadalajara, Mexico: 
Pizarro, Francisco; Quer6taro, Diocese of. 

DEBUCHY, PAUL, S.J., Litt.L., Enghien, Bel- 
gium: Retreats. 

DEDIEU, JOSEPH, Litt.D., Institut Catho- 

LiQUE, Toulouse: Prades, Jean-Martin de; 

Remigius, Saint; Remiremont; Remuzat, Anne- 

. Madeleine, Venerable; Remy, Abbey of Saint. 

Juvenile Court, Associate Professor of 
Common Law, Cathouc University of Amer- 
ica, Washington: Protectories. 

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D., Instructor in 
French, College of the City of New York: 
Raynouard, Frangoi&Jusie-Marie. 

DELANY, FRANCIS X., S.J., Woodstock Col- 
lege, Maryland: Raccolta. 

DELANY, JOSEPH, S.T.D., New York: Prescrip- 
tion; Presumption; Pride; Prudence; Rela- 
tionship; Relatives, Duties of; Religion, Virtue 
of; Reputation. 

DE SALES, BROTHER, B.A., Presentation 
College, Kingstown, Ireland: Presentation 

DEVINE, ARTHUR, C.P., St. Paul's Retreat, 
Mount Argus, Dublin: Presence of God; 
Prophecy; Quiet, Prayer of; Recollection. 

DEVITT, E. J., S.J., Professor of Psychology, 
Georgetown University, Washington: Plow- 
den, Charles; Plowden, Robert; Plowden, 
Thomas (alias Salisbury); Plowden, Thomas 

Professor of Philosophy, University of 
Louvain: Philosophy. 

DOWLING, AUSTIN, Providence, Rhode Is- 
land: Providence, Diocese of. 

DRI8C0LL, JAMES F., S.T.D., New Rochellb, 
New York: Philistines; Phylacteries; Promise, 
Divine, in Scripture; Proselyte; Publican; 
Rachel; Raphael the Archangel; Rechab and 
the Rechabites; Refuge, Cities of. 

DRUM, WALTER, S.J., Professor of Hebrew 
and Sacred Scripture, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Pineda, John de; Prado, Jerome 
de; Psalms. 

DUHEM, PIERRE, Professor of Theoretical 
Physics, Univbrsfty of Bordeaux: Physics, 
History of; Pierre de Maricourt. 

DWYER, WILLIAM J., New York: Randall, 
James Ryder. 

Barbara, Caufornia: Quevedo. Juan de. 



Pugh, George Ellis; Pulaski, Casimir. 

FANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Professor 
OP Church History and Canon Law, St. 
Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri: 
Pichler, Vitus; Plenary Council; Postulation; 
Fnelatvs Nullius; Precept, Canonical; Pre- 
sumption (in Canon Law); Prisons, Eoclesiaft- 
tical; Promotor Fidei; Property, Ecclesiastical, 
in the United States; Renunciation; Reserved 

FAY, SIGOURNEY W., B.A., Washington: Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church in the United States of 

FINEGAN, PHILIP M., S.J., College of the 
Ateneo, Manila: Philippine Islands. 

FORD, JEREMIAH D. M., M.A., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor OF the French and Spanish Lan- 
guages, Harvard Universfty, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: Pindemonte, Ippolito; Porta, 
Carlo; Pulci, Luigi; Redi, Francesco. 

FORGET, JACQUES, Professor of Dogmatic 
Theology and the Syriac and Arabic Lan- 
guages, University of Louvain: Precipiano, 
Humbert-Guillaume de; Quesnel, Pasquier; 
Quesnellism; Ravesteyn, Josse. 

worth, Hertfordshire, England: Photius 
of Constantinople; Postcommunion; Preface; 
Protopope; Psellus, Michael. 

Montreal: Picquet, Francois. 

FOX, WILLIAM, B.Sc., M.E., Associate Pro- 
fessor OF Physics, College of the City 
OF New York: Piazzi, Giuseppe; Picard, 
Jean; Poleni, Giovanni; Puiseux, Victor- 
Alexandre; Regnault, Henri-Victor. 

FRERI, Mgr. JOSEPH, D.C.L., Director Gen- 
eral FOR THE United States op the Society 
FOR the Propagation of the Faith, New 
York: Propagation of the Faith, The Society 
for the. 

FUENTES, VENTURA, B.A., M.D., Instructor, 
College of the Cmr of New York: Pinto, 
Femfio Mendes; Ponce de Le6n, Juan. 

S.T.D., Zaostrog, Dalmatia: Pulati, Diocese of. 

Titular of Barlings, Tongerloo Abbey, 
Wbsterloo, Belgium: Premonstratensian . 
Canons; Pr6montr6, Abbey of; Psaume, 

GHELLINCK, JOSEPH DE, Professor of Pa- 
trology and theological literature of the 
Middle Ages, Universfty of Louvain: 
Radulph of Rivo. 

GIETMANN, GERARD, S.J., TEAcraa of Classi- 
CAL Languages and iEsTHETics, Sr. Ignatius 
College, Valkenburg, Holland: Porta, 
Giacomo della; Pozzo, Andreas; Pulpit; Rethel, 

GIGOT, FRANCIS E., S.T.D., Professor of 
Sacred Scripture, St. Joseph's Seminary, 
DuNWooDiE, New York: Proverbs, Book of; 
Redemption in the Old Testament; Red Sea. 

GILBERT, JOHN W., B.A. (Univ. of Lond.), 
Secretary of the Providence Night Refuge 
AND HoifE, London: Poor, Care of, by the 
Church in Grea^; Britain and Ireland. 

GILLET, LOUIS, Paris: Poussin, Nicolas; Puvis 
de Chavannes, Pierre; Raphael. 

GOGGIN, J. F., S.T.D., Ph.D., St. Bernard's 
Seminary, Rochester, New York: Pontificale; 
Pontifical Mass; Priest,. Assistant. 

Quaresmius, Franciscus. 

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate EnrroR, "Revue 
'* DES Deux Mondes", Paris: Philip II and 
IV, Kings of France; Pithon, Pierre; Ray, 
Pierre-Guillaume-Fr^^ric Le; Poitiers, Dio- 
cese of; Quimper, Diocese of; Reims, Arch- 
diocese of; Renaudot, Thtephraste; Rennes, 
Archdiocese of; Rets, Jean-Frangois-Paul-Gondi, 
Cardinal de. 

OF Tiberias, Plymouth, England: Plymouth, 
Diocese of. 

GRATTAN-FLOOD, W. H., M.R.I.A., Mus.D., 
RosEMOUNT, Enniscorthy, IRELAND : Proskc, 
Karl; Purgatory, St. Patrick's. 

Pichler, Antonio Giovanni Luigi; Puget, Pierre; 
Quercia, Jaoopo della. 

HANNA, EDWARD J., S.T.Q., Professor of 
Theology, St. Bernard's Seminary, Roches- 
ter, New York: Purgatory. 

HARTIG, OTTO, Assistant Librarian of the 
Royal Library, Munich: Pordenone, Odoric of. 

HARTY, JOHN M., S.T.D., Professor of Moral 
Theology and Canon Law, Maynooth Col- 
lege, Dublin: Probabilism. 

HASSETT, Mgr. MAURICE M., S.T.D., Harri&. 
burg, Pennsylvania: Portraits of the Apostles; 

HEALY, PATRICK J., S.T.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor OF Church History, Cathouc Uni- 
versity of America, Washington: Pris- 
cillianism; Quadratus. 

HEHIR, MARTIN A,, C.SS.R., President, Holy 
Ghost College, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania: 
Ratisbonne, Maria Theodor. 




HENRY, HUGH T., Litt.D., R«ctor op Roman 
Cathouc High School for Boys, Professor 
OF English Literature and of Gregorian 
Chant, St. Charles Seminary, Overbrook, 
Pennsylvania: Precentor; Quern terra, pontus 
sidera; Quicumque Christum Qusritis; Rector 
Potens, Verax Deus; Regina CcbU; Rerum 
Creator Optime; Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor. 

ferial Royal Professor, University of 
Prague: Piusverein; Prague, University of. 

HILGERS, JOSEPH, S.J., Rome: Purgatorial 

HOEBER, KARL, Ph.D., Editor, ''Volkbzbi- 
tung" and ''A^fja)EMiscHE MonatsbiJLtter", 
Cologne: Philip the Arabian; Placidia, Galla; 
Probus, Marcus Aurelius. 

HOFLER, WALTER A., Southam, Warwickshire, 
England: Poor Child Jesus, Sisters of the. 

KENNEDY, D. J., O.P., 8.T.M., Professor or 
Sacramental Theology, Cathouc Univer- 
sity OF America, Washington: Politi, Lancelot; 
Porrecta, Serafino. 

KENNEDY, THOMAS, B.A. (R.U.L), London: 
Piiu6n, Martin Alonso; Proechko, Frani 

KENT, W. H., O.S.C., Batswatbb, London: 
Rawes, Henry Augustus. 

KERRY, WILLIAM J., S.T.L., Ph.D., Doctor of 
Special and Political Sciences, Professor 
OF Sociology, Cathouc University of Amer- 
ica, Washington: Poor, Care of, by the Church, 
in the United States. 

mouth, England: Portsmouth, Diocese of. 

tary Catholic Guardians Association, Lon- 
don: Poor Laws. 

HOLWECK, FREDERIC G., St. Louis, Missouri: ,,^^^„ , , ,^„ . ^,^, ^ « «, ^ ^ 

Prayer of Christ, Feast of the; PresenUtion of KmSCH, Mgr. JOHANN P., S.T.D., Professor 

the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the; Ransom, 
Feast of Our Lady of. 

HOULIHAN, JOHN W., Portland, Maine: Port- 
land, Diocese of. 

Downside Abbey, Bath, England: Pickering, 
Thomas, Venerable; Placidus, Saint; Polding, 
John Bede; Pontefract Priory; Powel, Philip, 
Venerable; Reform of a Religious Order. 

HULL, ERNEST R., S.J., Editor, "The Ex- 
aminer", Bombay, India: Pondicherry, Arch- 
diocese of; Poona, Diocese of; Quilon, Diocese 
of; Rajpootana, Prefecture Apostolic of. 

OF Pathology and Christian ARCHiEOLOGY, 
University of Fribourg: Phillips, George; 
Philomena, Saint; Piedmont; Pius I, Saint, 
Pope; Pontian, Saint; Porter; Praxedes and 
Pudentiana; Prelate; Primicerius; Primus and 
Felician, Saints; Prisca, Saint; Processus and 
Martinian, Saints; Prothonotary Apostolic; 
Protus and Hyacinth, Saints; Province, Ec- 
clesiastical; Pulcheria, Saint; Quinctianus, 
Saints; Qulricus and Julitta, Saints; Quirinus, 
Saints; Ratherius of Verona; Referendarii; 
Reformation, The; Regesta, Papal; Regino of 
PrOm; Regionarii. 

Austria: Poland. 

HUNT, LEIGH, Professor of Art, College of 

THE City of New York: Piranesi, Giam- KURTH, GODEFROID, Director, Belgian His- 

torical Institute, Rome: Philip II, King of 

battista; Raimondi, Marcantonio. 

HUNTER-BLAIR, SIR D. O., Bart., O.S.B., M.A., 
Fort Augustus Abbey, Scotland: Preston, 

HUONDER, ANTHONY, S.J., St. Ignatiub Coi/- 
LEGE, Valkenburo, HOLLAND : ReductioHs of 

JARRETT, BEDE, O.P., B.A. (Oxon.), S.T.L., 
St. Dominic's Priory, London: Pilgrimages. 

J9NES, W. A., O.S.A., S.T.D., Bishop of Porto 
Rico: Porto Rico. 

St. Beuno's College, St. Asaph, Wales: 
Pope, The. 

KAMPERS, FRANZ, Ph.D., Professor of Medi- 
eval AND Modern History, University of 
Brbslau: Rainald of Dassel. 

KELLY, BLANCHE M., New York: Poor, Little 
Sisters of the; Poor Servants of the Mother of 
God; Port Louis, Diocese of; Port Victoria, 
Diocese of; Providence, Sisters of, of St. Anne. 


LATASTE, JOSEPH, Lrrr.D., Superior of the 
Seminary, Airs-sur-Adour, Landes, France: 
Pius V, Saint, Pope; Polignac, Melchior; 

siologus; Pietism; Pighius, Albert; Pistorius, 
Johann; Raich, Johann Michael; R&ss, Andreas; 
Ratzinger, Georg. 

LAVELLE, Mgr. MICHAEL J., Vicar-General 
OF THE Archdiocese of New York: Preston, 
Thomas Scott. 

•LE BARS, JEAN, B.A., Lrrr.D., Member of the 
Asiatic Society, Paris: Racine, Jean. 

LEJAY, PAUL, Fellow of the University of 
France, Professor, Institut Catholique, 
Paris: Poggio Bracciolini, Giovanni Francisco; 
Politian; Priscianus; Proba, Faltonia; Pru- 
dentius, Aurelius Clemens. 



OF English Lanquaqb and Literature, 
Cathouc University of America, Washi no- 
ton: Pope, Alexander; Proctor, Adelaide Anne. 

LETELLIER, A., S.S.S., Superior, Fathers of 
THE Blessed Sacrament, New York: Priests' 
Communion League. 

EIditor-in-Chief, "La Nouyelle France", 
Quebec: Plessis, Joseph-Octave; Quebec, Prov- 
ince of; Raffeix, Pierre; Ragueneau, Paul; 
Raymbault, Charles. 

LINS, JOSEPH, Freiburg-im-Breibgau, Germany: 
Plock, Diocese of; Ratisbon, Diocese of. 

LOFFLER, KLEMENS, Ph.D., Librarian, Uni- 
VERsrrr of MI^nster: Pirkheimer, Charitas; 
Pirkheimer, WiUibaid; Pius VIII, Pope; Pome- 
rania; Pontus; Poppo, Saint; Pragmatic Sanc- 
tion; PrQm; Reifenstein; Reisch, Gregor; 
Reuchlin, Johannes. 

LORTIE, STANISLAS A., M.A., S.T.D., Professor 
OF Theology, University of Laval, Quebec: 
Poor, Care of, by the Church, in Canada. 

•LOUGHLIN, MoR. JAMES F., S.T.D., Phila- 
delfhia: Pius III and IV, Popes. 

MAAS, A. J., S.J., Rector, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Preadamites; Psalms, Alphabetic; 
Quarantines; Resurrection. 

McENERNEY, GARRET W., San Francisco, 
California: Pious Fund of the Calif omias. 

MacERLEAN, ANDREW A., New York: Quito, 
Archdjpcese of. 

TOW>f, Ohio: Presentation Order, Nagle, Nano 
(Honoria); Presentation, Religious Congrega- 
tions of the; Providence, Daughters of. 

Paul, Minnesota: Philip Benizi, Saint. 

OF Philosophy, Dominican House of Studies, 
Washington: Presbyterianism; Raymond Mar- 
tini; Reginald, Antonio; Reginald of Pipemo. 

McNICHOLAS, JOHN T., O.P., S.T.L., New York: 
Quam singulari. 

MAERE, R., S.T.D., Professor of Christian 
Archjbolqgy, University of Louvain: Reu- 
sens, Edmond. 

MAGNIER, JQHN, C.SS.R., Clapham, England: 

MAHER, MICHAEL, S.J., Lnr.D., M.A. (Lond.), 
Director of Studies and Professor of Peda- 
gogics, Stonyhurbt College, Blackburn, 
England: Psychology. 

O.P., S.T.D., Rector, University of Fribouro: 
Preachers, Order of. 

MARCH, JOS£ MARIa, S.J., Professor or 
Church History and Pathology, Jesuit Coi/- 
LEGE, Tortosa, Spaini Pilar, Nuestra Sefkora del. 

cial Superior, Sisters of Charity of Provi- 
dence, Holyoke, Massachusetts: Providence, 
Sisters of, of Charity. 

MARY OF ST. DAVID, SISTER, Provincial Su- 
perior, Sisters of the Presentation, St. 
Hyacinthe, Canada: Presentation of Mary, 
Congregation of the. 

MEEHAN, ANDREW B., S.T.D., J.U.D., Pro- 
fessor OF Canon Law and Liturgy, St. Ber- 
nard's Seminary, Rochester, New York : Proof ; 
Provision, Canonical; Provost; Public Honesty; 
Putative Marriage; Rector; Registers, Paro- 
chial; Reguls Juris; Repose, Altar of; Re- 
scripts, Papal; Reservation; Residence, Ec- 

Convent of S. Salvator, Jerusalem: Pre- 

fessor OF Moral Theology, Canon Law, and 
Liturgy, St. John's College, Collegevillb, 
Minnesota: Piscina; Plenarium; Quadrages- 
ima; Quinquagesima; Raymond Nonnatus, 
Saint; Renty, Gaston-Jean-Baptiste de. 

MOELLER, CH., Professor of General History, 
IIniversity of Louvain: Redeemer, Knights of 

MOONEY, JAMES, United States Ethnologist, 
Bureau of African Ethnology, Washing- 
ton: Pima Indians; Piro Indians; Piscataway 
Indians; Potawatomi Indians; Pouget, Jean- 
Fran^ois-Albert du; Pueblo Indians; Puyallup 
Indians; Quamichan Indians; Quapaw Indians; 
Quiche; Quichua Indians; -Quintana, August in; 
Ravalli, Antonio. 

Archbishop of Sydney, Primate of Australia: 
Plunkett, OUver, Venerable. 

" Pan-American Union ", Washington : Piauhy, 
Diocese of; Porto Alegre, Diocese of; Portoviejo, 
Diocese of; Puno, Diocese of. 

MORICE, A. G., O.M.I., Lecturer in Anthro- 
pology, University of Saskatchewan, Win- 
nipeg, Manitoba, Canada: Prince Albert, Dio- 
cese of; Regina, Diocese of. 

MUELLER, ULRICH F., Professor of Philos- 
ophy, St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, 
Carthagena, Ohio: Precious Blood, Feast of 
the Most; Precious Blood, Archoonfratemity of 
the Most; Precious Blood, Congregation of the 
Most; Precious Blood, Daughters of the; Pre- 
cious Blood, Sisters of the. 



MURRAY, Mob. JOHN B., Vicar-General op the 
Abchdiocebe of Cincinnati, Ohio: Purcsell 
John Baptist. 

College, Maryland: Piconio, Bemardine a. 

NORTON, JOHN HENRY, S.T.D., Bibhop op Port 
Augusta, Australia: Port Augusta, Diocese of^ 

OBRECHT, EDMOND M., O.C.R., Abbot of 
Gethsemani, Kentucky: Pierre de Castelnau, 
Blessed; Pontigny, Abbey of; Ranc6, Jean- 
Armand le BouthiUier de. 

O'BYRNE, MICHAEL, O.P., Vicar-General of 
THE Archdiocese of Port of Spain, Trinidad, 
British West Indies: Port of Spain, Archdio- 
cese of. 

Moral Theology, Maynooth College, Dub- 
lin: Possession, Demoniacal. 

O'DONNELL, PATRICK, S.T.D., Bishop of Ra- 
phob, Ireland: Raphoe, Diocese of. 

O'HARA, EDWIN V., Portland, Oregon: Poor 

O'HARA, FRANK, M.A., Ph.D., Instructor in Po- 
litical Economy, Catholic University of 
America, Washington: Physiocrats; Political 
Economy, Science of. 

O'KANE, MICHAEL M., O.P., Ph.D., S.T.D., Pro- 
vincial OF THE Irish Province of the Do- 

* • 

MiNiCAN Order, Dubun: Raymond of Pena- 
fort, Saint. 

OLIGER, LIVARIUS, O.F.M., Lector of Church 
History, Colleoio S. Antonio, Rome: Poor 
Brothers of Saint Francis Seraphicus; Quif&ones, 

OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor of the 
History of Philosophy, St^ John's College, 
. CoLLEOEviLLE, MINNESOTA: PicHus; Pilgrim; 
Pinna da Encamagao, Mattheus; Pitra, Jean- 
Baptiste-Frangois; Pius VI and IX, Popes; 
Prior; Prioress; Priory; Prudentius, Galindo; 
Rabanus, Maurus Magnentius; Ratisbonne, 
Maria Alphonse; Ratramnus; Reding, Augus- 
tine; R^ale, Droit de; Reims, Synods of. 

OTTEN, JOSEPH, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania: 
Philips, Peter; Piel, Peter. 

OUSSANI, GABRIEL, Ph.D., Professor, Ecclesi- 
astical History, Early Christian Litera- 
ture, AND Biblical Arch^eeology, St. Joseph's 
Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York: Phcenicia. 

PACE, EDWARD A., Ph.D., S.T.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Catholic University of America, 
Washington: Quietism. 

PAPI, HECTOR, S.J., Ph.D., B.C.L., S.T.D., Pro- 
fessor OF Canon Law, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Prefect Apostolic; Procurator. 

PARKINSON, HENRY, S.T.D., Ph.D., Rector, 
OscoTT College, Birmingham, England: 
Priests, Confraternities of; Priests' Eucharistic 
League; Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore. 

PETERSON, JOHN B., Professor of Eccelsia&- 
TiCAL History and Liturgy, St. John's Sem- 
inary, Brighton, Massachusetts: Pistoia, 
Synod of. 

♦PfiTRIDES, SOPHRONE, A.A., Professor, 
Greek Catholic Seminary of Kadi-Keui, 
Constantinople: Philomelium; Phocsea; Pi- 
nara; Pityns; Pogla; Polemonium; Polybotus; 
Polystylum; Pomaria; Priene; Proconnesus; 
Ptolemais; Ptolemais (Saint-Jean d'Acre); Re- 

(OxoN.), Professor of Humanities, Univer- 
sity OF Glasgow : Procopius of Csesarea. 

PHILLIPS, EDWARD C, S.J., Ph.D., Woodstock 
College, Maryland: Pianciani, Giambattista; 
Provancher, L6on Abel; Raynaud, Th^phile. 

PIACENZA, PIETRO, S.T.D., J.U.D., Prothono^ 


OF Rites, Professor of Liturgy, Seminary of 
St. Apolunarib, Rome: Requiem, Masses of. 

Wisconsin: Poor Catholics. 

Bonaventure's Seminary, St. Bonaventure, 
New York: Pian6 Carpine, Giovanni da. 

PLATER, CHARLES D., S.J., B.A. (Oxon.), St. 
Beuno's College, St. Asaph, Wales: Porter, 

POHLE, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.C.L., Pro- 
fessor OF Dogmatic Theology, University of 
Breslau: Predestinarianism; Predestination; 
Priesthood; Regeneration. 

LoND.), Vice-Rector, Ratcliffe College, 
Leicester, England: Providence, Sisters of, 
of the Institute of Charity. 

Redford, Sebastian. 

PRESTAGE, EDGAR, B.A. (Balliol College, Ox- 
ford), Commendador Portuguese Order of S. 
Thiago; Corresponding Member of the Lis- 
bon Royal Academy of Sciences and the Lis- 
bon Geographical Society, Chiltern, Bow- 
don, Cheshire, England: Pombal, Sebastifio 
Jo86 de Carvalho e Mello, Marquis de; Portugal 
and Portuguese Literature; Portuguese East 
Africa; Portuguese West Africa. 

PUSTET, FRIEDRICH, Ratisbon, Germany: 

RAHILLY, ALFRED J., S.J., M.A., Stonyhurst 
College, Blackburn, England: Reason. 


REILLY, WENDELL S., S.S., S.T.D., D.S.S., Pro- 
fessor OF Sacred Scripture, St. John's Sem- 
iNARTy Brighton, Massachusbttb: Polyglot 

REMY, ARTHUR F. J., M.A., Ph.D., Adjunct-Pro- 
fessor OF Germanic Philobopht, Columbia 
University, New York: Reinmar of Hagenau. 

REVHiLE, JOHN CLEMENT, S.J., Professor of 
Rhetoric and Sacred Eloqxtence, St. Stanib- 
liAUS College, Macon, Georgia: Ravignaiiy 
Gustave-Xavier-Lacroix de. 

RITCHIE, C. SEBASTIAN, M.A. (Cantab.), The 
Oratory, Birmingham, England: Philip Ro- 
molo Neri, Saint. 

Matutina College, Feldkirch, Austria: 
Plumier, Charles. 

RYAN, JOHN A., S.T.D., Professor of Moral 
Theology, St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Min- 
nesota: Population Theories; Poverty and 
Pauperism; Rerum Novarum. 

8ACHER, HERMANN, Ph.D., Edttor of the 
"Konversationslexikon", Assistant Editor, 
''Staatslexikon^', of the GOrresgesell- 
schaft, Freiburo-im-Breisgau, Germany: 

OF Theologt, University of TtJBiNGBN: Privil- 
eges, Ecclesiastical. 

OF Church History, University of Lille: 
Pisa, Council of. 

SALTET, LOUIS, S.T.D., Lttt. Lie, Professor 
OF Church History, Instftut Cathouque, 
Toulouse: Reordinations. 

Professor of Dogmatic Theology, Holy 
Cross College, Washington: Positivism; 
R^gis, Pierre-Sylvain. 

SCHEID, N., 8.J., Stella Matutina College, 
Feldkirch, Austria: Pyrker, Johann Ladis- 
laus von Orberwart. 

St. Ludwig's College, Dalheim, Germany: 
Reisach, Carl von; Reumont, Alfred von. 

SCHMID, ULRICH, Ph.D., Edttor, "Walhalla", 
Munich: Reichenau. 

SCHUYLER, HENRY C, S.T.L., Vice-Rector, 
Catholic High School, Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania: Ride, Sebastian. 

SCHWEITZER, JOSEPH, C.R., St. Jerome's Col- 
lege, Berlin, Province of Ontario, Canada: 
Resurrection, Congregation of the. 

College, Worcester, Massachusetts: Ratio 

scxyrr, henry Arthur, s.t.d., ll.d., stb. 

FoY, Province of Quebec, Canada: Quebec, 
Archdiocese of. 

Cornwall, England: Radewyns, Florens. 

SECUNDA, MOTHER M., Provincial Superior, 
Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ, Fort 
Wayne, Indiana: Poor Handmaids of Jesus 

ing, Indiana: Poles in the United States. 

SHIPMAN, ANDREW J., M.A., LL.M., New York: 
Prsemysl, Sambor, and Sanok, Diocese of; Ras- 

SIMAR, THfiOPHILE, Ph.D., Lttt.D., Louvain: 
Puteanus, Erycius. 

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Francis Xavibr's College, 
Liverpool, England: Reparation; Restitution. 

SLOANE, CHARLES W., New York: Prescription, 
In Civil Jurisprudence ; Provisors, ' Statute of. 

vincial OF THE American Province of the So- 
ciety OF Mary, Boston, Massachusetts: Pie, 
Louis-Edouard-DiSsird; Precious Blood; Que- 
len, Hyacinthe-Louis de; Rapin, Ren6; Re- 

SORTAIS, GASTON, S.J., Associate Edttor, 
"Etudes", Paris: Pinturicchio; PoUajuolo, 
Antonio and Piero Benci. 

SOUVAY, CHARLES L., CM., S.T.D., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor, Sacred Scripture, HebreTw and Lit- 
urgy, Kenrigk Semin^y, St. Louis, Missouri: 
Pisidia; Plants in the Bible; Pools in Scripture; 
Purim; Rabbi and Rabbinism. 

SPAHN, MARTIN, Ph.D., Professor of Modern 
History, University of Strasburg: Prussia; 
Radowiti, Joseph Maria von. 

STANISLAUS, MOTHER M., St. Michael's Prbs^ 
ENTATiON Convent, New York: Presentation 
Order in America. 

STEELE, FRANCESCA M., Stroud, Gloucester- 
shire, England: Refuge, Sisters of Our Lady of 
Charity of the; Retreat of the Sacred Heart, 
Congregation of the. 

STEIN, JOHN, S.J., Doctor in Mathematics and 
Astronomy (Leiden), Amsterdam, Holland: 
Pingr^, Alexandre Guy; Platina, Bartolomeo. 

STOCKMAN, ALOIS, S.J., Frankfortk)n-thb- 
Main, Germany: Prester John. 

Imperial Academy oi; Sciences; Professor, 
Polish Literature, University of Cracow: 
Polish Literature. 

WooDS, Indiana: Providence, Sisters of. 

THURSTON, HERBERT, S.J., London: Pole, 
Reginald; Pontificalia; Popular Devotions; 
Prayer-Books; Primer, The; Processional, Ro- 
man; Processions; Processional Cross; Prop- 
erty, Ecclesiastical; Psalterium; 'Pyx; Rambler, 
The; Regalia; Relics; Reliquaries; Reserva- 
tion of the Blessed Sacrament. 


TIERNEY, JOHN J., M.A., S.T.D., Professor of 
Sacred Scripture and Semitic Studies, Mt. 
St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland: 
Priest, The High. 

TURNER, WILLLA.M, B.A., S.T.D., Professor of 
Logic and the History of Philosophy, Catho- 
lic University of America, Washington: 
Plato and Platonism; PYethon, Georgius Ge- 
mistus; Pragmatism; Pyrrhonism; Pythagoras 
and Pythagoreanism; Ramus, Peter; Raymond 
LuHy; Raymond of Sabunde; Remigius of 

VAILHfi, SIMfiON, A.A., Member of the Russian 
AbchjEOlogical Institute of Constantinople, 
Professor of Sacred Scripture and History, 
Greek Cathouc Seminary of Kadi-Keui, Con- 
stantinople: Philippi; Philippopolis (Thracia 
Secunda)'; Philippopolis, in Arabia; Pompeiop- 
olis; Porphyreon; Prusias ad Hypium; Ra- 

vain), Professor of Moral Theology and 
Librarian, Grande S£minaire, Bruges, Bel- 
gium: Philippi; Philippians, Epistle to the. 

VAN HOVE, A., D.C.L., Professor of Church 
History and Canon Law, University of Lou- 
vain: Pirhing, '^mricus; Polycarpus; Prece- 
dence; Preconization; Promulgation; Reiffen- 
stuel, Johann Georg. 

VASCHALDE, A.A., C.S.B., Catholic University 
OF America, Washington: Philoxenus of Mar- 

OF Social and Poutical Sciences, Professor 
OF Moral Theology and Canon Law, Lou- 
vain: Postulant; Poverty; Profession, Re- 
ligious; Provincial; Regulars; Religious Life. 

VICTORIA, SISTER M., C.PP.S., Maria Stein, 
Ohio: Precious Blood, Sisters of the. 


VOGEL, JOHN, Vicar Provincial of the Pious So- 
ciety OF Missions, Brooklyn, New York: 
Pious Society of Missions, The. 

(OxoN.), London: Pibush, John, Venerable; 
Pike, William, Vfenerable; Pilchard, Thomas, Ven- 
erable; Pormort, Thomas, Venerable; Postgate, 
Nicholas, Venerable; Pounde, Thomas; Ralph 
Crockett, Venerable; Ralph Sherwin, Blessed. 

WALKER, LESLIE J., S.J., M.A. (Lond.), St. 
Bbuno'b College, St. Asaph, Wales: Provi- 
dence, Divine; Relativism. 

many: Plantin, Christophe. 

WALSH, JAMES J., M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., D.Sc., 
Dean of the Medical School, Fordham Uni- 
versity, New York: Psychotherapy. 

WALTER, ALOYSIUS, C.SS.R., Professor of 
Dogmatic Theology, St. Mary's, Kinnoull, 
Perth, Scotland: Pitoni, Joseph; Rameau, 

WARD, Mgr. BERNARD, Canon of Westmin- 
ster, F.R. Hist. Soc., President, St. Edmund's 
College, Ware, England: Plowden, Francis; 
Poynter, William. 

WARREN, CORNELIUS, C.SS.R., Professor of 
Sacred Scripture, Redemptorist House of 
Studies, Esopus, New York: Putxer, Joseph. 

WEBER, N. A., S.M., S.T.D., Professor of Fun- 
damental Theology and Church History, 
Marist College, Washington: Pius II and 
VII, Popes; Porphyrins, Saint; Ptolemy the 
Gnostic; Quierzy, Councils of; Quirini, Angelo 
Maria; Rader, Matthew; Raynaldi, Odorich; 
Reformed Church; Renaudot, Eusebius. 

WHYTE, M. DB SALES, Convent of the Presen- 
tation, Cork, Ireland: Presentation, Order of 

WILHELM, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., Aachen, 
Germany: Protestantism. 

London: Piombo, Sebastian del; Pordenone, 
Giovanni Antonio; Reni, Guido. 

WILLIS, JOHN WILEY, M.A., St. Paul, Min- 
nesota: Punishment, Capital. 

Prague, Archdiocese of; Przemysl, Diocese of; 
Ragusa, Diocese of; Rauscher, Joseph Othmar. 

WOODLOCK, THOMAS F., New York: Piout, 

WUEST, JOSEPH, C.SS.R., Ilchbster, Maryland: 
Redeemer, Feast of the Most Holy; Redempto- 

WYNNE, JOHN J., S.J., New York: Prayer. 

ZEVELY, JULIA, New York: Pierron, Jean; Pier- 
son, Philippe Rividre; Poncet, Joseph Anthony de 
la Riviere. 

Priory, Wincanton, Somersetshire, England: 
Philip of the Blessed Trinity. 

Tables of Abbreviations 

The following tables and notes are intended to guide readers of The Catholic Encyclopedia in 
interpreting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases which, for economy of space, will be most fre- 
quently used in the work. For more general information see the article Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical. 

I. — General Abbreviations. 

a. article. 

ad an. at the year (Lat. ad annum). 

an., ann. • the year, the years (Lat. annua^ 


ap in (Lat. apud). 

art article. 

Assyr. Assyrian. 

A. 8 Anglo-Saxon. 

A. V Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of the 

Bible authorized for use in the 
Anglican Church — the so-called 
"King James", or "Protestant 

b.*. bom. 

Bk. Book. 

Bl Blessed. 

C, o. about (Lat. circa); canon; chap- 

ter; compagnie, 

can « . . .canon. ' 

cap. chapter (Lat. caput — used only 

in Latin context). 

cf. compare (Lat. confer). 

cod. codex. 

col column. 

ooncL conclusion. 

const., constit. • • .Lat. constitutio, 

cur&. by the industry of, 

d. died. 

diet dictionary (Fr. dicUonnaire), 

di^ Lat. disputaiio. 

diss. Lat. dtssertoHo, 

dist. Lat. disUnctio. , 

D. V Douay Version. 

ed., edit. edited, edition, editor. 

Ep., Epp. letter, letters (Lat. eputo&i). 

Fr. French. 

geo. • • • genus. 

Or. Greek. 

a. E., Hist. Eod. .Ecclesiastical History. 

Heb., Hebr. Hebrew. 

lb., ibid in the same place (Lat ibidetn). 

Id. • • • .' the same person, or author (Lat. 


inf. below (Lat. infra). 

It Italian. 

L c, loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. loco 


Lat Latin. 

lat latitude. 

lib book (Lat. liber). 

long longitude. 

Mon Lat. Monumenta. 

BIS., MSS manuscript, manuscripts. 

n., no .number. 

N. T New Testament. 

Nat National. 

Old Fr., O. Fr. . . .Old French. 

op. cit in the work quoted (Lat. opere 


Ord Order. 

O. T Old Testament. 

p., pp page, pages, or (in Latin ref- 
erences) pars (part). 

par. paragraph. 

passim. in various places. 

pt..... part. 

Q. ., Quarterly (a periodical), e.g. 

"Church Quarterly". 

Q., QQ., quest. . . .question, questions (Lat. qmestio). 

q. V which [title] see (Lat. quod vide). 

Rev Review (a periodical). 

R.S Rolls Series 

R. V Revised Version 

S., SS Lat. Sanctus, Sancti, "Saint", 

"Saints" — used in this Ency- 
clopedia only in Latin context 

Sept Septuagint. 

Sees Session. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Sp Spanish. 

0q., sqq following page, or pages. (Lat. 


St., Sts. Saint, Saints. 

sup Above (Lat. supra). 

s. v Under the corresponding title 

(Lat. sub voce). 

torn volume (Lat. tomiLs\ 


tv. • • •• • • tranBlation or translated. By it- 
self it means "English transla- 
tion", or "translated into Eng- 
lish by ". Where a translation 
is into any other language, the 
language is stated. 

tr., tract tractate. 

V see (Lat. vide). 

Yen Venerable. 

Vol Volume. 

II. — ^Abbbeviations of Titles. 

Acta SS Ada Sanctorum (Bollandists). 

Ann. pont. cath Battandier, A nnuatra pontifioal 


Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath.Gillow, Bibliographical Diction- 

* ary of the English Catholics. 

Diet. Christ. Antiq.. .Smith and Cheetham (ed.\ 

Dictionary of Christian An- 

Diet. Christ. Bipg. . . Smith and Waoe (ed.), Diction- 
ary of Christian Biography. 
Diet, d'aroh. chr6t.. .Gabrol (ed.), DicHonnaire d^at' 


Dict..deth^L cath. .Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), 

DicUonnaire de thMogie 

Diet. Nat. Biog. Stephen (ed.). Dictionary of 

National Biography. 
Hast., Diet, of the 
Bible Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary jof 

the Bible. 
Kirchenlex. Wetzer and Welte, KircherUexir 


P. G Migne (ed.), Paires Gnxci. 

P. L Migne (ed.), Palrea Latini. 

Vig., Diet, de la Bible. Vigouroux (ed.), Dictionnaire di 

la BibU. 

NoTB I. — Large Roman numerals standins alone indicate volumee. Small Roman numerals standing alone indicate 
chaptera. Arabic numerals standing alone indicate pages. In other cases the divisions are explicitly stated. Thus " Rashdall, 
Universities of Europe, I. ix" refers the reader to the ninth chapter of the first vc^ume of that work; "I, p. ix" would indicate the 
ninth page of the preface of the same volume. 

NoTB II. — Where St. Thomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the refermce is always to 
**8umma Theologica" (not to "Summa Philosophic"). Hm divisions of the "Summa Theol." are indicated by a system which 
may beot be understood by the following example: *' I-II, Q. vi, a. 7, ad 2 um " refers the reader to the 9eoenth artiele of the 
tisah question in the firai part of the secoruf part, in the response to the teoond objection. 

NoTB III. — ^The abbreviations employed for the various books of the Bible are obvious. Eocleeiasticus is indicated by 
EoduM.t to Hii« iiiHh it from Eooleaiastes (Ecdea.). It should also be noted that I and II Kings in D. V. carreepond to I and II 
Samuel in A. V. ; and I and II Par. to I and II C3ironicles. Where, in the spelling ef a i»oper name, there is a marked differaaoe 
between the D. V. and the A V., the form found in the latter is added, in p a w ntheB SK. 


Full Page Illustrations in Volume XII 

Frontispiece in Colour pagb 

Philip II— Titian 4 

Compostela — Church of Santiago 90 

Pisa — Baptistery, Cathedral, and Bell Tower 112 

Pius VII — ^Jacques-Louis David 134 

Pius IX 136 

PiusX 138 

Reginald, Cardinal Pole — Sebastiano del Piombo 202 

Tobias and the Angel — PoUajuolo 216 

Portugal — Hieronymite Monastery, etc 304 

Portugal — ^The Hospital, Braga, etc 306 

Prague 340 

Pretorium — ^The Rock of Baris and the Turkish Barracks, Jerusalem 404 

Pueblo Dance and Group of PUeblo Indians 556 

Pulpits 562 

St. Genevieve — Puvis de Chavannes , 586 

Quebec 598 

Raphael 646 

Ravenna 666 

Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims 730 

Reliquary in the form of a Diptych 786 

Reliquaries in the Church of S. Ursula, Cologne 737 

Guido Reni 768 



Philippine Islands 16 

Poland 194 

The Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay 696 


Philip II (Augustus), King of France, b. 22 or 25 
Aug., 1165; d. at Mantes, 14 July, 1223, son of Ix)ui8 
VII and Alix de Champagne. He was saved from a 
serious illness after a pilgrimage made by his father to 
the tomb of Thomas a Recket; he succeeded to the 
throne 18 Sept., 1180. His marriage with Isabella 
of Hainault, niece of the Count of Flanders, the con- 
flicts which he afterwards sustained against the latter, 
and the deaths of the Countess (1182) and Count oi 
Flanders (1185), increased the royal power in the 
north of France. His strife with Henry II of England 
in concert with the sons of that monarch, Henry, 
Richard, and John, resulted in 1189 in the Treaty of 
Azay-sur-Cher, which enhanced the royal power in 
the centre of France. The strug§;le with the Plantag- 
enets was the ruling idea of Philip II's whole policy. 
Richard Cceur de Lion having become King of Eng- 
land, 6 July, 1189, was at first on amicable terms with 
Philip. Together they undertook the Third Crusade, 
but quarrelled in Palestine, and on his return Philip 
II accused Richard of having attempted to poison 
him. As Richard had supported in Sicily the claims 
of Tancred of Lecce against those of the Emperor 
Henry VI, the latter resolved to be avenged. Ricnard, 
having been taken captive on his return from the Cru- 
sade by the Duke of Austria, was delivered to Henry 
VI, who held him prisoner. Philip II sent William, 
Archbishop of Reims, to Henry VI to request that 
Richard should remain the captive of Germany or 
that he should be delivered to Philip as his prisoner. 
Without loss of time Philip reached an agreement with 
John Lackland, Richard s brother. Normandy was 
delivered up by a secret treaty and John acknowl- 
edged himself Philip's vassal. But, when in Feb., 
1194, Richard was set free by Henry VI, John Lack- 
land became reconciled with him and endless conflict 
followed between Richard and Philip. On 13 Jan., 
1199, Innocent III imposed on them a truce of five 
yeara. Shortly after this Richard died. Subsequently 
Philip defended against John, Richard's successor, the 
claims of the young Arthur of Brittany, and then 
those of Hugh de Lusignan, Count of La Marche, 
whose betrothed had been abducted by John. The 
war between Philip and John, interrupted by the 
truces imposed by the papal legates, became a na- 
tional war; and in 1206 John lost his possessions in 
central France. Philip was sometimes displeased 
with the pontifical intervention between France and 
"the Plantagenets, but the prestige of Innocent III 
forced him to accept it. Protracted difficulties took 
place between him and the pope owing to the te- 
nacity with which Innocent III compelled respect for 
the indissolubility of even royal marriages. 

In 1190 Philip lost his w^ife, Isabella of Hainault, 

whom he had married in order to inherit Artois, and in 

1193 he married Ingeburga, sister of Canute VI, King 

of Denmark. As he immediately desired to repudiate 

XII.— 1 

her, an assembly of complaisant barons and bishops 
pronounced the divorce, but Ingeburga appealed to 
Rome. Despite the remonstrances of Cclestine III, 
Philip, having imprisoned Ingeburga, married Agnes 
de M6ran, daughter of a Bavarian nobleman. Inno- 
cent III, recently elected, called upcm him to repudi- 
ate Agnes and take back Ingeburga, and on the king's 
refus^ the legate, Peter of Capua, placed the kingdom 
under an interdict (1198). Most of the bishops re- 
fused to publish the sentence. The Bishops of Paris 
and Senlis, who published it, were punished by having 
their goods confiscated. At the end of nine months 
Philip appeared to yield; he feigned reconciliation 
with Ingeburga, first before the legate, Octavian, and 
then before the Council of Soissons (May, 1201), but 
he did not dismiss Agnes de Mdran. She died in Au- 
gust, 1201, and Innocent III consented to legitimize 
the two children she had borne the king, but Philip 
persisted that Rome should pronounce his divorce 
from Ingeburga, whom he held prisoner at Etampes. 
Rome refused and Philip dismissed the papal legate 
(1209). In 1210 he thought of marrying a princess 
of Thurin^pa, and in 1212 renewed his importunities 
for the divorce with the legate, Robert de Cour^on. 
Then, in 1213, having need of the aid of the pope and 
the King of Denmark, he suddenly restored Ingeburga 
to her station as queen. 

Another question which at first caused discord be- 
tween Philip II and Innocent III, and regarding which 
they had later a common policy, was the question of 
Germany. Otto of Brunswick, who was Innocent 
Ill's candidate for the dignity of emperor, was the 
nephew of Richard and John Lackland. This was suffi- 
cient to cause Philip to interfere in favour of Philip 
of Suabia. They formed an alliance in June, 1 198, and 
when Philip of Suabia was assassinated in 1208 Philip 
put forward the candidacy of Henry of Brabant. 
However, the whole of (jrermany rallied to Otto of 
Brunswick, who became emperor as Otto IV, and in 
1209 Philip feared that the new emperor would in- 
vade France. But Otto IV quarrelled with Innocent 
III and was excommunicated, and the pope by an un- 
expected move called upon Philip for subsidies and 
troops to aid him against Otto. They agreed to pro- 
claim as emperor Frederick of Hohenstaufen, the 
future Frederick II, Philip giving Frederick 20,000 
"marcs" to defray the cost of his election (Nov., 1212). 
Thus was inaugurated the policy by which France 
meddled in the affairs of Germany and for the first 
time the French king claimed, like the pope, to have a 
voice in the imperial election. 

The accord established between Innocent and Philip 
with regard to the affairs of Germany subsequently 
extended to those of England. Throughout his reign 
Philip dreamed of a landing in England. As early as 
1209 he had negotiated vnth the English barons who 
were hostile to John Lackland, and in 1212 with the 



Iriflh and the Welsh. When John Lackland subjected 
to cruel persecution the English bishops who, in spite 
of him, recognized Stephen Langton as Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Innocent III in 1212 placed England 
under interdict, and the legate, Pandulphus, declared 
that John Lackland had forfeited his throne. Then 
Philip, who received at his court all the enles from 
England, consented to go to England in the name of 
Innocent III to take away the crown from John Lack- 
land. It was to be given to his son, the future Louis 
yill. On 22 May^ 1213, the French expedition was to 
embark at Gravelmes, when it was learned that John 
Lackland had become reconciled with Rome, and some 
months later he became a vassal of the pope. Thus 
failed, on the eve of its realization, the project of the 
French invasion of England. But the legate of Inr 
nocent III induced Philip to punish Ferrand, Count 
of Flanders, who was the ally of all the enemies of the 
king. At the battle of Bouvines (27 July, 1214) 
Ferrand, who supported Otto IV^ was taken prisoner. 
This battle is regarded as the first French national 
victory. Philip II, asserting that he had on both sides 
two great and terrible lions, Otto and John, excused 
himself from taking part in the Crusade against the Al- 
bigenses. He permitted his son Louis to make two 
expeditions into Languedoc to support Simon de 
Montfort in 1215, and Amaury de Montfort in 1219, 
and again in 1222 he sent Amaury de Montfort two 
hundmi knights and ten thousand foot soldiers under 
the Archbishop of Bourges and the Count of La 
Marche. He foresaw that the French monarchy 
would profit by the defeat of the Albigenses. 

Phihp's reign was characterized by a gigantic 
advance of the French monarchy. Before his time 
the King of France reigned only over the He de 
France and Bern, and had no communication with 
the sea. To this patrimony Philip II added Artois, 
Amienois^ Valois, Vermanaois, a la>rge portion of 
Beauvaisis, Normandy, Maine, Anjou, Touraine, and 
a part of Poitou and Saintonge. His bailiffs and 
seneschals established the royal power firmly in these 
countries. Paris became a fortified city and attracted 
to its university students from different countries. 
Thanks to the possession of Dieppe, Rouen, and cer- 
tain parts of Saintonge, the French monarchy became 
a maritime and commercial power, and rhilip in- 
vited foreign merchants to France. Flanders, Pon- 
thieu, and Auvergne became subject fiefs, supervised 
by agents of the king. He exercised a sort of pro- 
tectorate over Champagne and Burgundy. Brittany 
was in the hands of Pierre de Dreux, a Capetian of 
the younger branch. * ' History ' * , writes M . Luchaire, 
''does not present so many, such rapid, and such com- 
plete changes in the fortune of a State". 

Philip Augustus did not interfere in episcopal elec- 
tions. In Normandy, where the Plantagenets had 
assumed the customof directly nominating the bishops, 
he did not follow their example. Guillaume Le Bre- 
ton, in his poem the ''Philippide", makes him say: 
"I leave to the men of God the things that pertain 
to the service of God". He favoured the emancipa- 
tion of communes, desiring to be Uked by the middle 
classes of the districts he annexed. He often exacted 
a tax in exchange for. the communal charter. But he 
did not allow the communes to infringe on the prop- 
erty of clerics or the episcopal right of jurisdiction. At 
Noyen he intervened f6rmally in behalf of the bishop, 
who was threatened by the commime. He undertook 
a campaign in defence of the bishops and abbots 
against certain feudal lords whom he nimself desired 
to humiliate or weaken. In 1180, before he was king, 
he undertook an expedition into Berri to punish the 
Lord of Charenton, the enemy of the monks, and 
into Burgundy where the Count of Chalon and the 
Lord of Beaujeu were persecuting the Church. In 
1186, on the complaint of the monks, he took posses- 
sion of Chatillon-sur-Seine, in the Duchy of Burgundy, 

and forced the duke to repair the wrongs he had com- 
mitted against the Church. In 1210 he sent troops to 
Erotect the Bishop of Clermont, who was threatened 
y the Count of Auvergne. 

But on the other hand, in virtue of the preponder- 
ance which he wished royalty to have over feudalism, 
he exacted of the bishops and abbots the performance 
of all their feudal duties, including military service: 
although for certain territories he was the vassal ot 
the bishops of Picardy, he refused to pav th^in homage. 
Moreovef , he declared with regard to Aianasses, Bishop 
of Orleans, that the royal court was entitled to judge 
at the trials of bishops, and he made common cause 
with lay feudalism in the endless discussions regarding 
the province of ecclesiastical tribunals, which at the 
beginning of the thirteenth century were disposed to 
extend their jurisdiction. An ordinance issued about 
1206 at the instance of the kin^, executed in Nor- 
mandy and perhaps elsewhere, stipulated that in cer- 
tain cases lav judges might arrest and try guilty 
clerics, that tne right of asylum of religious buildings 
should be limited, that the Church might not excom- 
municate those who did business on Sunday or held 
intercourse with Jews, and that a citizen having 
several children should not give more than half of his 
estate to that one of his sons who was a cleric. Finally 
he imposed on the clergy heavy financial exactions. 
He was the first king who enaeavoured to compel 
clerics to pay the king a tenth of their income. In 
1188 the archdeacon Peter of Blois defeated this claim, 
but in 1215 and 1218 Philip renewed it, and bv de- 
grees the resistance of the clergy gave way. Philip, 
however, was pious in his own way, and in the ad- 
vice which St. Louis gave to his son he said that 
Philip, because of "God's goodness and mercy 
would rather lose his throne tnan dispute with the 
servants of Holy Church". Thus the reputation left 
by Philip II was quite diflFerent from that of Philip 
I V, or Frederick II of Germany. He never carried 
out towards the Church a policy of trickery or petty 
vexations, on the contrary he regarded it as his collab- 
orator in the foundation of French unity. 

Le Breton. La Pkilippide, ed. Delabordb (Paris, 1883-6); 
RiooRD AND Le Breton, Chroniques; Deuble, Caialoaue d€$ 
actes de Philippe-Augttsle (Paru, 1856); Luchaire, Philippe 
Auguate in Latisse. Hist, de France^ III (Parts, 1901): Lu- 
chaire, UUniversiti de Pane soue Philippe-AtMuete (Paris, 
1899); Gautier« La France aous Philippe-Auouate (Tours. 1899); 
Cartellieri, Philipp II Auguet, Kfhtig von Frankreich (3 vols., 
Leipsig, 1899-1909) ; Davidsohn, Philipp Augttet von Frankreich 
una Inoeborg (1888); Walker. On the xncreaee of royal power in 
France under PhUip i4u9i««tu«(1888); Huttos, Philip Auguetue 
(London. 1896). 

Georges Gotau. 

Philip n, King of Spain, only son of the Emperor 
Charles V, and Isabella of rortugal, b. at Valladolid, 
21 May, 1527; d. at the Escorial, 13 Sept., 1598. He 
was carefully educated in the sciences, learned French 
and Latin, though he never spoke anything but Cas- 
tilian, and also showed much interest in architecture 
and music. In 1543 he married his cousin, Maria of 
Portugal, who died at the birth of Don Carlos (1535). 
He was appointed regent of Spain with a council by 
Charles VT In 1554 he married Mary Tudor, ^ueen of 
England, who was eleven years his senior. This polit- 
ical marriage gave Spain an indirect influence on the 
aflfairs of England, recently restored to Catholicism; 
but in 1555 Philip was summoned to the Low Coun- 
tries, and Mary's death in the same year severed the 
connexion between the two countries. At a solemn 
conference held at Brussels, 22 Oct., 1555, Charles V 
ceded to Philip the Low Countries, the crowns of Cas- 
tille, Aragon, and Sicily, on 16 Jan., 1556, and the 
countship of Burpmd'y on the tenth of June. He even 
thought of secunng for him the imperial crown^ but 
the opposition of his brother Ferdinand caused him to 
abandon that project. Having become king, Philip, 
devoted to Catholicism, defended the Faith through- 
out the world and opposed the progress of heresy, and 



these two things are the key to his whole reign! He 
did both bv means of absolutism. His reign began 
unpleasantly for a Catholic sovereign. He had signed 
with France the Treaty of VaucelTes (5 Feb., 1556). 
but it was soon broken by Frimce, which joined Paul 
IV against him. Like Julius II this pope longed to 
drive the foreigners out of Italy. Philip had two wars 
on his hands at the same time^^in Italy and in the Low 
Countries. In Italy the Duke of Alva, Viceroy of 
Naples, defeated the Duke of Guise and reduced the 
pope to such distress that he was forced to make peace. 
Philip granted this on the most favourable terms and 
the Duke of Alva was even obliged to ask the pope's 
pardon for having invaded the Pontifical States. In 
the Low Countries Philip defeated the French at Saint 
Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558) and afterwards 
signed the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis (3 April, 1559), 
which was sealed by his marriage with Elizabeth of 
Valois, daughter of nenry II. Peace concluded, Philip, 
who had been detained in the Low Countries, retumea 
to Spain. For more than forty years he directed from 
his cabinet the affairs of the monarchy. He resided 
alternately at Madrid which he made the capital of 
the kingdom and in vilUgialurea^ the most famous of 
which is the Escorial, which he built in fulfillment of a 
vow made at the time of the battle of Saint Quentin. ' 

In Spain, Philip continued the policy of the Catholic 
Ferdinand and Isabella. He was merciless in the'sup- 
pression of the Lutheran heresy, which had appeared 
m various parts of the country, notably at Valladolid 
and Seville. * * If my own son were guilty like you " , he 
replied to a gentleman condemned to death for heresy 
who had reproached him for his cruelty, "I should lead 
him with my own hands to the stake . He succeeded 
in exterminating Protestantism in Spain, but encoun- 
tered another enemy no less dangerous. The Moris- 
coes of the ancient Kingdom of Granada had been 
conquered, but they remained the implacable enemies 
of their conquerors, from whom they were separated 
by religion, language, dress, and manners, and they 
plotted incessaintly with the Mussulmans outside the 
country. Philip wished to force them to renounce 
their language and dress, whereupon they revolted 
and engaged m a bloody struggle against Spain which 
lasted three years (1567-70) until ended by EXon Juan, 
natural son of Charles V. The defeated Moriscoes 
were transplanted in great numbers to the interior of 
the country. Another event of historical importance 
in Philip's reign was the conquest of Portugal in 1580. 
After tne death of the young King Sebastian at the 
battle of Alcazar (1578) and that of his successor the 
appd Cardinal Henry (1580), Philip II, who through 
his mother was a grandson of Kins Emmanuel, pleaded 
his title of heir and sent the Duke of Alva to occupy 
the country. This was the only conquest of the reign. 
Iberian unity, thus realized, lasted from 1580 to 1640. 
Other events were the troubles in Aragon, which were 
fomented by Antonio Perez, former secretary of the 
king. Being pursued for high treason he sought refuge 
in his native country, and appealed for protection to 
\\&fuero8 that he might not be delivered to the Castil- 
ian judges, nor to the Inauisition. The inhabitants of 
Saragossa defended him oy force of arms and he suc- 
ceeded in escaping abroad, but Philip sent an army to 
punish Aragon, ii^ringed on the /ueros and established 
absolutism m the Kingdom of Aragon, hitherto proud 
of its freedom (1592). 

In the Low Countries, where Philip had committed 
the government to his aunt, Margaret of Parma, the 
nobles, chafed because of their want of influence, 
plotted and trumped up grievances. They protested 
against the presence in the country of several thou- 
sands of Spanish soldiers, against Cardinal de Gran- 
velle's influence with the regent, and against the sever- 
ity of Charles V's decrees heresy. Philip 
recalled the Spanish soldiers and the Cardinal de 
Granvelle, but he refused to mitigate the decrees and 

declared that he did not wish 1o reign over a nation of 
heretics. The difficulties with the Iconoclasts having 
broken out he swore to punish them and sent thither 
the Duke of Alva with an army, whereupon Margaret 
of Parma resigned. Alva behaved as though in a con- 
quered country, caused the arrest and execution of 
Uount Egmont and de Homes, who were accusetl of 
oomplicity with the rebels, created the. Council of 
Troubles, which was popularly styled the "Council of 
Blood", defeated the Prince of Oi'ange and his brother 
who had invaded the country with German mercena- 
ries, but could not prevent the "Sea-beggars" from 
capturing Brille. lie followed up his military suc- 
cesses but^was recalled in 1573. His successor Keque- 
sens could not recover Leyden. Influenced by the 
Prince of Orange the provinces concluded the " Pacifi- 
cation of Ghent" which regulated the religious situa- 
tion in the Low Countries \\'ithout royal intervention. 
The new governor, Don Juan, upset the calculations 
of Orange Dy accepting the " Pacification ", and finally 
the Prince of Orange decided to proclaim Philip s 
deposition by the revolted provinces. The king re- 
plied by placing the prince under the ban; shortly 
afterwards he was slain by an assassin ( 1 584 ) . Never- 
theless, the united provinces did not submit and were 
lost to Spain. Those of the South, however, were re- 
covered one after another by the new governor, Alex- 
ander Famese, Prince of Parma. But he having died 
in 1592 and the war becoming more difficult against 
the rebels, led by the great general Maurice of 
Nassau, son of William of Orange, Philip II realized 
that he must change his policy and ceded the Low 
Countries to his daughter Isabella, whom he espoused 
to the Archduke Albert of Austria, with the provision 
that the provinces would be returned to Spain in case 
there were no children by this union (1598). (See 
Alva; Egmont; Granvelle; Netherlands.) The 
object of Philip's reign was only partly realized. He 
had safeguarded the religious unity of Spain and had 
exterminated heresy in the southern Low Countries, 
but the northern Ix)w Countries were lost to him for- 

Philip had three enemies to contend with abroad, 
Islam, England, and France. Islam was master of the 
Mediterranean, being in possession of the Balkan 
Peninsula, Asia Minor, Egypt, all the coast of north- 
em Africa (Tunis, AlgiersTNIorocco) ; it had just con- 
quered the Island of Cyprus and laid siege to the 
Island of Malta (1505), which had valiantly repulsed 
the assault. Dragut, the Ottoman admiral, was the 
terror of the Mediterranean. On several occasions 
Philip had fought against the Mussulman peril, meet- 
ing alternately with success and defeat. He therefore 
eagerly joined the Holy League organized by Kus V 
to resist Islam, and which Venice consenteci to join. 
The fleet of the League, commanded by Don Juan, 
brother of Philip II, inflicted on the Turkish fleet the 
terrible defeat of Lepanto (7 Oct., 1571), the results of 
which would have been greater had Venice not proved 
false and if Pius V had not died in 1572. Neverthe- 
less, the Turkish domination of the Mediterranean 
was ended and in 1578 Philip concluded a treaty with 
the Turks which lasted till the end of his reign. Rela- 
tions of intimacy with England had ceased at the death 
of Mary Tudor. Philip attempted to renew them by 
his chimerical project of marriage w^ith Elizabeth, who 
had n©t yet become the cruel persecutor of Cathol- 
icism. When she constituted herself the protectress of 
Protestant interests throughout the world and did all 
in her power to encourage the revolt of the Low Coun- 
tries, Philip thought of contending with her in her own 
country by espousing the cause of Mary Stuart, but 
Elizabeth did away with the latter ia 1587, and fur- 
nished relief to the Low Countries against Pliilip, who 
thereiiiM^n armed an immense fleet (the Invincible 
Armada) against England. But being led by an in- 
competent commander it accomplished notUng and 



was almost wJioUy destroyed by storms (1588). This 
was an irreparable disaster which inaugurated Spain's 
naval declme. The English corsairs could with im- 
punity pillage her colonies and under Drake even her 
own coast; in 1596 the Duke of Essex pillaged the 
flourishing town of Cadiz, and the sceptre of the seas 

gassed from Spain to England. From 1559 Philip II 
ad been at peace with France, and had contented him- 
self with urging it to crush out heresy. French interven- 
tion in favour of the Low Countries did not cause him 
to change his attitude, but when at the death of Henry 
III in 1589 the Protestant Henry of Bourbon became 
heir to the throne of France, Philip II allied himself 
with the Guises, who were at the head of the League, 
supplied them with money and men, and on several 
occasions sent to their relief his great general Alexan- 
der Famese. He even dreamed of obtaining the crown 
of France for his daughter Isabella, but this daring 
project was not realized. The conversion of Henry IV 
(1593) to Catholicism removed the last obstacle to his 
accession to the French throne. . Apparently Philip II 
failed to grasp the situation, since he continued for 
two years more the war against Henry IV, but his 
fruitless efforts were finally terminated in 1595 by the 
absolution of Henry IV by Clement VIII. 

No sovereign has been the object of such diverse 
judgments. While the Spaniards regarded him as 
their Solomon and called him "the prudent king'' (el 
rey pruderUe), to Protestants he was the "demon of the 
south'' (dceinon meridianus) and most cruel of tyrants. 
This was because, having constituted himself the de- 
fender of Catholicism throu^out the world, he en- 
countered innumerable enemies, not to mention such 
adversaries as Antonio Perez and William of Orange 
who maligned him so as to justifv their treason. Sub- 
sequently poets (Schiller in his "Don Carlos"), 
romance-writers, and publicists repeated these calum- 
nies. As a matter of fact Philip II joined great quali- 
ties to great faults. He was industrious, tenacious, 
devoted to study, serious, simple-mannered, generous 
to those who served him, the friend and patron of arts. 
He was a dutiful son, a loving husband and father, 
whose family worshipped him. His piety was fervent, 
he had a boundless devotion to the Catholic Faith 
and was, moreover, a zealous lover of justice. His 
stoical strength in adversity and the courage with 
which he endured the suffenngs of his last illness are 
worthy of admiration. On the other hand he was cold, 
suspicious, secretive, scrupulous to excess, indecisive 
ana procrastinating, little disposed to clemency or 
forgetfulness of wrongs. His religion was austere and 
sombre. He could not understand opposition to her- 
esy except by force. Imbued with ideas of absolutism, 
as were all the rulers of his time, he was led into acts 
disapproved by the moral law. His cabinet policy, 
always behind-hand with regard to events and ill- 
informed concerning the true situation, explains his 
failures to a great extent. To sum up we may cite the 
opinion of Baumstark : " He was a sinner, as we all are, 
but he was also a king and a Christian king in the full 
sense of the term". 

Gacrard, Correspondance de Philippe IT sur let affaires des 
Pay$ Bas (Bruasels and Ghent. 1848-1851); Idem, Lettres de 
Philippe IldsesfiUee (Paris. 1884) ; Idem, Don Carlos el Philippe 
II (Paris, 1863) ; Pke«cott, History of the reign of Philip II, 
King of Spain (London, 1855); Cordoba, Felipe II, rey de 
Espafia (Madrid, 1876-78) ; Baumstark, Philippe II. K6nig ton 
Spanien' (Freiburg, 1875), tr. into French. Kdrth (1877); Mon- 
tana, Nrieva lus y juido verdadero sobre Felipe II (Madrid. 1882); 
Fornsron, HisUnre de Philippe II (Paris, 1882); Hume, Philip 
II of Spain (London, 1807). 


Philip IV, sumamed le Bel (the Fair), King of 
France, b. at Fontainebleau, 1268; d. there, 29 Nov., 
1314; son of Philip III and Isabel of Aragon; became 
king, 5 Oct., 1285, on the death of his father, and was 
consecrated at Reims, 6 Jan., 12S6, with his wife 
Jeanne, daughter of Henry I, King of Navarre, Count 
of Champagne and Brie; this marriage united these 

territories to the royal domain. Having taken Viviers 
and Lyons from the empire, Valenciennes, the inhabi- 
tants of which united themselves voluntarily with 
France, La Marche and Angoumois, which he seized 
from the lawful heirs of Hueues de Lusignan, Philip 
wished to expel Edward I of England from Guienne, 
all of which province, with the exception of Bordeaux 
and Bayonne, was occupied in 1294 and 1295. By 
the Treaty of MontreuiC negotiated by Boniface VIII, 
he gave Guienne as a gift to his daughter Isabel, who 
married the son of Edward I, on condition that this 
younc prince should hold the province as Philip's 
vassal. Philip wished to punish Count Guy of Flan- 
ders, an ally of England, and caused Charles of Valois 
to invade his territory, but he was defeated at Coutrai 
by the Flemings, who were roused by the heavy taxes 
imposed on them by Philip; he took his revenge on 
the Flemings at the naval victory of Zierichzee and 
the land victory of Mons en Puelle; then in 1305 he 
recognized Robert, Guy's son, as his vassal and re- 
tained possession of Lille, Doiiai, 0:\:hies, and Valen- 
ciennes. Having thus extended his kingdom, Philip 
endeavoured energetically to centralize the govern- 
ment and impose a very rigorous fiscal system. 
Legists like Enguerrand, Philippe de Marigny. Pierre 
de Latilly, Pierre Flotte, Raoul de Presle, and 
Guillaume de Plassan, helped him to establish firmly 
this royal absolutism and set up a tyrannical power. 

Ihese legists were called tne chevaliera de Vkdlel, 
the chevaliers bs loiSj the mUites regis; they were not 
nobles, neither did they bear arms, but they ranked 
as knights. The appearance of these legists in the 
Government of France is one of the leading events of 
the reign of Philip IV. Renan explains its significance 
in these words: "An entirely new class of politicians, 
owing their fortune entirely to their own merit and 

Personal efforts, unreservedly devoted to the king who 
ad made them, and rivals of the Church, whose place 
they hoped to fill in many matters, thus appeared in 
the history of France, and were destined to work a 
profound change in the conduct of public affairs". 

It was these legists who incited and supported 
Philip IV in his coiSict with the papacy and the trial 
of the Templars. In the articles Boniface VIII; 
Clement V: Molai; Templars, will be found an 
account of the relations of Philip IV with the Holy 
See; M. Lizerand. in 1910, has given us a study on 
Philip IV and Clement V, containing thirtynseven 
unpublished letters written by the two sovereipis. 
The principal adviser of Philip in his hostile relations 
with the Curia was the legist Guillaume de Nogaret 
(q. v.). Renan, who made a close study of Nogaret's 
dealings with Boniface VIII, Clement V, and the Tem- 
plars, thinks that despite his ardent profession of 
Catholic fidelity he was somewhat hypocritical, at all 
events **he was not an honest man", and that **he 
could not have been deceived by the false testimony 
which he stirred up and the sophisms he provoked' . 
Nogaret's methods of combating Boniface VIII and 
the Templars are better understood when we examine, 
in Gastoil Paris's work, the curious trial of Guichard, 
Bishop of Troyes, for witchcraft. 

Another important personage whose curious writ- 
ings must be read to understand the policy of Philip 
correctly is Pierre Dubois. He had been a ptupil of 
St. Thomas Aquinas at the University of Paris, and 
was a lawyer at Coutances. In 1300 Dubois wrote a 
work on the means of shortening the wars and conflicts 
of France; in 1302 he published several virulent 
pamphlets against Boniface VIII; between 1304 and 
1308, he wrote a very important work "De recupera- 
tione Terra; Sanctse"; in 1309 alone, he wrote on the 
question of the Holy Roman Empire, on the Eastern 
question, and against the Templars. Dubois started 
from the idea that France ought to subdue the papacy, 
after which it would be e:usy for the King of France 
to use the papal influence for his own advantage. He 




^^ -rr''/ ' 

^'-'v ^-"t ^ 




J J 

uchI his prococdinRa aoainst the DomiDicans. Then 
H<Tnard Dciicieus andsome of Ihe people of CarcBs- 
sonne conspired to deliver the t«wn into the h&nda of 
I'rincc Femand, Infant of Majorca; Philip caused six- 
ti'on of the inhabitants to be luuigcd, and impoeed a 
. grant the pope the revenues of the hea\-y fine on the town; and this conspiracy of Ber- 
"It depends on the pope", \ ' "■"' 

wiflbed his king to become ma8t«r of the Pupal l^l:itr«, 
to administer them, to reduce the caetlcH and <-i ill's 
of this state to his obedience, and to force Tuscuny, 
Sicily, En^and, and Aragon, vassal countries of the 

Holy See, to do homage to the King of Fr 

torn the kingi .... .• 

P^al States. ... 

he in hia worii of 1302, "to rid himsolf of hw worldly 
occupations and to preacn-e his revenues without 
having any trouble about them ; if he does not isish to 
accept such an advantageous offer, he nil! incur uni- 
veisal reproach for his cupidity, pride, and ratih 
presumption." "Clement V", continued Dubois in 
hia treatise " De recupcratione Terne Sanclw", 
"aft«r having given up his temporaJ possesions to Ibe 

King of France, would be protected against the Abb^ Chabot, we learn that Philip said 
a of Rome, and would live long in good health, Sept., 1287: "If the Mongohans, who ' 

131S to pelpetual /» Fact, o 

Philip 1\ was not therefore in any way asystematic 
adversary of the inquisition. On the other hand, re- 
cently published documents show that he was Mn- 
cerely attaclieil to the idea of a Crusade. From the 
memoirs of Kahban Cauma, ambassador of Ai^im, 
King of the Tatars, translated from the Syriac by 

•■■■"■■ " Rabbanin 

not Chrifl' 

, fight to capture Jerusalem, we have much n' 
I presen-e the reason to fight; if it be God'a will, we will go with an 
army." And the news of the fall 
of Saint-Jean d'Acre (1291). which 
induced so many provincial coun- 
cils to express a deare for a new 
crusade was certainly calculated 
to strengthen this resolution of 
the king. We have referred to 
Dubois's zeal for the conquest of 
the Holy Land; Nogaret was per- 
haps a still BtroQger advocate of 
the project; but in the plan which 
he outlined about 1310, the first 
step, aCiX>r<Ung to him, was to 
phice all the money of the Church 
of France in the king's hands. 

The French Church under Philip 
IV displayed very little indepen- 
dence; it was in reality enslaved to 
theroyalwill. Almost everyyear 
it contributed to the treasury with 
or without the pope's approval, a 
tenth and sometimes a fifth of 
its revenues; these pecuniary 
sac rificea were consentwi toby 
the clergy in the provincial 
councils, which in return asked 
favours of 

in his native land of France, where in 
a suflicient number of French cardinals 
papacy from the rapacious hands 
of the Romans." Dubois de- 
sired not only that the King of 
France should subjugate the 
pspacv, but that tiie empire 
abould be forced to cede to France 
the left bank of the Rhine, Pro- 
vence. Savoy, and all its rights 
in Liguria, Venice, and Lombardy. 
In 1308, after the death of the 
Emperor .Albert I , he even thought 
of having the pope confer the 
imperial crown on the French 
Capets. He also devised plans 
for subjugating Spun. Thus re- 
organized b}/ France Christian 
Europe was (in the mind of Pierre 
Dubois) to undertake the Cru- 
eade; the Holy Land would be re- 
conquered, and on the return, the 
Palfeologi, who reigned at Con- 
stantinople, would be replaced by 
the Capetian, Charles of Valois, 
representing the rights of Cather- 
ine de Courtenay to the l^ttn 
Empire of Constantinople. The 

Kreonal influence of Pierre Du- 
is on Philip IV must not be e\- ^ 
aggerated. Although all his writ- 
ings were presented to the king, 
Dubois never had an official place Wooucui 
in Philip's council. However, 
there is an indisputable parallelism between his 
ideas and certain political mantruvres of Philip IV. 

For instance on 9 June, 1308, Philip wrote to Henry , ^ _.__ 

of Carinthia, King of Bohemia, to propose Charles Philipconfirmed the immunities of the Church always 
of Valois as a candidate for the crown of Germany; contained subtle restrictions which enabled the king's 
and on 11 June he sent three knights into Germany agents to violate them. 

to offer money to the electors. This wss fruitless A list of the gravamina of the Churches and the 
labour, however, for Henry of Luxemburg was elected clerics, discussed at the Council of Vienne (1311), 
and Clement V, less subservient to the King of France contains ample proof of the abuse of authority to 
than certain enemies of the papacy have said, hastened which the Church was subjected, and the writer of the 
to confirm the election. poem "Avisemens pour le roy Loys", composed in 

Philip IV was not really a free-thinker; he was re- 1315 for Louis X, exhorted this new king to bve in 
ligious.and even made pilgrimages: his attitude to- peace with the Church, which Philip IV hi^ not done, 
wardstheinquisitionisnot that of afrec-thinker,a.4is To concentrate in his hands all the wealth of the 
especially apparent in the trial of the Franciscan Ber- French Church for the Crusade, and then to en- 
nard IKIicieux. The latter brought the deputies of deavourtomakeanagreementwiththepftpai^for the 
CaAsasBonne and AIbi to Philip IV at Senlis, lo com- control and disposition of the income of the Universal 
plain of the Dominican inquisitorsof Lanf^edoc; the Church, was the peculiar policy of Philip IV. Re- 
result of his action was an ordinance of Philip putting cently some vcrras have been discovered, written by a 
the Dominican inquisitors under the control of the contemporary on a leaf of the register of the delibera' 
bishops. On the receipt of tlua news Langue<Ioc be- tions of Nolre-Dame de Chartres, which reveal the 
came inflamed against the Dominicans; Bernard Deli- impression produced by this policy on the minda of 
cieux In 1303 headed the movement in Carcassonne, certain contemporaries: 

and when in 1304 Philip and the queen visited Tou- Jam Petri navis titubat, racio quia clavis. 

louae andCarcassonne,he organized tumultuous mani- Errat; rex, papa, foeti sunt unica capa, 

(eatations. The king was displeased, and discontin- Declarant, do, dee, Pilatus et alter Herodes. 

agents, if they met with resis- 
tance, Imd down the principle 
that the king could by his own 
authority collect from all hia 
subjects, especiallyincaseof necessity, whatever taxes 
he wished. His onic*s frequently harassed the clergy 
monstrous manner; and the documents by wluch 



Philip IV, by his formal condemnation of the memory 
of Boniface VIII, appointed himself judge of the or- 
thodoxy of the popes. It was laid down as a principle, 
says Geoffrey of Paris, that 'Hhe king is to submit to 
the spiritual power only if the pope is in t^e right 
faith". The adversaries of the "theocracy" of the 
Middle Ages hail Philip IV as its destroyer; and in 
their ^thusiasm for him, by an extraordinary error, 
they proclaim him a precursor of modern Uberty. On 
the contrary he was an absolutist in the fullest sense 
of the term. The Etats g^n^aux of 1302, in which the 
Third Estate declared that the king had no superior on 
earth, were the precursors of the false Gallican theo- 
ries of Divine right, so favourable to the absolutism of 

The civilization of the Middle Ages was based on 
a great principle, an essentially liberal principle, from 
which arose the political hberty of England; according 
to that principle, taxes before being raised by royal 
authority, ought to be aoproved by the tax-payers. 
Boniface VIII in the connict of 130^ was only main- 
taining this principle, when he insisted on the consent 
of the clergy to the collection of the tithes. In the 
struggle between Philip and Boniface, Philip represents 
absolutism, Boniface the old medieval ideas of auton- 
omy. " The reign of Philip IV ", writes Renan, "is the 
reign which contributed most to form the France of 
the five succeeding centuries, with its good and bad 
qualities. The mUitea regiSf those ennobled plebeians, 
became the agents of all important political business; 
the princes of the royal blood alone remained superior 
to or on an equalitv with tjiemj the real nobility, which 
elsewhere established the parliamentary governments, 
was excluded from participating in the pubUc policy. " 
Renan is ri^ht in declaring that the nrst act of the 
French magistracy was "to diminish the power of the 
Church per fas et nefaa" to establish the absolutism of 
the king; and that such conduct was for this magis- 
tracy "an original sin". 

HuicrienM de la France, t. XX, XXIII; Lanolois in LATiflSB, 
Hi^oire de France, III (Parifl, 1903); Boutaric, La France aous 
Philippe le Bel (Paris, 1861); Renan, Etudee »ur Vhistoire re- 
litfieuee du rigne de Philippe ie Bel (Paris, 1899) ; Wenck, Philipp 
der Sehdne von Prankreieh, eeine Perednlichkeit und doe Urteil der 
Zeitgenoseen (Marburi^, 1905) ; Finke, Zur Charakterietik Philippe 
dee Schdnen in MiUeUungen dee InetitiUs /flr deterreichiache Ge- 
echiehte, XXVI (1905^ ; Milangee eur le Rione de Philippe le Bel: 
reeueil d'artielee extraiU du Moyen Age (Ch&lon-sur-SaOne, 1906); 
HoLTxifANN, Wilhelm ton Nogaret (Freiburg im Br., 1897) ; Paris, 
Un prooie criminel eoue Philippe le Bel in Revue du Palais (Aug., 
1898) ; Lanolois. Lee papiera de 0. de Nogaret etdeG,de Plaieiane 
Triaor dee Chartee (Nottcea ef extraita dea manuaerita), XXXI V; 
Lanolois, DoUancea du cUrgS de France au tempa de Philippe le 
Bel in Revue Bleue (9 Sept., and 14 Oct., 1905) ; Licerand, CUment 
V et Philippe IV le Bel (Paris, 1910); AROuiLuisRE, L'Appel au 
eoncite aoua Philippe le Bel et la genkae dea Ihioriea conciharea in 
Revue dea Qtteaiiona Hiatoriquea (1911). 

Georges Gotau. 

Philipi Acts op Saint. See Apocrtpha, sub- 
title III. 

Philip, Antipope. See Stephen IV, Pope. 

Philip Benizi, Saint, propagator and fifth Genera] 
of the Servite Order, b. at Florence, Italy, 15 Aug., 
1233; d. at Todi, in Umbria, 23 Aug., 1285. His 
parents were scions of the renowned Benizi and 
Frescobaldi families. After many years of married 
life had left them childless, Philip was granted to 
them in answer to their prayers. When but five 
months old, on beholding ot. Alexis and St. Buona- 
giunta approaching in quest of alms, he exclaimed : 
"Mother, here come our Lady's Servants; give them 
an alms for the love of God ''. At thirteen years of age, 
in view of his precocious genius, he was sent to the 
University of Paris. Here he led a life of study and 
edification, and after a brilliant career, completed his 
course in medicine at the University of Padua. He 
practised medicine at Florence for one year, chiefly 
for the benefit of the poor. As a layman he lived like 
a member of a religious community, entertaining high 

ideals. In a vision of the Blessed Virgin he was finally 
directed to enter the order of her servants, known as 
the Servites. St. Philip was received into the order 
in 1254 by St. Buonfiglio, its first superior. Because of 
his purity and deep numility, he asked to be enrolled 
as a simple brother, and was sent to Mt. Senario near 
Florence, there to continue his life of penance and 
sacrifice. The miraculous fountain that sprang forth 
in his grotto is still seen enclosed in a small Byzantine 
chapel built on the native rock. In 1258 while on a 
journey to Siena, his great ability and learning, hith- 
erto concealed from his brethren, was accident^y dis- 
covered. He was at once ordered to prepare for Holy 

The following year he was ordained to the priest- 
hood by Bishop John Mangiadoro of Florence. He 
made great progress in sanctity, drawing hb inspira- 
tion to hohness and virtue principally from the 
Passion of Jesus and the Sorrows of Marv. His abil- 
ity was so recognized that he rose rapidly from one 
post in the order to another, until finally on 5 June, 
1267, he was unanimously chosen Superior General. 
In this position his administrative powers and apos- 
tolic zeal enjoyed a broad field for development. He 
travelled throughout Eurore preaching and working 
miracles. Under his care tne order grew in numbers 
and holiness, many of his spiritual children having 
been raised to the honours of the altar. The greatest 
perhaps was St. Juliana Falconieri, foundress of the 
Servite Nuns. After the death of Clement IV in 1208, 
the cardinals were about to choose St. Philip as his 
successor, but the saint, leamine of their intention, 
fled secretlv and remained in solitude until another 
choice had been made. In 1274 he was present at the 
Council of Lyons, where hejpossessed the rare and 
apostolic gift of tongues. When the furious strife 
between Guelph and Ghibelline was at its height, 
Philip was active everywhere as a peace-maker, espe- 
cially in Florence, Pistoia, Arezzo, Forli, and Boloma. 
God having revealed to him his approachins end, he 

S laced the government of the order in the hands of 
ilessed Lotharingus. He then repaired to Todi, where 
he selected the smallest and poorest convent for the 
scene of his death, which occurred after a short illness. 
Many miracles were wrought at his intercession; even 
the dead were raised to life. He was canonized by 
Clement IX in 1671. 

SonuBR. Vie de Saint Philippe Biniai (ParU^ 1886; tr. London, 

1. M. K, pi 
Benui (London, 1874) in Oralorian Seriea, ed. Bowdkn. 

1886); Annalea 6rd. Serv. B. M. r..paaaim; Life of Saint Philip 

Charles F. McGinnis. 

Philip of Hesse. See Hesse; Luther, Martin. 

Philip of Jetufli Saint, b. in Mexico, date im* 
known: d. at Nagasaki early in Februarjr, 1597. 
Though unusually frivolous as a boy, he joined the 
Discalced Franciscans of the Province of St. Didacus. 
founded by St. Peter Baptista, with whom he suffered 
martyrdom later. After sbme months in the Order, 
Philip grew tired of monastic life, left the Franciscans 
in 1589{ took up a mercantile career, and went to the 
Philippines, where he led a life of pleasure. Later he 
desirea to re-enter the Franciscans and was again 
admitted at Manila in 1590. After some years he 
was to have been ordained at the monastery in Mex- 
ico, the episcopal See of Manila being at that time 
vacant. He sailed, 12 July, 1596, but a storm dibve 
the vessel upon the coast of Japan. The governor 
of the province confiscated the ship and imprisoned 
its crew and passengers, among whom were another 
Franciscan, Juan de Zamorra, two Augustinians, and 
a Dominican. The discoverv of soldiers, cannon, and 
ammunition on the ship led to the suspicion that it 
was intended for the conquest of Japan, and that the 
missionaries were merely to prepare the way for the 
soldiers. This was also said, falsely and unwarrant- 



ably, by one of the crew (cf . Japan, Christianity in 
Japan, Catholicism). This enraged the Japanese 
Emperor Hideyoshi, generally called Taicosaina by 
Europeans. He commanded, 8 December, 1596^ the 
arrest of the Franciscans in the monastery at Miako, 
now Kyoto, whither St. Philip had gone. The reli- 
fdous were kept prisoners in the monastery until 30 
December, when they were transferred to the city 
prison. There were six Franciscans, seventeen Jap- 
anese tertiaries, and the Japanese Jesuit, Paul Miki, 
with his two native servants. The ears of the prison- 
ers were cropped on 3 January, 1597, and they were 
paraded through the streets of Kyoto; on 21 January 
they were taken to Osaka, and thence to Nagasaki, 
which they reached on 5 February. They were taken 
to a mountain near the city, ''Mount of the Mar- 
tyrs", bound upon crosses, after which they were 
pierced with spears. St. Philip was beatified in 1627 
oy Urban VIII, and, with his companions, canonized 
8 Ji^ne, 1862, by Pius IX. He is the patron saint of 
the city of Mexico. 

RiBADENEQRA, Htntoria de loi lalaa del Archipiilago y Reynoa 
delaOran China, Tartaria . . . ]/ Japan, V, VI (Barcelona, 1601); 
these are sometimes wrongly cited as Adas del martirio de San 
Pedro Bautista y au* eompaheroa (Barcelona, 1601); Archivum 
franc, hiat., I (Quaracchi, 1908), 536 aqq.: Francisco de S. 
Antonio, Chron, de la apoatol. prot. de S. Gregorio ... in Laa 
lalaa PhUipinaa, III (Manila, 1743), 31 sqq.: Ada SS., Feb., I. 
723 sqq.; Geroniuo de Jesus, Hiat. delia Chriaiandad del Japon 
(1601) ; DA CiVECZA, Sagffio di Bibliog. Sanfranceac. (Prato, 1879), 
250, 590 sqq., 523; Idem, Storia unit, delle miaaioni franc, VII, 
ii (Prato, 1891), 883 sqq.; da Oriua, Storia dei ventitre Martiri 
Oiapponeai deW Ord. Min. Oaaerv. (Rome, 1862) ; Melchiorri, 
Annal. Ord. Min. (Ancona, 1869). 101 sqq., 218 sqq., 26t) sqq. 

Michael Bihl 

Philip of the Blessed Trinity (Esprit Juuen;, 
Discalced Carmelitei theologian, b. at Malaucene, near 
Avignon, 1603; d. at Naples, 28 February, 1671. He 
took the habit at Lyons where he made his profession, 
8 September, 1621. Choosing the missionary life, he 
studied two years at the semmary in Rome and pro- 
ceeded in February, 1629, to the Holy Land and Per- 
sia, and thence to Goa where he became prior, and 
teacher of philosophy and theology. After the martyr- 
dom of Dionysius a Nativitate, his pupil, and Re- 
demptus a Cruce, 29 Nov., 1638, Philip collected all 
available evidence and set out for Rome to introduce 
the cause of their beatification which, however, only 
terminated in 1900. He did not return to the mission, 
but was entrusted with important offices in France, in 
1665, was elected general of the order with residence 
in Rome, and three years later, re-elected. While 
visiting all the provinces of his order, he was caught 
in a terrific gale off the coast of Calabria, and reached 
Naples in a dying condition. Besides the classical lan- 
guages he spoke fluently French, Italian, Spanish, 
Portuguese, Persian, and Arabic. .Of his numerous 
works the following have lasting value: "Summa phil- 
osophise'', 4 vols., Lyons, 1648, in which he follows not 
only the spirit but also the method of St. Thomas 
Aquinas; "Summa theologise thomisticse". 5 vols., 
Lyons, 1653; "Summa theolo^se mystics; , Lyons, 
1656, reprinted in 3 vols.. Pans, 1884; "Itinerarium 
orientale", Lyons, 1649, also in Italian and French: 
** Decor Carmeli religiosi", the lives of the saints and 
saintly members of his Order, Lyons, 1665; "Theolo- 
gia carmelitana", Rome, 1665. The two last named 
and some smialler works dealing to some extent with 
historical matters of a controversial nature, called 
forth a reply from Pierre-Joseph de Haitze, under the 
titles, **Des Moines empnint^z", and *'Des Moines 

Henricub a 88. Sacramento, CoOedio Seriptorum Ord. Carmel. 
Excalc., II (Savona, 1884). 110. 

6. Zimmerman. 

Philippe le Bel. See Philip IV, King op France. 

Philippi (Gr. 0/Xixirot Lat. Philippi) was a Mace- 
donian town, on the borders of Thracia. Situated on 
the summit of a hill, it dominated a large and fertile 

plain, intersected by the Egnatian Way. It was 
north-west of Mount Pangea, near the River Gangites, 
and the ^gean Sea. In 358 b. c. it was taken, 
enlarged, and fortified by the King of Macedonia, 
Philip II, hence its name Phihppi. Octavius Augustus 
(42 B. c.) conferred on it the jus ItcUicum (Acts, xiv. 
12), which made the town a miniature Rome, ana 
granted it the institutions and privileges of the citi- 
zens of Rome. That is why we find at PhiUppi, along 
with a remnant of the Macedonians, Roman colonist! 
together with some Jews, the latter, however, so few 
that they had no synagogue, but only a place of 
prayer (xpo^cvxi^). Philippi was the first European 
town in which St. Paul preached the Faith. He ar- 
rived there with Silas, Timothy, and Luke about the 
end of 52 a. d., on the occasion of his second Apostolic 
voyage. The Acts mention in particular a woman 
called Lydia of Thyatira, a seller of purple, in whose 
house St. Paul probably dwelt during his stay at 
Philippi. His labours were rewarded by many con- 
versions (Acts, xvi), the most important taking place 
amon^ women of rank, wh^ seem to have retained 
their influence for a long time. The Epistle to the 
Philippians deals in a special manner with a dispute 
that arose between two of them, Evodia and Syntyche 
(iv, 2). In a disturbance of the populace, Paul and 
Silas were beaten with rods and cast into prison, from 
which being miraculously delivered, they set out for 
Thessalonica. Luke, however, continued to work for 
five years. 

The Philippians remained very attached and grate- 
ful to their Apostle and on several occasions sent him 
pecuniary aid (twice to Thessalonica, Phil., iv, 14-16; 
once to Corinth, II Cor., xi, 8-9; and once to Rome, 
Phil., iv, 10-18. See Philippians, Epistle to the). 
Paul returned there later; he visited them on his 
second journey, about 58, after leaving Ephesus (Acts. 
XX, 1-2). tt is believed that he wrote his Second 
Epistle to the Corinthians at Philippi, whither he 
returned on his way back to Jerusalem, passing Easter 
week there (Acts, xx, 5-6). He always kept in close 
communication with the inhabitants. Having been 
arrested at Ciesarea and brought to Rome, he wrote 
to them the Epistle we have in the New Testament, 
in which he dwells at great length on his predilection 
for them (i, 3, 7; iv, 1; etc.). Paul probably wrote 
them more letters than we possess; Poly carp, in his 
epistle to the Philippians (II, 1 so.), seems to allude to 
several letters (though the Greek word, hriffTo\al^ is 
used also in speaking of a single letter), and Paul 
himself (Phil., iii, 1) seems to refer to previous writ- 
ings. He hoped (i. 26; ii, 24) to revisit Philippi 
his captivity, and ne may have written there his First 
Epistle to Timothy (Tim., i, 3). Little is known 
of the subsequent history of the town. Later it waa « 
destroyed by the Turks; to-day nothing remains but 

some ruins. 

For bibliography see Philippians, Epistle to the. 

A. Vander Heeren. 

Philippi, a titular metropolitan see in Macedonia. 
As early as the sixth century b. c. we learn of a region 
called Datos, overrun by the inhabitants of Thasos, 
in which there was an outlying post called Crenides 
(the little springs), and a seaport, Neapolis or Cavala. 
About 460 B. c. Crenides and the country lying inland 
fell into the hands of the Thracians, who doubtless 
were its original inhabitants. In 360 the Thasians, 
aided by Callistratus the Athenian and other exiles, 
re-established the town of Datos, just when the dis- 
covery of auriferous deposits was exciting the neigh- 
bouring peoples. Philip of Macedonia took possession 
of it, and gave it his name, Philippi in the plural, as 
there were different sections of the town scattered at 
the foot of Mount PanpsBUs. He erected there a for- 
tress barring the road between the Pangaeus and the 
Haemus. The gold mines, called Asyla, which were 



energetically worked, gave Philip an annual revenue profited by the opportunity to confide to him a letter 
of more than 1000 talents. In 108 b. c. the liomans to the faithful and the heads of his Church. In this 
captured the place. In the autumn of 42 b. c. the letter, probably written by Timothy at his dictation, 
celebrated battle between the triumvirs and Brutus Paul expresses the sentiments of joy and gratitude 
and Cassius was fought on the neighbouring marshy which he cherishes in regard to the Philippians. This 
plain. In the first conflict Brutus triumphed over is the keynote of the letter. It is an outpouring of the 
Octavius, whilst Antony repulsed Cassius, who com- heart, breathing a wholly spontaneous and paternal 
mitted suicide. Unable to maintain discipline in his intimacy. In it the loving heart of the Apostle re- 
army, and defeated twenty days later, Brutus also veals itself completely, and the affectionate tone, sin- 
took his life. The same year a Roman colony was cerity, and delicacy of the sentiments must have 
established there, which after the battle of Actium charmed its readers and won their admiration and 
took the name of Colonia Augusta Julia Philippensis. love. Hence this letter is much more epistolary in 
When St. Ignatius of Antioch and the martyrs Zosi- style than the other Epistles of St. Paul. Familiar 
mus and Rufus were passing through Philippi, St. expressions of joy and gratitude are mingled with 
Ignatius told the Christians of that town to send a dogmatic reflexions and moral exhortation, and it is 
letter of congratulation to the faithful of Antioch. useless to seek for orderly arrangement or strict 
They therefore wrote to Polycarp of Smyrna, asking sequence. 

him at the same time for the writmgs of St. Ignatius. On the other hand, although the general condition 

Poly carp answered them in a letter, still extant, which of the Church of Philippi was excellent and St. Paul 

was written before the death of St. Ignatius. did not have to deal with grave vices, there were 

Although the Church of Philippi was of Apostolic nevertheless certain things which were not altogether 

origin, it was never very important; it was a suffragan satisfactory or which aroused apprehension. Paul 

bishopric of Thessalonica. Towards the end of the had heard that the pride and vainglory of some, espe- 

ninth century it ranked as a metropoHtan see and had cially of two women, Evodia and Syntyche, had aroused 

six suffragan dioceses; in the fifteenth century it had misunderstandings and rivalries. Moreover a greater 

only one, the See of Eleutheropolis. The Archdiocese pjid more serious danger threatened them, perhaps 

of Cavala was reunited to the metropolis in Decem- on the part of Judaizers, who, though there is no need 

ber, 1616. In 1619, after a violent dispute with the to assume their presence or propaganda at Philippi 

Metropolitan of Drama, Clement, tne titular of itself, had, it seems, disseminated their baneful doc- 

Philippi, got permission to assume the title of Drama trines throughout the neiglibouring regions. Hence 

also, and this was retained by the Metropolitan of the exhortations to fraternal charity and concord as 

Philippi until after 1721, when it was suppressed and the well as to disinterestedness; these exhortations (i, 8, 

metropolis of Drama alone continued. Inthe^'Echos 27; ii, 2, 3, 14, 16; iv, 2 sq.) Paul bases on exalted 

d*Orient"^ III. 262-72, the writer of this article com- dogmatic considerations taken from the example of 

piled a cntical list of the Greek titulars of Philippi, Christ, and he also proposes to them the example of 

containing; sixty-two names, whereas only eighteen his own way of thinking and acting, which had but a 

are given m Le Quien, " Oriens christianus ", II, 67-70. single object, the ^lory of God and Christ. But when 

Some Latin titulars are cited in Eubel, "Hierarchia he warns the PhiHppians against the Judaizers he 

catholica medii aevi", I, 418; II, 238; III, 291; Le returns to the tone of deep sorrow and unmitigated 

Quien, op. cit.. Ill, 1045. In the middle of the fourteenth indignation which characterizes the Epistle to the 

century, Philippi is mentioned in connexion with the Galatians. 

wars between John V, Palajolo^us, and Cantacuzenus, II. Analysis. — For the reasons stated above a defi- 

who has left a description of it (P. G., CLIV, 336). nite plan or clear division must not be sought in this 

The ruins of Philippi lie near the deserted hamlet of Epistle. The Letter is a succession of exhortations and 

Filibedjik, fifteen kilometres from Cavala, in the pffusions which may be collected under the following 

vilayet of Salonica; they contain the remains of the heads: — 

acropolis, a theatre anterior to the Roman occupa- A. Introduction. — After the superscription, in which 

tions, Ofc temple of Syfvanus, and numerous sculptured he addresses himself to bishops, deacons, and faithful 

rocks bearing inscriptions. (i» 1-2), St. Paul rejoices in tne excellent condition of 

Leake. Northem Greece, III. 215-23; Smith, Diet, of Gr. and the Church of the Philippians and gives thanks that 

Rom. Geog s x.'^ S^Qsrn,DePMipperu>ibustanquamiumi^ by their alms they have shared in the merits of his 

tn mumio (Leipzig, 1728); Hooa, De caettu ehrtstumorum Fnutp' j.' •. j xi. j r au /^ i /o o\ V i 

pen«t« condUione prima (Leyden. 1823) ; Heuiey, 3/wsion archMo- CaptlVltV and the Spread of the Oospe! (3-8) ; he loves 

gique de Macidoine (Paris, 1876), 1-124; Mertzid&s. Phiiippea them all with an intense love, ardently desiring and 

iS;S'-/&& \xilk^i^s^%7F;i^'&ll dirBiW^: urgently entreating that G«x} would deign to complete 

B. V. m them the work of perfection (^11). 

S. Vailh6. B. Body of the Epistle. — (1) Paul begins by giving 

news, as a whole very satisfactory — with regard to his 
Philippians, Epistle to the. — I. Historical own situation and that of the Church in Rome. But 
Circumstances, Occasion, and Character (see also what he relates concerning himself must have been 
Philippi). — The Philippians, who were much en- meant for a tacit but no less eloquent appeal to abne- 
deared to St. Paul (i, 3, 7; iv, 1), had already on gation and detachment, for Paul depicts himself as 
former occasions and under various circumstances seeking in all things not his own glory or personal ad- 
sent him pecuniar^' aid, and now on learning of his vantage, but solely the glory of Christ. His captivity 
imprisonment at Rome (Acts, xxvii-xx\'iii) they sent becomes to him a cause of joy, since it avails for the 
to him Epaphroditus, one of their number, to bear propagation of the Gospel (i, 12-14); what does it mat- 
him alms and minister to his needs (ii, 25-29; iv, 18). ter to him that some preach the Gospel out of un- 
St. Paul received him gladly, rejoicing in the affec- worthy zealotry, provided Christ be preached? (15- 
tionate and Christian sentiments of the Philippians 18); given a choice of life and death he knows not 
(iv, 10-19), and in the generally satisfactory condition which he prefers, life which permits him to do good for 
of their Church as reported to him by Epaphroditus. souls, or death, which shall be a testimony for Christ 
It may be that Epaphroditus had bet^n the Apostle's and shall unite him to Him (19-25). He thinks, how- 
companion and assistant at Philippi (ii, 25) ; at least ever, that he will be set free and may still labour for the 
he became such at Rome (ii, 30), but he fell danger- spiritual progress of the Philippians. 
ously ill and was at the point of death (ii, 27). This (2) He exhorts them more directly to lead a life 
news was distressing to the Philippians, and as soon worthy of the Gospel (i, 27a), and especially to con- 
as he recovered he was eager to return home (ii, 26). cord and abnegation (i, 27b-ii, 4) (i) by the example 
Paul therefore hastened to send him (ii, 26-28) and of Christ Who being in the Divine form and possessing 




supreme independence neverthelessi for our good, anm- 
hilated himself and assumed the condition of a slave, 
even undergoing death ; (ii) by the desire for a heavenly 
reward, such as Christ received (ii, 5-1 1 ) . He concludes 
by repeating his general exhortation to Christian per- 
fection and by affirming that to procure them this per- 
fection he would gladly sacrifice his life. 

(3) The Apostle tells the Philippians that as soon as 
he knows the outcome of his imairs he will send to 
them Timothy, his devoted companion, who is so well- 
disposed towards the Philippians (ii, 19-24); in the 
meantime he sends them Epaphroditus, his fellow- 
labourer and their delegate to him (see above) ; he 
asks them to receive him with jov and to honour him 
greatly, because of the love which he bears them and 
the danger of death to which he was exposed while ful- 
filling his mission (25-30). 

(4) Desiring to end or abbreviate his Epistle Paul 
begins the conclusion (iii, la, the Td \oir6v). but sud- 
denly interrupts it in order again to put the Philip- 
pians on their guard against the Judaizing teachers, 
which he does by once more presenting to them his 
own example: Has he not all the benefits and titles in 
which the Judaizers are accustomed to glory and much 
more? But all this he has despised and rejected and 
counted as dung that he might gain true justice and 
perfection, whicn are secured, not by the works of the 
law, but by faith (iii^ 1-1 1) . This perfection, it is true, 
he had not yet attained, but he never ceased to press 
towards the mark and the prize to which God had 
called him, thus refuting by his own example those 
who in their pride call themselves perfect (12-16); he 
incites his readers to imitate him (17) and not to fol- 
low those who, loving the things of this world, have 
depraved habits (18-iv, 1). 

(5) To this general exhortation Paul adds a special 
admonition. He binds two women, Evodia and Syn- 
tyche, to concord (iv, 2-3), and exhorts all to spiritual 
joy, urging the observance of goodness and gentleness 
among them (5), bidding them be disturbed by noth- 
ing, but have recourse to God in all their anxieties 
(6^-7), and endeavour to attain to Christian perfection 
in all things (8-9). 

C. Epilogue. — Paul concludes his Epistle by a more 
expUcit renewal of thanks to the Philippians for their 
alms, using the most delicate expressions and making 
his manner of acceptance a final exhortation to detach- 
ment and abnegation (11-19). This is followed by the 
Doxology and e^utations. Especially noteworthy are 
his salutations to those of the household of the em- 
peror (20-23). 

III. Authenticity, Unity, and Integrity. — The 
authenticity of the Epistle as a whole, which was gen- 
erally accepted until the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, was first denied by the Tubingen School (Baur, 
1845; Zeller; Volckmar). Their arguments, namely 
lack of originality, the evidence of a semi-Gnostic idea, 
a doctrine of justification which could not be that of 
St. Paul etc., were triumphantly refuted by Lune- 
mann, Brilckner, Schenkel etc. But other contra- 
dictors subseauently arose, such as van Manen and 
especially Hoisten (for their chief arguments see 
below). At present the authenticity may be said to 
be universally admitted not only by Catholic exegetes 
but also by most Protestants ana Rationalists (Hilgen- 
feld. Hamack, Zahn, Jiilichcr, Pficiderer, Lightfqot, 
Gibb, Holtzmann). 

(1) Arguments from external criticism permit no 
doubt on the subject. We will not deal witn the quo- 
tations from or reminiscences of the Epistle which 
some authors profess to find in early ecclesiastical 
writers, such as Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, 
the Shepherd of Hennas, the Epistle to Diognetus etc. 
(see Comely, "Introductio", IV, 491; Jacquier, p. 
347; Toussaint in ''Diet, de la Bible", s. v. Philip- 
picas). About 120 St. Polycarp speaks explicitly to 
the Philippians of the letters (or the letter, iTurro^al) 

which Paul had written to them, and some passages of 
his letter prove that he had read this Epistle to the 
Philippians. Subsequently the Muratorian Canon, 
St. Irenseus, Clement of Alexandria, TertuUian, and 
the Apostolicon of Marcion attribute it expressly to 
St. Paul. After TertuUian the testimonies become 
numerous and incontestable and the unanimity was 
maintained without the slightest exception until the 
middle of the nineteenth century.' 

(2) Internal Criticism. — The difficulties drawn from 
the Epistle itself, which some authors have urged 
against tradition, are misleading, as is now admitted 
by the most prominent Rationalists and Protestants. 

(a) Language and style: the tLra^ Xtydfuva (which 
occur about forty times) prove nothing against the 
Pauline origin of the Epistle, since they are met with 
in almost the same proportion in the certainly authen- 
tic Epistles. Moreover, certain words (about twenty) 
quite peculiar to the Epistles of St. Paul, certain forms 
of expression, figures, methods of style (i, 22, 27, 29; 
iii, 8^ 14), and repetitions of words demonstrate the 
Pauhne character of the Epistle. 

(b) Doctrine: the two chief objections brought for- 
wwd by Hoisten (Jahrb; fur Prot. theol., I, 125; II, 
58, 282) have found little credit among exegetes, while 
Hoisten himself in a more recent work ("Das Evan- 
gelium des Paulus", Berlin, 1898, II, 4) concedes that ' 
the theology of the Epistle to the Philippians is thor- 
oughlv Pauline. In fact (a) the Christology of the 
Epistle to the Philippians, which portrays Christ pre- 
existing in the form of God and made man through the 
Incarnation, does not contradict that of the First 
Epistle to the Corinthians (xv, 45), which depicts the 
Risen Christ as a heavenly Man, clothed with His 
glorified body, or that of the other Epistles which, in a 
simpler form, also show us Christ pre-existing as a 
Divine Being and made man through the Incarnation 
(Gal., iv, 4; Rom., vui, 3; II Cor., viii, 9). (b) The 
doctrine on justification by faith and not by works set 
forth in the Epistles to the Romans and the Galatians, 
is not contradicted here (iii, 6); if indeed St. Paul 
speaks here of legal justice it is obviously to show its 
powerlessness and nothingness (7-9). 

The unity and integrity of the Epistle have also 
been denied or doubted by some authors. Volter and 
Spitta maintained that this Epistle is a compilation of 
another authentic Epistle to the Philippians and an 
apocryphal one written about a. d. 120. Clemen saw 
in it a compilation of two authentic Epistles. These 
theories met with little success, while the arguments 
which have been brought forward in their behalf, viz. 
the double conclusion (iii, 1, and iv, 4) mingled with 
personal details, moral counsels, doctrinal instructions 
etc., are sufficiently explained by the familiar and 
consequently free and unrestrained character of the 

Place and Dale. — ^There is not the shadow of a doubt 
that the Epistle to the Philippians was written during 
the Apostle's captivity (i, 7, 13, 14, 17; ii, 24). More- 
over, it is certain that it was written not at Csesarea, as 
some have maintained, but at Rome ( a . d . 62-64) . Such 
is the nearly unanimous opinion even of those who claim 
that the three other Epistles of the Captivity were 
written at Caisarea [see i, 13 (the praetonum); iv, 22 
(the house of Csesar) ; i, 17 sqq. (this supposes a more 
important Church than that of Caesarea)]. Critics do 
not agree as to whether the Epistle was written at the 
beginning of the sojourn at Rome or at the end, before 
or after the other three Epistles of the captivity. 
Most of them incline towards the second view (Meyer, 
Weiss, Holtzmann, Zahn, Jiilicher etc.). For the 
arguments pro and con see the works of the various 
critics. The present author, however, is of the opinion 
that it was written towards the end of the captivity. 

The following are general works and commentaries, in which 
the reader will fintl a more extenHive bibliography, and inforraa* 
tion concerning earlier w^orka and comment arioft. 

BiSELKN, CommerUariu* in Epistolam S. Pauli ad Philipperuie* 




(2n(l ed., Louyaio, 1852) ; Idem, Het nieuwe Testament (Bruces, 
1892); BiBPiNQ, BrklArung der Brief e an die Spheeer, Philipper 
und Kolosser (MQnflter, 1866); Lipsius, Brief an die OatcUar, 
BdmeTt Philipper (Handcommentar turn N. T.), adapted by 
HOLTZMANN (2Dd ed., Freiburg, 1802); Moulb, The BpisUe 
to the Philippians (Cambridge, 1895) ; Cobnelt, IntrodwUio 
epecialia in aingiUoe N. T. librae (Paria, 1897) ; MOller, Der 
Ap. Paultu Brief an die Philipper (Freiburg 1899); van Steen- 
KI8TE, Commentariua in omnes S. Pault Epietolae (Bruges, 
1899); Funk, PairM Apoeloliei (TObingen. 1901); Vincent, 
The Epistles to the Philippians and to Philemon (2nd ed., 
Edinburgh, 1902); Hadpt, Die Gefangensehafisbriefe (8th ed., 
Gottingen, 1902); Jacquier, Histoire des livres du Nouveau 
Testament, I (Paris, 1904) ; Shaw, The Pauline Epistles (2nd ed., 
Edinburgh, 1904); Clemen, PatduSt sein Leben und Wirken 
(Giessen, 1904) ; Belser, Einleitung in das neue Testament (2nd 
ed., Freiburg, 1905); Le Camus, Uauvre des ApAtres (Paria, 
1905); POlzl. Der Weltaposlel Paulus (Ratisbon. 1905) ; Lioht- 
rooT, St. Paul's Epistle to the Philippians (16th ed., London, 
1908) ; FiLUON in ViaouRoux. Diet, de la Bible^ s. v. Phi- 
lippes: ToussAiNT, ibid., s. v. Philippiens; Idem, EpUres de S. 
Paul (Paris. 1910); Prat. La thioloote de 8. Paul (Paris, 1909); 
FouARD, Saint Paul, see demih-es annies (Paria, 1910); ViQOU- 
BOUx-BACUEB-BaAJBAAC, Manuel Biblique, IV (Paris, 1911). 

A. Vander Heeren. 

Philippine iBlands. — Situation and Area. — ^The 
Philippine Islands Ue between 116*^ 40' and 126** 34' 
E. long.,. and 4* 40' and 21° 10' N. lat. The islands 
are washed by the China Sea on the north and west, 
the Pacific Ocean on the east, and the oea of Celebes 
on the south. Thev are nearly south of Japan, and 
north of Borneo ana the Celebes, with which they are 
connected by three partly-submerged isthmuses. The 
archipelago belongs to the same geographic region as 
Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, and therefore to Asia 
rather than to Oceanica. In all there are 3141 islands; 
1668 of them are listed by name. Luzon has an area 
of 40,969 sq. miles; Mindanao, 36,292 sq. m. Nine 
islands have an area between 1000-10,000 sq. m.; 
20 between 100 and 1000 sq. m.; 73 between 10 and 
100 sq. m. ; and 262 between 1 and 10 sq. m. The re- 
maining 2775 islands are each less than 1 sq. m. The 
total area of the islands is 115,026 sq. m. The ex- 
tent of the Earth's surface included by the boundaries 
of the treaty lines is about 800,000 so. m. 

Physical Geography — Fauna and Flora, — ^The sce- 
nery of the islands, especially Luzon, is very beautiful. 
The greatest known elevation, Mt. Apo, in Mindanao, 
is over 10,000 ft.; it was ascended for the first time 
by Father Mateo Gisbert, S.J., accompauied by two 
laymen, in 1880. There are twenty well-known and 
recent volcanic cones, twelve of them more or less 
active. Mayon Volcano, about 8000 ft., is probably 
the most beautiful symmetrical volcanic cone in the 
world. There are no very laree rivers; the Cagay^ 
of northern Luzon and the Rio Grande and the Agusan, 
both in Mindanao, are more than 200 miles in length. 
The largest lakes are* Laguna de Bay, near Manila, 
and Laguna de Lanao, in Mindanao; the surface of 
the latter is 2200 ft. above sea-level. Laguna de 
Bombon, in Batangas Province, Luzon, is the crater 
of an immense volcano, of roughly elliptical shape, 
seventeen by twelve miles. On an island in the lake 
is the active volcano of Taal. The fauna of the Phil- 
ippines resembles that of the neighbouring Malayan 
islands to z certain extent. Two-thirds oi the birds 
of the Philippines are peculiar to them; what is more 
strange is that of 286 species of birds found in Luzon, 
at least fifty-one are not to be met with in any other 
part of the archipelago. The flora of the islands is 
similar to that of Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, but 
with differences sufficiently numerous to give it a 
marked individuaUty. Forests form seven-tenths of 
the area of the archipelago; they embrace a great 
variety of woods, many of them highly valuable. 

Mineral Resources.— CoaA is found in many parts of 
the islands. Two mines arc now in operation on the 
small island of Batan, Albay Province, Southern 
Luzon. The total output in the Philippines during 
1909 was valued at nearly $100,000. About $250,000 
worth of gold was mined the same year. Iron is also 

found, the product in 1909 being worth a little more 
than $15,000. 

ClinuUe, — ^The climate is^ generally speaking, trop- 
ical, although there are pomts in the islands wnere it 
cannot strictly be so termed. The mean temperature 
in Manila during the period 1883-1902 was 80° F. : 
the average niaximum during the same time was 97 
and minimuin 63°. The average rainfall in Manila 
is something more than 75 inches. Baguio. Province 
of Benguet, has been called the Simla of tn,e Phifip- 
pines. Climatic conditions are so favourable that tne 
commission and assembly held their sessions there 
this year (1910) during the warm months. The mean 
minimum temperatures for four months of the year 
are lower in Baguio than at Simla, and almost equal 
for two other months. The monthly means are nearly 
equal for the two places during five months. 

Railways, — ^Railway lines are in operation in Luzon, 
Panay, Cebti, and Negros, about four hundred miles 
in all. 

Population. — ^A census of the islands taken in 1903 
estimates the population at 7,635,426, of whom 
6,987,686 are claasied as civilized and 647,740 as wild. 

There was no cjuestion in Spanish times about the 
number of Christians; but a difference of opinion pre- 
vails about the number of the wild people. An esti- 
mate published in Madrid in 1891 puts down the 
non-civiUzed tribes (Moros included) at 1,400,000. 
According to the Director of the Census of 1903, there 
has been tendency to exaggerate; he admits that the 
number, 647,740, is possibly too small, but that it is 
probably within ten per cent, of the true number. 

Wild Tribes. — ^The Negritos are believed to have 
been the aborigines of tne islands. There remain 
about 23,000 of these, leading to-day a primitive life, 
nomadic within a certain district, living in groups of 
twenty or thirty under a chief. They are a race of 
dwarfs, four feet eight inches in height. They are of 
a sooty black colour, their hair woolly, their toes 
almost as prehensile as fingers. The Negritos, it is 
thought, once occupied the entire archipelago, but 
were driven back into the mountains by the Malays. 

Among other wild tribes may be mentioned the 
Igorottes in Northern Luzon, some of whom are head- 
hunters. They, are an industrious and warlike race. 
Belgian missionaries have been working among them 
the past few years with considerable fruit. The 
Ibilao or Ilongot is noted for his bloodthirsty propen- 
sities; the Ifugaos are said to resemble the Japanese 
in appei9krance. They use the lasso with great dex- 
terity, and with it capture the luckless traveller, de- 
capitate him, and add the head to their collection. 
They wear as many rings in their ears as they have 
taken heads. In Palawan (Paragua) the most numer- 
ous tribe is that of the Tagbanuas, many of whom 
have been Christianized. The Manguianes occupy 
the interior of Mindoro; they are a docile race and do 
not fiee from civilized man. Among the wild tribes of 
Mindanao may be mentioned the Manobos, Basobos. 
Bukidnons, Tirurays, and Subanos. They are ciassea 
as Indonesians by some ethnologists. Slavery is 
practised, and human sacrifices are known to have 
taken place within the past few years. 

The Moros or Mohammedan Malays chiefly in- 
habit Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago, though 
they are found also in Basilan and ralawan. They 
were professional pirates, and advanced as far as 
Manila at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards. 
They killed large numbers of Filipinos, and carried 
others into slavery. Until within about sixty years 
ago, when Spanish gunboats of light draught were 
introduced, tney made marauding excursions into the 
Visayan islands (Panay, Negros, Cebti, Bohol, Leyte, 
Samar etc.), carrying off a thousand captives as slaves 
annually. They were the great obstacle to the civ- 
ilization of Mindanao. The Moro is possessed of 
much physical strength, is indifferent to bloodshed. 


too proud to work, and eirtremely fuiatioal. Many of 
them build th^ towns in the water, with movable 
bamboo bridges oooDected with the shore. Flanking 
their settlements they built coWm or forts. The walls 
ofsomaof these were twenty-four feet thick and thirty 
feet high. The United States Government respects 
.the Moro custom of discarding the hat. by permitting 
the Moro Constabulary (military police) to wear a 
Turkish fei and to go barefoot. 

Extensive misaionary work has been done by the 
Jesuits in Mindanao, Previous to the American oc* 
cupation, they ministered to 200,000 ChrJHtians in 
various parts of the islands. Even among the Moros 
their efforts were successful and in one yeAT (1892) 


individuals of the Visayas, but there is a great difff 
ence in their languaees, a Visayan of Cebd, lor inBtan< 

will not understand a Visayan of Panay. For all thi 

blanoe, mentally, morally, and physically, between 

■' "■ . ..(--! Mtdiffer- 

_ instance, 

Visayan of Panay. For all that, 
it 18 said that the Filipinos had a common racial oriein 
and at one time a common language. Physically, the 
Filipinos are of medium height, although tall men are 
to be found amons them, especially in the mount^n 
districts. Generfuly speaking, they are of a brownish 
colour, with black eyes, prominent cheel; bones, the 
nose fiat rather than arched or straiRht, nostrils wide 
and full, mouth inclined to Ijc large, lips full, good 
teeth, and round chin. 
The following estimates of the Fiiipir.os are selected 

they baptized 3000 Moros in the district of Divao. 
They establiahed twtf large orphan aeiylums, one for 
boyu and the other for girls, at Tamontaca, where 
liberated slave-children were trainwl to a useful life, 
and which Inter formed the ba.sis of new Christian 
villages. For lack of support a grutil deal of this work 
had to be abandoned with the withdrawal of Spanish 
sovereignty from the islands. 

Chritlvm Trihet.—Th.^ inhabitants of Luion and 
adjacent islands are the Tagalogs, Pampangaas, 
Bicols, PaososinanB, Ilocano.s, Ibunags or Caguy.lnes, 
and Zambales, The most important of these are the 
Togalogs, who number about a million and a half; 
the Pampangans, about 400,tX)0, excel in agriculture; 
the BicoLs in South-eaatem Luzon were, according to 
Blumentritt, the first Malays in the Phdippines; the 
Pangasinans, in the province of that name, number 
about SOO.OiX); the Hocanos, an industrious rai^, 
occupy the north-western coast of Luion; the 
Ibanags, said to be the finest race and the most valiant 
men in the islands (Sawyer), dwell in Northern and 
Eastern Luzon. The Zambales were famous head- 
hunters at the time of the Spanish conquest, and made 
drinking-cups out of their enemies' skulls. They 
number about 100,000. The Visayan Islands are in- 
habited by the Visayas, the most numerous tribeof the 
Phih[jpines. Fewerwild oeople are found among them 
than in other portions of the arehipelago. The popu- 
'-«— =9 about 3,000,000. There is a strong resera- 

lation i 

from the Unirod Statcn Consua Ileporl of liMH. The 
Rrst gives an appre<'iatiun of the people shortly iiflcT 
the arrival of the Spanianis and bi-forn they were 
Christianized. The second and IhinI are the vit'ws 
of an American and an Englishman, rrapeetively, of 
the Christianized FiIi|iino before and at (he time of 
the American occupation. 

(1) L^iaspi, after four years' residence, writes thus 
of the natives of Cebii: "They are a crafty and 
treacherous race, , , , They arc a people extremely 
vicious, fickle, untruthful, and full of other supersti- 
tions. No- law binds relative to relative, parents to 
children, or brother t« brother, . . . If a man in some 
time of need shelters a relative or a brother in his 
house, supports him, and provides him with food for a 
few days, he will consider that relative as his slave 
from that time on. ... At times they se'' uheir own 
children. , . . Privateering and robbery have a natu- 
ral attraction for them. ... I believe that these 
natives could be easily subdued by good treatment 
and the display of kindness". 

(2) Hon. Dean C. Worcester was in the Philip- 
pities in 1887-88 and 1890-93. He says: "The trav- 
eller cannot fail to be impressed by his (the Filipmo'sJ 
open-handed and cheerful hospitality. He will go to 
any amount of trouble, and often to no little expense, 
in order to accommodate some perfect stranger. If 
cleanliness be next to godliness, he has much to recom- 
mend him. Hardly less noticet^le than the almost 




umversal hospitality are the well-regulated homos and 
the happy family life which one soon finds to be the 
rule. Children are orderly, respectful, and obedient 
to their parents. The native is self-respecting and 
self-restrained to a remarkable degree. . . . He is 
patient under misfortune and forbearing under provo- 
caJtion. . . . He is a kind father and a dutiful son. 
His Bjted relatives are never left in want, but are 
brougnt to his home and are welcome to share the 
best that it affords to the end of their days". 

(3) Frederick H. Sawyer lived for fourteen years in 
the Philippines; he writes: "The Filipino possesses 
a great deal of self-respect, and his demeanour is quiet 
and decorous. He is polite to others and expects to be 
treated politely himself. He is averse to rowdyism or 
horseplay of any kind, and avoids giving offence. For 
an inhabitant of the tropics he is fairly industrious, 
sometimes even very hard-working. Those who have 
8e|en him poling cascos against the stream of the Pasig 
will admit this. He is a keen sportsman, and will readily 

Eut his money on his favourite horse or gamecock; 
e is also addicted to other forms of gambling. The 
position taken by women in a community is often 
considered as a test of the degree of civilization it has 
attained. Measured by this standard, the Filipinos 
come out well, for among them the wife exerts great 
influence in the family and the husband rarely com- 
pletes any important business without her concur- 

"The Filipinos treat their children with great kind- 
ness and forbearance. Those who are well-off show 
much anxiety to secure a good education for their 
sons and even for their daughters. Parental authority 
extends to the latest period in life. I have seen a man 
of fifty years come as respectfully as a child to kiss 
the hands of his aged parents when the vesper bell 
sounded, and this notwithstanding the presence of 
several European visitors in the house. Children, in 
return, show great respect to both parents, and come 
morning and evening to kiss their hands. They arc 
trained in good manners from their earliest youth, 
both by precept and example". 

History. — The islands were discovered 16 March, 
1521, by Ferdinand Magellan. Several other ex- 
peditions followed, but they were fruitless. In 1564 
Legaspi sailed from Mexico for the Philippines. He 
was accompanied by the Augustinian friar Urdaneta. 
As a layman this celebrated priest had accompanied 
the expiedition of Loaisa in 1524, which visited Min- 
danao and the Moluccas. Lqgaspi landed in Cebil in 
1565. The islands had been called San Lazaro by 
Magellan; Villalobos, who commanded an expedition 
from Mexico, called the island at which he touched 
Filipina, in honour of Prince Philip. This name was 
extended to the whole archipelago by Legaspi, who 
was sent out by the former prince then ruling as 
Philip II. 

Though there were not wanting indications of hos- 
tility and distrust towards the Spaniards from the 
inhabitants of Cebti, Legaspi succeeded in .winning 
their friendship after a few months. Later, in 1569, 
he removed the seat of government to Iloilo. He sent 
his nephew Juan Salcedo'to explore the islands to the 
north. Salcedo's report to his uncle was favourable 
and in 15: \ Legaspi, leaving the affairs of government 
in the hands of natives, proceeded north and founded 
the city of Maynila, later Manila. Legaspi. imme- 
diately set about the organization of the new colony ; 
he appointed rulers of provinces, arranged for yearly 
voyages to New Spain, and other matters pertain- 
ing to the welfare of the country. In his work of 
pacification he was greatly aided by the friars 
who were then be^nning the work of Christian civ- 
ilization in the Philippines which was to go on for 
several centuries. Legaspi died in 1574. To him- 
belongs the glory of founding the Spanish sovereignty 
in the islands. He was succeeded by Lavezares. 

About this time the Chinese pirate Li-ma-hon invadcfl 
Luzon, with a fleet of over sixty vessels and about 6000 
people. A storm that met the fleet as it neared Manila 
wrecked some of his boats, but Li-ma-hon proceeded 
on his journey and landed 1500 men. Repulsed in 
two attacks by the Spaniards, Li-ma-hon went north 
and settled in Pangasinan province. The following 
year (1575) Salcedo was sent against them; he de- 
feated them and drove the fleeing Chinese into the 

A few years later the arrival of the first bishop is 
chronicled, the Dominican Salazar, one of the greatest 
figures in the history of the Philippines; he was ac- 
companied by a few Jesuits (1581). Tne Augustin- 
ians had come with Legaspi, the Franciscans arrived 
in 1577, and the Dominicans in 1587. By unanimous 
vote of the entire colony the Jesuit Sanchez was sent 
to Spain to explain to Philip II the true state of affairs 
in the islands. His mission was entirely successful; 
Philip was persuaded to retain his new possessions, 
which many of his advisers were counselling him to 
relinquish. In 1591 an ambassador came from Japan 
demanding that tribute be paid that country. This 
the new governor Dasmarifias refused, but he drew 
up a treaty instead that was satisfactory to both 
parties. An expedition that started out against the 
k Moluccas in 1593 ended disastrously. On the voyage 
some of the Chinese crew mutinied, killed Dasmari£as 
and took the ship to China. Dasmarifias built the 
fortress of Santiago^ Manila, and fortified the city 
with stone walls. He was succeeded by his son Luis. 
During his governorship the convent of Santa Isabel, 
a school and home for children of Spanish soldiers, 
was founded (1594). It exists to this day. The 
Audiencia or Supreme Court was re-established about 
this time. As it was appointed from Mexico and sup- 
ported from the islands it had proved too great a dram 
on the resources of the colony, and so had been sup- 

fressed after the visit of the Jesuit Sanchez to Philip 
I. The last years of the sixteenth and the beginning 
of the seventeenth centuries were marked by the 
seizure, by the Japanese, of a richly-laden Spanish 
vessel from the islands. It had sought shelter in a 
storm in a port of that country. The crew were put 
to death. Then there was a fruitless expedition 
against Cambodia; a naval fight against two Dutch 
pirate-ships, one of which was captured; and a con- 
spiracy of the Chinese against the Spaniards. The 
force of the latter, 130 in number, was defeated, and 
every man of them decapitated. The Chinese were 
repulsed later, and it is said that 23,000 of them were 
killed. The Recollect Fathers arrived in Manila in 

During the first half of the seventeenth century the 
colony had to struggle against internal and external 
foes; the Dutch in particular, the Japanese, the Chi- 
nese, the Moros, the natives of Bonol, Leyte, and 
C-agayan. A severe earthquake destroyed Manila in 
1645. In spite of the difficulties against which the 
islands had to struggle, the work of evangelization 
went rapidly forward. The members of the various 
religious orders, with a heroism rarely paralleled even 
in the annals of Christian missions, penetrated farther 
and farther into the interior of the country, and estab- 
lished their missions in what had been centres of 
Paganism. The natives were won by the self -sacri- 
ficing lives of the missionaries, and accepted the 
teachings of Christianity in great numbers. Books 
were wntten in the native dialects, schools were every- 
where established, and every effort employed for the 
material and moral improvement of the people. From 
the time of the fearless Salazar, the missionaries had 
always espoused the cause of the natives against the 
injustices and exactions of individual rulers. It is not 
strange, therefore, that trouble arose at times between 
the civil and ecclosiivstical authorities. AS these mi.**- 
undcrstandings grew from the mistakes of individualsi 

PHiuppiiai 1 

they were not of long duratioD, and they did not in 
any way interfere with the ftrmcr control of the iHlantts 
which SptiiD was year by year obtaining, or with the 
healthy growth ol the Church throughout the archi- 

Spanish sovereignty in the Philippines waa threat- 
enea by the capture of Manila by the British under 
Draper in 1762. There were only 600 Spaniah soldiera 
to reeiat a force of 6000 Britiah with their Indian 
aUiea. Their depredations were bo dreadful that 
Draper put a stop to them after three days. The city 
remfuned under Britiah aovereimty until 1764. 

There were several uprisings by the natives during 
the Ijeginning of the nineteenth century. One of the 
moat aerious of these was that headed by Apolinario 
de La Crux, who called himself King of the Tagalogs. 
By attributing to himself supernatural power, lie 
gathered about him a large number of deluded fanatics, 
men, women, and children. He was apprehended and 
put lo death. An event of great importance was the 

mtroduction in 1860 

of shallow-draught 
steel Runhoat!) to be 
used against the 

S'ratical Moros of 
indanao. for cen- 
turies they had rav- 
aged the ViaayaQ 
islands, carrying ofT 
annually about a 
thousand prisoners. 
A severe earthquake 
in Manila in 1S63 
destroyed the chief 
public buildings, the 
cathedral, and other 
church CD, except that 
of San Aguatin. 

Some native clet^ 


Cavite in 1872. 
who were implicated in the uprising, Gomez, Zamora, 
and Burgos, were eiecuted. It is said that the spirit of 
insurrection which manifested itself ao strongly during 
the laat quarter of the nineteenth century was the reault 
of the establishment of certain secret societies. The 
first Masonic lodge of the Philippines was founded 
at Cavite in 1S60. Lodges were later formed at 
Zamboanga (in Mindanao), Manila, and CebA. Euro- 
peans only were admitted at first, but afterwards na- 
tives were received. The lodges were founded by anti- 
clericals, and naturally anti-clericitla flocked brgely 
to the standard. There was no idea then of separation 
from the mother country, but only of a more liberal 
form of government. After the insurrection at Cavite 
in 1872, the Spanish Mason.>( separated themselves 
from the revoluuonary ones. New societiea were grad- 
ually formed, the most celebrated being the Liga 
Filipina, founded by the popular hero Dr. Rizal. 
Practically all the members were Masons, and men of 
means amd education. 

A more powerful society and a powerful factor in 
the insurrection of 1S96, recalling the American Ku- 
Klux Klan, was the Kalipunan. Ita aymbol KKK was 
literally anti-Spanish, for there is no K in Spanish. 
The full title of the society was " The Sovereign Wor- 
shipful Association of the Sons of the Country". The 
members (from 10,000 to 50,000) were poor people 
who subscribed little sums monthly for the purchase 
of arms, etc. Later a woman's lodge was or^anited. 
According to Sawyer "the Katipunan adopted some 
of the Masonic paraphernalia, and some of ita initia- 
tory ceremonip^i but were in no sense Masonic 

lodges" (p. S3). In 1896 another insurrection broke 
out near Manila, in Cavite province. Aguinaldo, a 
young school teacher, becar^? prominent about this 
time. The spirit of revolt spread- through the neigh- 
bouring provinces; there were several engagements, 
until finally, Aguinaldo, at the head of the remnant 
of rebels, left Cavite and took refuge near Angat in 
the Province of Bulac&n. As it would have t^en a 
long time to dislodge them, a method of conciliation 
was adopted. The result was the pact of Biak- 
n^ato, signed 14 Dec, 1897. By tha terms of this 
agreement the Filipinos were not to plot against Span- 
ish sovereignty for a period of three y«ars; Agutrialdo 
and other followers were \o be deported, for a period 
to be fixed by Spain. In return they were to receive 
the sum of S500,000 as indemnity; and those who had 
not taken up arms were to be given $350,000 as reim- 
bursement for the losses they had incurred. The lead- 
ers of the insurrection of 1806 exercised despotic 
power, and ill-treated and robbed those of their coun- 
trymen who would 
not join them. An- 
drOs Bonifacio, the 
terrible preudent of 
the Katipunan, ulti- 
mately became a vic- 
tim of these despots. 
30,000 Filipinos are 
reported l« have lost 
their li^-es in the re- 
bellion of 1896. 

In 1898 hostilities 
broke out between 
Spiun and the United 
SUtes. OD24April, 
1898, Aguinaldo met 
the American Consul 
at Singapore, Mr. 
Pratt; two days later 
he proceeded 1« Hong 
Kong. The Amer- 
ican squadron under 
Commodore (now 
Admiral) Dewey 
destroyed the Span- 
iah ships in Manila Bay. A^naldo and seven- 
teen followers landed at Cavite from the United 
States vessel Hugh McCuUough and were furnished 
arms by Dewey. Aguinaldo proclaimed dictator^ 
iai government, and asked rec<^nition from foreign 
powers. The American troops took Manila on 13 ~ 
August. A treaty of peace was signed at Paris by 
the terms of which the Philippines were ceded to the 
United States, and the latter paid Spain tfae-sum of 
120,000,000. It was later discovered that certdn 
islands near Boriieo were not included in the boun- 
daries fixed by the peace commission. These were 
also ceded to the United States, which paid an addi- 
tional 1100,000. The Filipinos had organized a gov- 
ernment of their own, the capital being at Maloloa, 
in the Province of Bulac^n. Fighting between them 
and the Americans began on 4 Feb., 1899; but by 
the end of the year, all organized opposition was prac- 
tically at an end. Aguinaldo was captured in April, 
1901, and on 1 July ot the same year the insurrection 
was declared to be extinct, the administration was 
turned over to the civil Government, and Judge Taft 
(now President) was appointed governor. 

American Government: GenenU. — The Spanish laws 
remain in force to-day, except as changed by mihtary 
order. Act of Congress, or Act of the Philippine Com- 
mission. The first Philippine Commission was ap- 
pointed by President McKmlcy Jan., 1899. The sec- 
ond Philippine Commission was sent to the islands 
in 1900. Itsobject was to establish aeivil government 
based on the recommendations of the first commission. 
The principles that were t<) guide this commission are 



thus expressed in the following instructions |?i ven them : general for sufficient cause. The provincial governor, 

''The Commission should bear in mind that the the treasurer, and the third member form the pro- 

Kovemment that they are estabUshin^ is designed not vincial board, which lejdsiates in a limited way for the 

for our satisfaction or for the expression of our theo- province. , The non-Chnstian tribes are under a 

retical views, but for the happiness, peace, and pros- eovemor, secretary, treasurer, supervisor and fiscal, 

perity of the people of the Philippine Inlands, and the In some^rovinces there is also a lieutenant-governor, 

measures adopted should be maide to conform to their These officers are appointed by the governor-general 

customs, their habits, and 'even their prejudices, to with the consent oi the commission. The Moro 

the fullest extent consistent with the indispensable province includes the greater part of Mindanao, the 

requisites of just and effective government.'' ''No whole of the Sulu Archipelago, and smaUer groups of 

laws shall be made respecting an establishment of islands. The inhabitants number 500,000, haJf of 

religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, and them Moros; the remainder, with the exception of 

that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious pro- some thousand Christians, are wild tribes. The Gov* 

fession and worship without discrimination or prefer- emment of the Moro province is civil-military. It is 

ence shall for ever be allowed." This was confiimed divided into five distncts, each with its governor and 

by Act of Congress 1 July, 1902, in almost identical secretanr, appointed by the governor of the province, 

words (section 5). The members of the commission On the legislative council of the entire province there 

are appointed by the president, with the consent of is, besides the governor, a secretary, treasurer, and 

the Senate; their tenure of office is at the pleasure of attorney. While the governor-general appoints these 

the president. There are nine commissioners, one of officers, the two first named are usually officers of the 

whom is the governor-general (the chief executive of United St^ates army detailed for this purpose. The 

the Philippine Islands), and four are secretaries of the district officers are also usually detailed from the 

departments of the Interior, of Commerce and Police, army. 

of Finance and Justice, and of Public Instruction. Courts of Justice. — ^There is no trial by jury in the 

Each of these departments is divided into bureaus of Philippine Islands. There are three classes of courts 

which there are twenty-three in all. Through these of justice: justice-of-the-peace courts, courts of first 

the actual administration of the affairs of the Govern- instance, and the supreme court; a justice of the peace 

ment is carried on. must be at least twenty-three years of age. He is 

On 16 Oct., 1907, the Philippine Assembly was in- appointed by the governor from a number of individ- 
augurated. The assembly snares legislative power uals whose names are presented b^ a judge of the court 
with the commission over all parts of the islands "not of first instance, and by the director of education, 
inhabited by Moros or other non-Christian tribes''. Among his powers is that of performing marriage cere- 
Over the Moros and the non-Christian tribes the com- monies. Tne courts of first instance try appei^s from 
mission alone has power. The legislative power of the the lower court and cases in which they have original 
commission and assembly over the Christian tribes is jurisdiction. These judges are appointed by the gov- 
equal. No law may be made without the approval of emor with the approval of the commission, 
both houses. If at any session the annual appropria- Sujjreme Court. — ^This court is composed of one 
tion for the support of the Government shall not have chief justice and six associates. Important cases may 
been made, an amount equal to the last annual appro- be appealed from it to the Supreme Court of the 
priation is considered thereby appropriated for the en- ^United States. The supreme court rarely hears wit- 
suing year. The members of the assembly are elected 'nesses, but examines the written testimony made be- 
by popular vote. The right to this suffrage is extended fore the lower court, and listens to arguments of the"^ 
to all male citizens of the Philippine Islands or of the opposing lawyers. The supreme court may not 
United States, over twenty-three years of age, who merely reverse or affirm the decision of the lower court, 
possess at least one of the following^ qualifications: but it may even change the degree and kind of pun- 
(1) ability to speak, read, and write English or Span- ishment. A defendant, fo;r instance, sentenced to 
ish: (2) ownership of real property to the value of imprisonment for life or for twenty years may, and 
$250 or the payment of $15 annually of the estab- sometimes does, have his sentence changed on appeal 
lished taxes; (3) holding of municipal office under the to the supreme court to the death penalty. 
Spanish Government m the Philippines. All acta Religion. — Before the arrival of tne Spaniards the 
passed by the commission and by the assembly are reUpion of the islands was similar to that of the 
enacted by authority of the United States Congress, majority of the Chinese^ Japanese, and Malayans, 
which reserves the power and authority to annul them. They were worshippers ot the souls of their ancestors. 
The assembly may consist of not less than fifty nor of the sun. the moon, the stars, plants, birds, ana 
more than a hundred members. Each province is en- animals. Among the deities of the Tagalogs were: a 
titled to one delegate; and if its population is more blue bird, called Bathala (divinity); the crow, called 
than 90,000, to an additional member for every extra Maylupa (lord of the earth) ; the alligator, called 
90,000 and major fraction thereof. There are at Nona (grandfather). They adored in common with 
present eighty delegates. Manila is counted as a other Mal^ans the tree palete^ which they did not 
province. Thirty-one delegates are from the Visayan dare cut. They had idols in their houses, called antto, 
Islands, and forty-four from Luzon. The commission and by the Visayans, diucUa. There were anitos of the 
and assembly are authorized to send two commis- country who permitted them to pass over it; anitos 
sioners to the United States to represent the interests of the fields who gave fertility to the soil; anitos of 
of the Philippines at Washington. the sea who fed the fishes and guarded boats; and 

American Government: Provincial. — According to anitos to look after the house and newly-bortt'infants. 

their form of government, the islands are divided into The anitos were supposed to be the souls of their an- 

three classes: the Christian provinces^ the^non- cestors. Their story of the origin of the world was 

Christian provinces, and the Moro provinces. * The that the sky and the water were walking together; 

officers of the Christian province are the governor, a kite came between them, and in order to keep the 

the treasurer, the third member of the provincial waters from rising to the sky, placed upon them the 

board, and the fiscal or district attorney. The gover- islands, the Filipinos' idea of tne worlcl. The origin 

nor and third member are elected to office; the treas- of man came about in the following manner: a piece 

urer and fiscal are appointed by the governor of the of bamboo was floating on the water; the water cast 

Philippine Islands with the consent of the Commis- it at the feet of a kite; the kite in anger broke the 

sion; the tenure of their office depends upon the bamboo with its beak; out of one piece came man. 

governor-general. Any provincial officer may be sus- and out of the other, woman. The souls of the dead 

pended or removed from office by the governor- were supposed to feed on rice and tuba (a native 


liquor), thua food was placed at the gravea of the 
daul, a custom wbich still aurvivee among some of the 
midviliied tribes of Mindanao. 

The ministers of religion were priestesses — crafty 
and diabolical old womeD, who offered sacri&cea of 
unjTnulii and even of human beings. Sacrifices of ani- 
mals still occur among the tribes; and accounts of 
recent human sacrifice will be found in the reports of 
the Philippine Commission. The superstitions of the 
Filipinos were numerous. In Supreme Case no. 5381 
there is giveu the testimony of Igorrotes, who before 
starting to murder a man, a couple of years ago, 
killed some chickens and examined their entrails to 
discover if the time was favourable for the slaying of 
a man. The Itootinf; of owls, the hissing of lizardB, 
and the sight of a serpent had a supernatural sig- 
nification. One of the most feared of the evil spirits 
was the aeuang, which was supposed to capture chil- 
dren orlonely travellers, A fuller description of these 
superstitions ia given in Delgado, "Historia General 
de las Islae Filipinss" (Manila, 1894) bk. Ill, xvi, 
xvii, and in Blumentritt, "Mythologicai Dictionary". 
As might be expected , 

from idolatrous tribes p~^~ 

IxiUKhi and sold, and 

this that the Spanish 
had to 

9 phuippinb 

science. Father Manuel Blance, an Augustinian, was 
the author of "Flora F^lipina", a monumental work 
in four folio volumes, illustrated with hundreds of 
coloured plates reproduced from water-colour paints 
inge of the plsnts of the Philippines, Father Rodrieo 
Aganduru Mori», a Recollect (Augustinian Diacalced), 
(1584-1626), after cvanKeUzing the natives of Bataan, 
and founding houses of his order in Manila und Cebil, 
and missions in Mindanao, set sail from the Phil- 
ippines. He spent some time in Persia, where he 
brought back numerous schismatics to the Faith and 
converted many infidels. Arriving in Rome, Urban 
VllI wished to send him back to Persia as Apostolic 
delegate with some religious of hia order, but he died 
a few months later at the a|^ of forty-two. Among 
hifl works are : " A General History of the Philippines , 
in two volumes; "The Persecution in Japan"; a 
book of aermons: a grammar and dictionary of a 
native dialect; Origm of the Oriental Empires"; 
"Chronology of Oriental Kings and Kingdoms"; a 

lands, seas, and prov- 
inces: the work of 

(Disc^lced) in the 
conversion of the 
Philippines and of 
Japan a family book 
of medicine for the 
of Filipinc 

The I 

r of 

work. A Christi 
Malay race, a people 
that from the lowest 
grade of savasery had 
advanced to tne Idl- 
est form of civjli- 
»ation^ was the result 
of their efforts. 

Up to the year 
1806 the Augustin- 

ians had founded * v.LL*a. miiuiioh 

242 towns, with a population of more than 2 000 000 
There were 310 relipoua of the order th s mcludea 
(and the same apphes to the following figures) lay 
brothers, students, and invalids The Franciscans 
numbered 455 in 133 towns with a population of a 
little more thfui a million there were 206 Dominicans 
in 60 towns, with about 700 000 inhabitants 192 
Recollects in 194 towns, with a population of 1,175,- 
000; 167 Jesuits who ministered to about 200,000 
Christian^ in the missions of Mindanao. The total 
reUdoua therefore in 1906 was 1330 to look after a 
CathoUc population of more than 5,000,000, while 
secular clergy were in charge of nearly a million more. 
The membere of religious orders in the Philippines in 
1906 did not amount to 500. The condition of the 
Filipino people, as they were prior to the revolution 
of 1896, forms the best argument in favour of the 
labours of the reLgious orders. The islands were not 
conquered by force; the fcreater part of the fighting 
was to protect the natives from enemies from without. 
It was not until 1822 that there was a garrison of 
Spanish troops in the archipelago. And, as all im- 
partial historians admit, the small number of troops 
needed waa due solely to_ the' religious influence of the 
priests over the people. "The total strength of Amer- 
ican regiments in tne Philippines in 1910, including 
the Philippine Scouts, was 17,102. To this should be 
added more than 4000 members of the Philippine 
Constabulary, a military police neoeesary for the 
maintenance of order. 

Besides ihmi far-reaching influence for peace, the 
religioua orders did notable work in literature and 

Augustinian authors 
alone until 1780 was 
1,31 and the books 
pubhahed by tliem 
more than 200 in nine 
native liolects, more 
than 100 in Spaniah, 
besides a number of 
volumes in the Chi- 
nese and Japanese 
languages. How ex- 
ten8i\ e and how 
vaned nere the mis- 
aionarj literary, and 
scientific workaof the members of the rehgious ordeis 
may be gathered from the r chronicles The Philip- 
p nea const tute an ecclea ast cal province, of wbich 
the Archbishop of Mamla is the metropolitan. The 
auffra^an seea are Jaro hueva CAcerea; Nueva 
Segovia Cebd, Calbajog Lipa Tu^egarao; Zam- 
boanga and the Prefecture Apostolic of Palawan. 
There arc o^er a thousand pncsta, and a Catholic 
population of 6,000,000. (SeeCEBu; Jaro; Manila, 
AncHDiocsBB op; Maniim Observatorv; Nugva 
CXcEREs; NuEVA Segovia; Palawan; Sauar and 
Levte; Tuouegarao;' Zauboanqa.) 

Diocese OF Li PA (Lipensis), erected 10 April, 1910, 
compriaea the Provinces of Batangas, La Luguna, 
Tayabas (with the Districts of Infanta and Prin- 
cipe), Mindoro, and the sub-Province of Marinduque, 
formerly parts of the Archdiocese of Manila. lit. 
Rev. Joseph Petrelll, D.D., the first biahou, was ap- 

Kinled 12 April, 1910, and consecrated at Manila, 12 
ne, 1910. There are 95 pariahesj the Diaralced 
Augustinians have charge of 14, and the Capuchins 
of 6. The diocese comprises 12,208 aq. m,; about 
640,000 Christians; and 9000 non-Christians. 

Aglipayanism. — The Aglipayano sect cauaed more 
annoyance than damage to the Church in the Phil- 
ippines. The originator of the schism was a native 
priest, Gregorio Aglipay, He was employed as a 
servant in the Auguatmian house, Manila, and being 
of ingratiating manners waa educated and ordained 
— '—• Lat«r ne took the field as an insurgeijt general. 

^an troops ho sur- 

n 1901. In 1902heain>- 


gated to himseirthetitleof "PoiitirexMa]tiiDUa",aRd 
through friendship or fear dretr to his allegiance eome 
native prieHts. Those of the latter who were liis 
frieadanenominat«d "bishops". Simeon Mandac, one 
of the two lay pillars of the movementj ia now eerving 
a, term of twenty years in the penitentiary tor murder 
and rebellion. At first the achiam seemed to make 
headway in the north, chiefiv for political reasons. 
With the restoration of the churches under order of 
the Supreme Court in 190&-07 the schism began to 
dwindle, and its adherents are now inconsideraole. 

Religious Policy of the Govemmeni, — Freedom of 
worship and separation of Church and State is a prin- 
ciple of the American Government. In a country 
_!..„ .1. .!._ _■_:_.__. --^-^ qC Church and 

where there was the strictest 

State for m<ire lliitii tlircc reiiturirH, this policy is not 
without iK'riou^ (lifhcult ies. At times ignorant offi- 
cials may uct as if the Church must be separated from 
her lights as a lawful corporation existing in the State. 
Id some such w.iy as this several Catholic churches 
were seized, with the connivaiTcc or the open consent 
of municii>al officers, by adherents of the Aglipayano 
sect. It reauired time and considerable outlay of 
money for the Church to rcgiun possession of her 
property through the courts. And even then tlie 
aggreswrs often succeeded in damaging as much as 
possible the church buildings or ils belongings before 
surrendering them. There is no distinction or privilege 
accorded clergymen, except that they are precluded 
from Iwing municipal councillors. However; "there 
shall be exempt from taxation burying grounds, 
churches and their adjacent parsonages or convents, 
and lands and buildings used excluuvely for religious, 
charitable, scientific, or educational purposes and not 
for private profit". This does not apply to land or 
buildings owned by the Church to procure revenue for 
religious purposes, e. g, the support of a hospital, 
oipnan asylum, etc., so that glebe land is taxable. 
The only exception made in the matter of free imports 
for church puiposea is that Bibles and hymn books 
are admitted tree of duty. Practically everything 

6 PHUjppnn 

needed in the services of the Catholic Church, vest- 
ments, sacred vessels, altars, statues, pictures, ete. 
pay duty, if such goods are not purchased from or 
manufactured in the United States. Religious cor- 
porations or associations, of whatever sect or denom- 
ination, were authorized to hold land by an act of the 
commission passed in October, 1901. 

In April, 1906, the law of corporations came into 
force. Under this Act (no. 1459) a bishop, chief 
prieet,or presiding elder of any rel^ous denomination, 
can become a corporation sole by filing articles of in- 
corporation holding property in trust for the denom- 
ination. Authority is also given to any religious 
society or order, or any diocese, synod, or organization 
to incorporate underspecified conditions to administer 
its temporalities. The same act empowers colleges 
and institutes of learning to incorporate. All ceme- 
teries arc under the control of the Bureau of Health, 
By an Act passed in Feb,, 1906, existing cemeteries 
and burial grounds were to be closed unless authorized 
by the ilirector of hetdth; municipalities were em- 
powered, subject to the same authority, to set apart 
land for a municii>al burial ground, and to make by- 
laws without discriminating aeainst race, nationality, 
or religion. The church burial grounds had generallv 
to be enlarfted or new ones consecrated, and individ- 
ual graves mdieated and allotted. The right to hold 
public funerals and to take the remains into church 
was not to be abridged or interfered with, except in 
times of epidemics or in case of contagious or infee- 
tjous diseases, when a public funeral might be held at 
the grave after an hour had elapsed from the actual 
interment. The right of civil marriage was estat>- 
Ushed in 1898, by order of General Otis. The cer- 
tificate of marriage, by whomsoever celebrated, must 
be filed with the civil authorities. The forbidden de- 
grees extend to half-blood and step-parents, A sub- 
sequent marriage white husband or wife is alive is 
illegal and void, unless the former marriage has been 
annulled or dissolved, or by presumption of death 
after seven years' absence. There ia no express pro- 
vision for divorce; but marriages may be annulled 
by order of judgM of the court of first instance for 
impediments existing at the time of marriage, such as 
being under the age of consent (fourteen years tor 
boys, twelve years for girls), insanity, etc. 

Tlie local health officershall report to the municipal 
president "all births that may come to his knowl- 
edge", the date, and names of parents. The parochial 
clergy have generally complete and carefully-kept 
rqristers of baptisms, and furnish certified copies to 
those who need them. The property of deceased per- 
sons was in general formerly distributed at a family 
council, with the approval of the courU. But it 
appears that at the present time the estates of de- 
ceased persons must be administered under direction 
of the courts of first instance. Testaments are made 
and property devolves in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the Spanish civil code. 

Eduealion. — The Spanish missionaries established 
schools immetliately on reaching the islands. Wher- 
ever they penetrated, church and school went to- 
gether. The Jesuits had two universities In Manila, 
besides colleges at Cavite, Marinduque, Ar6valo. 
CeblJ, and Zamboanga. The Dominicans had their 
flourishing Univcnuty of S. TomAs, Manila, existing 
to this day, and their colleges in other large towns. 
There was no Christian village without its school ; all 
the young people attended. On the Jesuits' return 
to the islands in 1859, the cause of hisher education 
received a new impetus. They establisned the collie 
of the Ateneo de Manila, where nearly all those who . 
have been prominent in the history of their country 
during the last half-century were educated. They 
opened a normal school which sent its trained Filipino 
teachers over all parts of the islands. The normal 
school graduated during the thirty years of its exis- 


tence 1948 teachers. After the American occupation distant from habits of idolatry and savagery cannot 

a public-school system, modelled on that of the United be removed from daily religious education and still 

States, was established by the Government. The total be expected to prosper. That the majority of the 

number of schools in operation for 1909-10 was 4531, Filipino people desires a Christian education for their 

an increase of 107 over the preceding year. The totar children may be seen from this, that the Catholic 

annual enrolment was 587,317, plus 4946 in the schools colleges, academies, and schools established in all the 

of the Moro Province. The average^ monthly en- dioceses are overcrowded. For the present, and for 

rolment however was 427,165, and the average many years to come, the majority of Filipinos cannot 

monthly attendance only 337,307; of these, 2300 afford to pay a double school tax, and hence must 

were pupils of secondary schools, 15,487 of inter- accept the educational system imposed upon them by 

mediate schools and 319,520 of primary schools, the United States. 

TTiere were 732 American teachers, 8130 Filipino „ El ArchipUlapo Filipino, par algunot imdrade lamiaiM de la 

teachers, and 145 Filipino apprentices-teachers who ^SS^^'^^^^i^ ^pS^cJ^iS;. «0^-.MlS5SSl 

serve without pay. years (Waahington, 1901—) ; Censu* of the Philippine Ulanda 

Act 74, sec. 16, provides: "No teacher or other (Waahin^n, 1905); Atkinson, TAe PAt/ij>ptn« /«tond« (Bo«ton, 

norcmn shftll t^Anh or rritiriyp th#» HopfririAH of anv 1903); Sawter, The InhabilanU of the Philippinee (London, 

person snail leacn or cnucize tne aocmnes oi any ^c^ooy^ MacMickisq, RecoUedion* of Manila and the Philippine* 

church, relimoUS sect, or denomination, or shall at- (London, 1851) ; Comtn, Memona aobre fl eatado de las Filipinaa 

tempt to influence pupils for or against any church or (Madrid, 1820), tr. Walton, State of the Philippine hlande (Lon- 

relipoua sect in any public school. If any teacher fe„f .^^^^^^^i^V (MlSflHsS^^^^^^^ 

Hhall inUmtlonally violate this section he or she shall, of the Pkilippinea (Onsiw Bureau. Washington, 1904); The Atin- 

after due hearing, be dismissed from the public sorv- tral Resource* of the Philippine Island*, ed. Smith (Manila, 1910); 

ice ; providea : however, that it shall be lawful for the J,^-- ^^;^!gSt^'6i"At'"'liT^Uf 'X' P^^JST, 

pnest or minister of any church establLshed m the Tavera, Bibliooraphy of the Philippine Islands (WaehiMrton. 

town wherein a pubHc school is situated, either in 1903),give8ali8tof 2850 books on the Philippines; White, fenlfc 

person or bv a designated teacher of religion to teach ^.H?,' i^^'mo)?'S^.^ Sl'^t.J^lioJi'a^sSi" 

for one-half hour three times a week, m the school CetUres of the Philippine Archipelago (Census Bureau. Washing- 
building, to those public-school pupils whose parents ton. 1904); Martinez, Apuntes hist&rico* de la Prooineia Agiw 

or guardians desire it and express, their desire therefor ^^^J^^^'^^'i^^J.Ttk. SL^FSS^^attu! 

m writing faied with the pnncipai teacher of the ises) ; Moao, Missiones de Filipinos de la orden de San Agustin 

school, to DC forwarded to the division superintendent, (Madrid, 1763); Gomez Platebo, Catdlogo hiognifico de loa 

who shall fix the hours and rooins for such teaching «^'*g:^,f ""^Z? ^ u!f'&ot»'A^^'^eJ^'£. 

But no public-school teachers shall either conduct PUipinas (Madrid, 1906); Ferrando-FonsecA: HisUniadeloe 

religious exercises, or teach reUgion, or act as a desig- PP. Dominieos en la* Isla* FiUpina* (Madrid. 1870); de San 

nated religious teacher in the school building under Antonio. Crdniai* de la ProvincUide «f^^"£"«»^« '''jf- 

., - ^. Ai_ "x J •! 1- 11 1- Franctsco en la* lala* Filtptwu {Majxilsk, 1738) ; Promncia de San 

the foregoing authority, and no pupil shall be re- Nicola* de Tolentino de Agu*iino* de*caUo* de la Congregacion de 

quired by any public-school teacher to attend and Espafla'S India* (Manila, 1879); Pabtells, Labor EtangSlica 

receive the religious instruction herein permitted, i* '^^ 'ST'" p''* '^. ^'^'?/^,^* -^1^ *?oJK ^'fe„^^^ 

ij>\. \j j.\. ^ '2. 1.1^ A J. 1- !• • Pof e* Padre Francisco Colin (Barcelona. 1900); Combes, Ht*' 

Should the opportunity thus given to teach religion toria de Mindanao y JoU (Madrid, 1897); MuRiLLO Velarde, 

be used by the priest, minister, or religious teacher Hi*toria de la Provinda de Filipino* de la Compaliia de JesH* 

for the purpose of arousing disloyalty to the United (f ^«« .^f t^« Society of Jesus. Manila. 1742); de San AousrrfN. 

t,. . *^ f r xu Ia 1 r •! Conquista de la* Islas Filtptnas (Madnd. 1698); Hbrrbro t 

States, or of discouraging the attendance of pupils Sampedro, Nuestra Frisian en poder de los reududonarios fOi^ 

at any such public school, or creating a disturbance pinos (Press of the College of S. Tom&s, Manila, 1900) ; Mab^ 

of pubUc order, or of interfering with the disciphne of ™'^*', f ??Pr^, H ■;^'*'^"?!J' i^J"Vfe^^^®^^ L ^^IJ^?^' ^J" 

~, »'*• ' 1 iv J' • • -: * J A u* xj. iL chxvo del BxbhofUo Filtptno (Madnd, 1905); Carta* de to* PP, 

the school, the division superintendent, subject to the de la Compaliia de Je*Ua de la mi*iM de Filipina* (ManiU. 

approval of the director of education, may, after due 1890-97). 

investigation and hearing, forbid such offending Philip M. Fineoan. 
priest, minister, or rehgious teacher from entering the 

public-school building thereafter.'' PhilippojpoliB, titular metropolitan see of Thracia 

That the religion of the Filipino people must in- Secunda. The city was founded by Philip of Mace- 

evitably sufifer from the present system of education don in 342 b. c. on the site of the legendaiy Eumol- 

ifl evident to anyone conversant with existing condi- pias. As he sent thither 2000 culprits in addition to 

tions. To the rehgious disadvantages common to the colony of veterans, the town was for some time 

the public school of the United States must be added known as PoniropoUs as well as by its official designa* 

the imitative habit characteristic of the Filipino, and tion. During Alexander's expedition, the entire 

the proselytizing efforts of American Protestant country fell again under the sway of Seuthes III, 

missionaries. The place in which the greatest amount King of the Odrysians, and it waa only in 313 that the 

of harm can be done to the religion of the Filipino is Hellenic supremacy was re-established by Lysim- 

the secondaiT school. Despite the best intentions achus. In 200 b. c. the Thracians, for a brief interval 

on the part of the Government, the very fact that the it is true, drove back the Macedonian garrisons; later 

vast majority of the American teachers in these they passed under the protectorate and afterwards the 

schools are not CathoUcs incapacitates a great num- domination of Rome in the time of Tiberius. The 

ber of them from giving the Cathohc interpretation city was now called Trimontium, but only for a very 

of points of history connected with the Reformation, short time (Pliny, "Hist. Nat. ", IV, xviii). From the 

the preaching of indulgences, the reading of the Bible, reign of Septimius Severus, PhiUppopolis bears the 

etc. Accustomed to identify his religion and his title of metropolis, on coins and in inscriptions. It 

Government, the step towards concluding that the was there that the conventus of Thrace assembled. 

American Government must be a Protestant Govern- In 172 Marcus Aurelius fortified the city with walls; 

ment is an easy one for the young Filipino. Further, in 248 Philip granted it the title of colony, two years 

as the secondary schools are only situated in the pro- before its destruction by the Goths, who slaughtered 

vincial c^itals, the students leave home to live in the 100,000 men there (Ammianus Marcellinus, XXVI. 

capital of their province. It is among these young x). Restored again, it became the metropolis of 

people particularly that the American Protestant Thracia Secunda. 

missionary works. Even though he does not make The exact date of the establishment of Chris- 

the student a member of this or that particular sect, tianity in this town is unknown; the oldest testi- 

a spirit of indifferentism is generated which does not mony, quite open to criticism, however, is in 

bode well for th^ future of the country, temporally connexion with thirty-seven martyrs, whose feast 

or spiritually. A natif>n tliat is only three centuries is celebrated on 20 August, and who are said to have 
XII.— 2 




been natives of Philippopolis, though other towns of 
Thrace are frequently given as their native place. In 
344 was held at Philippopolis the concUiabtuum of the 
Eusebiansy which brougnt together 76 bishops sep- 
arated from their colleagues of Sardica, or Sona, and 
adversaries of St. Athanasius and his friends. Among 
its most celebrated ancient metropolitans is Silvanus, 
who asked the Patriarch Proclus to transfer him to 
Troas on account of the severity of the climate, and 
whose name was inserted by Baronius in the Roman 
Martyrology for 2 December. Philippopolis, which 
from the fifth centuiy at the latest was the ecclesias- 
tical metropolis of Thracia Secunda and dependent 
on the Patriarchate of Constantinople, had three 
suffragan bishoprics in the middle of the seventh cen- 
tury (Gelzer, " Ungedruckte . . . Texte der Notitiffi 
episcopatuum", 542); in the tenth century it had ten 
(ibid.. 577) ; towards the end of the fifteenth century 
it had none (ibid.). The Greek metropolitan see has 
continued to exist, in spite of the occupation of the 
Bulgarians. The latter, however, have erected there 
an orthodox metropolitan see of their own. Though 
generally held by the Byzantines Philippopolis was 
often captured by other peoples — Huns, Avars, Slavs, 
Bulgarians, and the Franks who retained it from 1204 
till 1235. It was taken bv the Turks in 1370 and finally 
came under the sway of the Bulgarians in 1885. By 
transporting thither on several occasions Aimenian 
and Syrian colonists, the Byzantines made it an ad- 
vanced fortress to oppose the Bulgarians; unfortu- 
nately these colonists were nearly all Monophysites 
and especially Paulicians, so the city became tne great 
centre of Manichseism in the Miadle Ages. These 
heretics converted bv the Capuchins in the seven- 
teenth century have become fervent Catholics of the 
Latin rite. The city called Plovdif in Bulgarian con- 
tains at present 47,(XX) inhabitants, of whom about 
4000 are Catholics. The Greeks and Turks are fairly 
numerous: the Catholic parish is in charge of secular 
priests; tnere is a seminary, which however has only 
from 20 to 25 students. The Assumptionists, who 
number about 30, have had since 1884 a college with a 
commercial department, attended by 250 pupils; the 
primary school for boys was established in 1863 by the 
Assumptionist Sisters; the Sisters of St. Joseph have 
a boarding-school and a primary school for girls; the 
Sisters of Charity of Agr&m have an hospital. 

Le Qoisn, Orient. cAri«f.,I, 1155-62; Tsouka las, Description 
hittorieo-giographique de Itparehie de Philippowflia ^ienna, 
1851), in Greek; MOller, PtoUmai Geographiatl (Pans), 483; 
JiBECBK, Dae FUrelenihum Bulgarien (Prague. 1891), 378-87; 
Dupct-FAtou* La Buloarie aux Bulgaree (Paria, 1896), 142-^, 
291-8; Reotu franeo-bulgare (1910), 10-18. 

S. Vailh^. 

PhilippopoliB, titular see in Arabia, suffragan of 
Bostra. Its bishop, Hormisdas, was present at the 
Council of Chalcedon in 451 (Le Quien, "Oriens chris- 
tianus'\ II, 861). An inscription makes known an- 
other bishop, Basil, in 553 ("Echos d'Orient", XII, 
1909, 103). Philippopolis figures as a see in the ''No- 
titiae Episcopatuum " in the sixth century (op. cit., X, 
1907. 145). There were also several titular bishops in 
the nfteenth and sixteenth centuries (Eubel, "nier- 
archia catholica medii »vi", II, 238; III, 291). The 
ancient name of this place is unknown. The Emperor 
Philip (244-9) founded this town and gave it his name 
(Aurelius Victor, "De Csesar.'', 28). Thenceforth it 
grew very rapidly as evidenced by the fine ruins, re- 
mains of the colonnades of a temple and colossal baths, 
discovered on its site at Shohba in the Hauran. 

Waddinoton. Inscriptiona tpreequee et laiinee reeueilliee en 
Grkee e< en Aeie Mineure, 490-3; Gelxer, Oeargii Cyprii Degcriplio 
orbui romani, 204 ; Revue biblique, VII (1898), Q0l-3;Echoa d'Ortent, 
II (1899). 175. 

S. Vailh£. 

Philip BoEQolo Neri, Saint, Apostle of Rome, b. 
at Horence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; d. 27 May, 1595. 

Philip's family originally came from Castelfranco but 
had lived for many generations in Florence, where not 
a few of its members had practised the learned profes- 
sions, and therefore took rank with the Tuscan nobil- 
ity. Among these was Philip's own father, Francesco 
Neri, who eked out an insufficient private fortune 
with what he earned as. a notary. A circumstance 
which had no small influence on the life of the saint 
was Francesco's friendship with the Dominicans; for 
it was from the friars of S. Marco, amid the memories 
of Savonarola, that Philm received many of his early 
religious impressions. Besides a younger brother, 
who died in early childhood, Philip had two younger 
sisters, Caterina and Elisabetta. It was with them 
that "the good Pippo", as he soon began to be called, 
committed his only known fault. He gave a sU^t 
push to Caterina, because she kept interrupting him 
and Elisabetta, while they were reciting psalms to- 

?;ether, a practice of which, as a boy, he was remarkably 
ond . One incident of his childhood is dear to his earl^ 
biographers as the first visible intervention of Provi- 
dence on his behalf, and perhaps dearer still to his 
modern disciples, because it reveals the human charac- 
teristics of a boy amid the supernatural graces of a 
saint. When about eight years old he was left alone 
in a courtyard to amuse himself; seeing a donkey 
laden with fruit, he jumped on its back; the beast 
bolted, and botn timibled into a deep cellar. His 
parents hastened to the spot and extricated the 
child, not dead, as they feared, but entirely un- 

From the first it was evident that Philip's career 
would run on no conventional lines; when shown his 
family pedigree he tore it up, and the burning of his 
father's house left him unconcerned.' Having studied 
the huDQianities under the best scholars of a scholarly 
generation, at the a^e of sixteen he was sent to help 
his father's cousin m business at S. Germano, near 
Monte Cassino. He applied himself with diligence, 
and his kinsman soon determined to make him his 
heir. But he would often withdraw for prayer to a 
Uttle mountain chapel belonging to the Benedictines 
of Monte Cassino, built above the harbour of Gaeta 
in a cleft of rock which tradition says was among 
those rent at the hour of Our Lord's death. It was 
here that his vocation became definite: he was called 
to be the Apostle of Rome. In 1533 he arrived in 
Rome without any money. He had not informed his 
father of the step he was taking, and he had deliberately 
cut himself off from his kinsman's- patronage. He 
was. however, at once befriended by (jaleotto Caccia, 
a Florentine resident, who gave him a room in his 
house and an allpwance of flour, in return for 
which he undertook the education of his two sons. 
For seventeen years Philip lived as a layman in 
Rome, probably without thinking of becoming a 

Eriest. It was perhaps while tutor to the boys, that 
e wrote most of the poetry which he composed both 
in Latin and in Italian. Before his death he burned 
all his writings, and only a few of his sonnets have 
come down to us. He spent some three years, 
beginning about 1535, in the stud^ of philosophy 
at the Sapienza, and of theology m the school of 
the Augustinians. When he considered that he had 
learnt enough, he sold his books, and gave the price to 
the poor. Though he never agsdn made study his 
regular occupation, whenever he was called upon to 
cast aside his habitual reticence, he would surprise the 
most learned with the depth and clearness of his the- 
ological knowledge. 

He now devoted himself entirely to the sanctificsr 
tion of his ow}i soul and the ^ood of his neighbour. 
His active apostolate began with solitary and unob- 
trusive visits to the hospitals. Next he induced others 
to accompany him. Then he began to frequent the 
shops, warehouses, banks, and publicplaces of Rome, 
melting the hearts of those whom he cnanced to meet 




nnd exhorting tlirttii to serve God. In 1544, or kter, him ae t« whether he should not discontinue his active 

lie became the friend of St. Ignatius. Many of hie worli and retire into absolute solitude. His perplexity 

disciples tried and found their vocations in the in- tvas set at rest by a viuon of St. John the Baptist, 

itmt Society of JeeuB: but the majority remained in and by another vision of two souls in ^lory, one of 

the world, and formed the nucleus of what afterwards whom was eating a roll of bread, signifying God's 

became the Brotherhood of the Little Oratory, will that he should live in Rome for the good of souls 

Thou^ he "appeared not fasting to men", hia pri- as though ho were in a desert, abstaining as far as 

viite life was that of a hermit. His single daily meal possible from the vise of meat. 

was of bread and wat«r, to which a few herbs were In 1551, however, he received a true vocation from 

sometimea added, the furniture of hia room consisted God. At the bidding of his confessor — nothing short 

of a bed, to which he usually preferrred the floor, a of this would overcome hia humility — he entered the 

table, a few ch^rs, and a rope to hang his clothes on; priesthood, and went to Uve at S. Girolamo, where a 

and he disciplined himself frequently with small staff of chaplains was supported by the Confraternity ' 

chains. Tried by fierce temptations, diabolical as of Charity. Each priest had two rooms assigned to 

well as human, he passed through them all unscathed, him, in which he lived, slept, and ate, under no rule 

and the purity of his soul manifested itself in certain save that of hving in charity with his brethren. 

striking physical trtuta. He prayed at first mostly Among Philip's new companions, besides Per^ano 

'n the church of S. Eustarhio, hard by Ciiccia's houiie. Rosa, was Buonaignore Cacciaguerra (see "A Pre- 

Next he took to visiting the p — 
Seven Churches. But it was f^ 
in the catacomb of S. Sebas- 
tlano — confounded by early 
bioRraphers with thai of ^. 
CalUBto — that he kept the 
longest vigils and received 
the most abundant consola- 
tions. In this catacomb, a 
few days before Pentecost in 
1544, the well-known riiir- 
acle of his heart took place. 
Qacci describee it thus: 
"While he was with the 
greatest earnestness asking 
of the Holy Ghost His gifts, 
there appeared to him a 
globe of fire, which entered 
mto hia mouth and lodged in 
his breast ; and thereupon he 
was suddenly surprisM with 
Buch a fireof love, that, un- 
able to bear it, he threw him- 
self on the ground, and, hke 
one trying to cool himself, 
bared his breast to temper in 

which he felt. When he had 
remained so for some time, 
and was a little recovered, 
he rose up full of unwonted 
joy, and immediately all his 
body began to shake with a 
violent tremour and put- 
ting bis hand to his bosom, 
he felt by the side of his 
heart, a swellmg about 

. ._ _;SC.Philip"byLady 
Amabel Kerr, Lonclon), a 
remarkable penitent, who 
was at that time carrying 
on a vigorous propaganda 
in favour of frequent Com- 
munion. Philip, who as a 
layman had been quietly 
encouraging the frequent 
reception of the aacraments, 
expended the whole of his 
pnestly energy in promoting 
;; but unlike 


led the young especially 
to coufess more often than 
they communicated. The 
church of S. Girolamo was 
much frequented even be- 
fore the coming of Philip, 
and his confessional there 
soon became the centre of 
a mighty apostolate. He 
stayea in church, hearing 
coii essions or ready to hear 
them, from daybreak till 
nearly midday, and not con- 
tent with this, he usually 
confessed some forty per- 
sona in his room before dawn. 
Thus he laboured untiringly 
throughout his long priest- 
hood, Asaphystcianof souls 
he received marvellous gifts 
from God. He would some- 
times tell a penitent hia most 
wvrvt sins without hia con- 
he converted a j'oung noble- 
vision of hell. Shortly 

big as a man's fist^ but neither then nor afterwards fessing them, and onci 

was it attended with the shghtest pain or wound" man oy showing him _ _. ._.. 

The cause of this swelling was dn>co\cred by-the before noon he would leave his confesaonal I 

doctors who examined his body after dealh The say Mass His devotion to the Blessed Sacrament, 

Baint'a heart had been dilated under the sudden im- like the miracle of hia heart, is one of those mani- 

pulse of love, and m order that it might haii suffi- fcstations of sanctity which are peculiarly his own. 

cient room to move, two ribs had been broken, and Sogreatwo.slhetei'vourof hischarity, that,inateadof 

curved in the form of an arch. From the time of the recollecting himself before Moss, he had to use de- 

roiracle till his death, hia heart would palpitate vio- liberate means of distraetion in order to attend to the 

leutly whenever he performed any spiritual action. external rite. During the last five years of his life 

Djring his laat years a» a layman, Philip'a aposlo- he had permis.sion to celebrate privately in a little 

late spread rapidly. In 1548, together with his con- chapel close to his room. At the "Agnus Dei" the 

feasor, Persiano Kosa, he founded the Confraternity server went out, locked the doors, ami hung up a 

of the Most Holy Trinity for looking after pilgrims notice: "Silence, the Father is saying Mass". When 

and convalescents. Its members met for Communion, he returned in two hours or more, the saint was so 

pr^er, and other spiritual exercises in the church of absorbed in God that he seemed to be at the point of 

S. ^vatore, and the saint himself introduced exposi- death. 

tion of the Blessed Sacrament once a month (see Philip devoted his afternoons to men and boya, in- 

FoBiT HocRe' Devotion). At these devotions viting them to informal meetings in hia room, taking 

Philip preached, though still a layman, and we learn them to visit churches, interesting himself in their 

that on one occasion aJone he converted no less than amusements, hallowing with hia sweet influence every 

thirty dinolute youths. In 1550 a doubt occurred to department of their Uvea. At one time he had a long- 




ing desire to follow the example of St. Francis Xavier, 
and go to India. With this end in view, he hastened 
tiie ordination of sonoe of his companions. But in 
1557 he soueht the counsel of a Cistercian at Tre 
Fontane; and as on a former occasion he had been told 
to make Rome his desert, so now the monk communi- 
cated to him a revelation he had had from St. John 
the Evangelist, that Rome was to be his India. Philip 
at once abandoned the idea of going abroad, and in the 
following year the informal meetings in his room de- 
veloped mto regular spiritual exercises in an oratory, 
which he built *over the church. At these exercises 
laymen preached and the excellence of the discourses, 
the high quality of the music, and the charm of 
Philip's personality attracted not only the humble 
and lowly, but men of the highest rank and distinction 
in Church and State. Of these, in 1590, Cardinal 
Nicol6 Sfondrato, became Pop|e Gregory XIV, and the 
extreme reluctance of the saint alone prevented the 
pontiff from forcing him to accept the cardinalatc. In 
1559, Philip began to organize regular visits to the 
Seven Churches, in company with crowds of men, 
priests and religious, and laymen of every rank and 
condition. These visits were the occasion of a short 
but sharp persecution on the part of a certain malicious 
faction, who denounced him as "a setter-upof new 
sects". The cardinal vicar himself summoned him, 
and without listening to his defence, rebuked him in the 
harshest terms. For a fortnight the saint was sus- 
pended from hearing confessions ; but at the end of that 
time he made his defence, and cleared himself before 
the ecclesiastical authorities. In 1562, the Florentines 
in Rome begged him to accept the office of rector of 
their church, S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, but he was 
reluctant to leave S. Girolamo. At length the matter 
was brought before Pius IV, and .a compromise was 
arrived at (1564). While remaining himself at S. 
Girolamo, Philip became rector of S. Giovanni, and 
sent five priests, one of whom was Baronius, to rep- 
resent him there. They lived in conmiunity under 
Philip as their superior, taking their meals together, 
and regularly attending the exercises at S. Girolamo. 
In 1574, however, the exercises began to be held in an 
oratory at S. Giovanni. Meanwhile the community 
was increasing in size, and in 1575 it was formally 
recognised by Gregory XIII as the Congregation of 
the Oratory, and given the church of S. Maria in 
Valhcella. (See OratoIiy.) The fathers came to live 
there in 1577, in which year 'they opened the Chiesa 
Nuova, built on the site of the old S. Maria, and trans- 
ferred the exercises to a new oratory. Philip him- 
self remained at S. Girolamo till 1583, and it was only 
in obedience to Gregory XIII that he then left his old 
home and came to live at the ValHcclla. 

The last years of his life were marked by alternate 
sickness and recovery. In 1593, he showed the true 
ffreatness of one who knows the limits of his own en- 
durance, and resigned the ofhce of superior which hstd 
been conferred on him for life. In 1594, when he was 
in an agony of pain, the Blessed Virgin appeared to 
him, and cured him. At the end of March, 1595, he 
had a severe attack of fever, which lasted throughout 
April; but in answer to his special prayer God gave 
him strength to say Mass on 1 May in honour of SS. 
Philip and James. On the following 12 May he was 
seized with a violent haemorrhage, and Cardinal 
Baronius, who had succeeded him as superior, gave 
him Extreme Unction. After that he seemed to re- 
vive a little and his friend Cardinal Frederick Bor- 
romeo brought him the Viaticum, which he received 
with loud protestations of his own unworthiness. On 
the UQxt dav he was perfectly well, and till the actual 
day of his aeath went about his usual duties, even re- 
citmg the Divine Office, from which he was dispensed. 
But on 15 May he predicted that he had only ten more 
days to live. On 25 M ay, the feast of Corpus Christi, he 
went to say Mass in his little chapel, two hours earlier 

than usual. "At the beginning of his Mass'', writes 
Bacci, ''he remained for some tinie looking fixedly at 
the hill of S. Onforio, which was visible from the chapel, 
just as if he saw some great vision. On coming to tfie 
Gloria in Excdais he began to sing, which was an un- 
usual thing for him, and sang the whole of it with the 
greatest joy and devotion, and all the rest of the Mass 
he said with extraordinary exultation, and as if sing- 
ing.'' He was in perfect health for the rest of that 
day, and made his usual night prayer; but when in bed. 
he predicted the hour of the nignt at which he would 
die. About an hour after midnight Father Antonio 
Gallonio, who slept under him, heard him walking up 
and down, and went to his room. He found him lying 
on the bed, suffering from another haemorrhage. An- 
tonio, I am going", he said: Gallonio thereupon 
fetched the medical men and the fathers of the con- 
gregation. Cardinal Baronius made the commenda- 
tion of his soul, and asked him to give the fathers 
his final blessing. The saint raised his hand slightly, 
and lookt>d up to heaven. Then inclining his head 
towards the fathers, he breathed his last. Philip was 
beatified by Paul V in 1615, and canonized by Gregory 
XV in 1622. 

It is perhaps by the method of contrast that the dis- 
tinctive characteristics of St. Philip and his work are 
brought home to us most forcibly (see Newman. 
"Sermons on Various Occasions", n. xii^ "Historical 
Sketches", III, end of ch. vii). We hail him as the 
patient reformer, who leaves outward things alone 
and works from within, depending rather on the hid- 
den might of sacrament and prayer than on drastic 
policies of external improvement; the director of souls 
who attaches more value to the mortification of the 
reason than to bodily austerities, protests that men 
may become saints in the world no less than in the 
cloister, dwells on the importance of serving God in a 
cheerful spirit; and gives a quaintly humourous turn 
to the maxims of ascetical theology; the silent watcher 
of the times, who takes no active part in ecclesiastical 
controversies and is yet a motive force in their devel- 
opment, now encouraging the use of ecclesiastical 
history as a bulwark against Protestantism, now in- 
sisting on the absolution of a monarch, whom other 
counsellors would fain exclude from the sacraments 
(see Baronius), now praying that God may avert 
a threatened condemnation (see Savonarola) and 
receiving a miraculous assurance that his prayer is 
heard (see Letter of Ercolani referred to by Capece- 
latro) ; the founder of a Congregation^ which relies 
more on personal influence than on disciplinary or- 
ganization, and prefers the spontaneous practice of 
counsels of perfection to their enforcement by means 
of vows; above all, the saint of God, who is so irresis- 
tibly attractive, so eminently lovable in himself, as to 
win the title of the " Amabile santo". 

Gallonio, companion of the raint, was the first to produce a 
Life of St. Philip, publifihed in Latin (1600) and in lUlian (1601), 
written with great precision, and following a strictly chronologi- 
cal order. Several medical treatises were written on the saint's 
palpitation and fractured ribs, e. g. Anoelo da Baqnarxa'a 
Medica dispiUatio de palpitatione cordiM,fraetura eostarunit aliitque 
affectionibua B. Phtlippi Nerii . . . 911a ostendilur prcsdictaa 
affediones fuia»e »upra naturam, dedicated to Card. Frederick 
Borromeo (Rome, 1613). Bacci wrote an Italian Life and dedi- 
cated it to Gregory XV (1622). His work is the outcome of a 
minute examination of the processes of canonisation, and con- 
tains important matter not found in Gallonio. Brocchi's 
Life of St. Philip, contained in his VUe de' tanti e betUi Fio- 
rentini (Florence. 1742). includes the saint's pedigree, and gives 
the Florentine tradition of his early years; for certain chronologi- 
cal discrepancies between (Gallonio, Bacci, and Brocchi, see 
notes on the chronology in Antrgbub' ed. of Bacci. Other 
Liees are by Ricci (Rome, 1670). whose work b an enlargement 
of Bacci. and includes his own LiveM of the Companions of <S<. 
Philip; Marciano (1693) ; Soneonio (1727) ; Bkrnabei (d. 1662), 
whose work was published for the first time by the Bollandibts 
(Acta SS., May, VII); Ramirbs, who adapts the language of 
Scripture to St. Philip in a Latin work called the Via (acfca, dedi- 
cated to Innocent XI (Valencia. 1682); and Batlx (1850). 
Goethe at the end of his Italien. Rei»e (Italian Journey) ^ves m 
sketch of the saint, entitled Filippo Neri, der humorutiache 
Heilige. The most important modern Life is that of Capecela- 
TRO (1879), treating fully of the saint's relations with the persona 




%Bd events of his time. There is an English Life by Hopb (Lon- 
don, New Yorlc. Cincinnati, Chicago). An abridged English 
translation of Bacci appeared in penal times (Paris, 1656). a fact 
which shows our Catholic forefatnera' continued remembrance of 
Um saint, who used to greet the English (Allege students with the 
words, "Salvete. flores mvtyrum." Fabbr's Modern SainU 
(1847) includes translations of an enlarged ed. of Bacci, and of 
Ricci a Livea of the Companions. Of the former there is a new and 
reidsed edition by Antrobus (London, 1902). Capscklatro's 
work has been translated by Pope (London.-1882). English ren- 
derings of two of St. Philip s sonnets by Ryder are published at 
the end of the recent English editions of Bacci and Capecelatro, 
together with translations of St. Philip's letters. These were 
originally published in Bisconi's RaeeoUa di leUere di »anti e 
heati Fiorentini (Florence, 1737) ; but aince that time twelve other 
letters have come to light. 

C. Sebastian Ritchie. 

Philips, Peter (also known aa Petrus.Philifpus, 
PiETBO Phillipo), b. in England about 1560; date 
and place of death unknown. It is generally accepted 
^at Philips, remaining faithful to the Church, left 
England for the Netherlands, whence he went to 
Rome, and afterwards, returning to Antwerp, became 
organist at the Court of the governor, Duke Albert. 
Having entered Holy orders, he held a canonry at 
Bethune, in Flanders, which he exchanged for a similar 
honour at Soignes in 1612. It has been pointed out 
that the title-pages of his published works are the best 
index to his movements and abiding places, and the^ 
are various. Philips ranks in importance as a musi- 
cian with Talljrs, Byrd, Morley, and Orlando Gibbons, 
and is considered one of the great masters of his time. 
Besides canzoni and madrigals for six and eight voices, 
he left innumerable instrumental works which have 
been preserved in the libraries of Antwerp, Leyden, 
Strasburg, and London. Nineteen of these are con- 
tidned in "The Fitz-WiUiam Virginal Book" by J. A. 
Fuller-Maitland and W. B. Squire. To the Cfhurch, 
however, Philips devoted his best efforts. Besides 
sin^e numbers found in various collections of his 
penod, a volume of five-part motets; another of sim- 
ilar works for eight voices; "Gemmulie sacrse" for two 
and three voices and figured bass; "Les rossignols 
spirituels", a collection of two- and four7part pieces, 
some to Latin words, but most of them' to French: 
"Deliciaj sacne", forty-one compositions for two and 
three parts, are preserved in the British Museum. 
TTie library of John IV of Portugal contains PhilifM^s 
posthumous works — masses for six, ei^ht. and nine 
voices, and motets for eight voices. His "Cantiones 
sacrs have recently been made available for modem 
use, and have been added to the repertoire of the choir 
of Westminster Cathedral. 

Bbbomans, UOrganutte den drchidues AU>ert el laabeUe (Ghent, 
1903); SquiBB in Gbove, Dictionary of Music, s. v. 

Joseph Ottbn. 

Philip the Arabian (Philippus), Emperor of 
Rome (244-249), the son of an Arab sheik, b. in 
Bosra. He rose to be an influential officer of the 
Roman army. In 243 the Emperor Gordianus III 
was tit war with Persia; the administration of the 
army and the empire were directed with ^reat success 
by ma father-in-law Timesitheus. Timesitheus, how- 
ever, died in 243 and the helpless Gordianus, a minor, 
appointed Marcus Julius Pnilippus as his successor. 
By causing a scarcity of provisions Philip increased 
the exasperation of the soldiers against tne emperor 
and they proclaimed Philip emperor. Philip now had 
Gordianus secretly executed. However, as ne erected 
a monument to Gordianus on the Euphrates and 
deified him, he deceived the Senate and obtained 
recognition as emperor. He abandoned the advan- 
tages Timesitheus had won from the Persian King 
Sapor. He withdrew from Asia, and recalled a large 
number of divisions of the army from Dacia, Rhaetia, 
and Britain to northern Italy to protect it against 
incursions from the East. On account of invasions 
by the Capri he hastened to the lower Danube, where 
he was successful in two battles. Consequently on 
coin« be bears the surname of Carpicus Maximus. 

Philip gave high offices of State to his relations who 
misused these positions. He also made his son Pliilip, 
when seven years of a^, co-ruler. The most impor- 
tant event of his reign was the celebration of the 
thousandth year of the existence of Rome in April, 

The insecurity of his authority in the outlyins dis- 
tricts showed itself in the appearance of nval em- 
perors proclaimed by the legions stationed there. The 
Goths sought to settle permanently in Roman terri- 
tory; and as the army of the Danube could not defend • 
itself without a centralized control, the soldiers, at 
the close of 248, forced Decius, sent to suppress the 
inutinies, to accept the position of emperor. Decius 
advanced into Italy, where he defeated Philip near 
Verona. Philip and his son were killed. During 
Philip's reign Christians were not disturbed. The 
emperor also issued police regulations for the main- 
tenance of public morality. A statement of St. Je- 
rome's caused Philip to be regarded in. the Middle 
Ages as the first Christian Emperor of Rome. 

MOUMSEN. Rdm, Ge»ch» V (Berlin, 1885); for further bibli- 
ography, see Pbrtviax. KaBL HOBBER. 

Philistines (D\^tfbc; LXX i>v\urrutfA in the Pen- 
tateuch and Josue, elsewhere dXX60u\o4, "foreign- 
ers")* III the Biblical account the Philistines come 
into prominence as the inhabitants of the maritime 
plain of Palestine from the time of the Judges onward. 
They are mentioned in the genealogy of the nations 
(Gen., X, 14; cf. I Par., i, 11, 12), where together with 
the Caphtorim they are set down as descendants of 
Mesraim. It is conjectured with probability that 
thev came originally from Crete, sometimes identified 
with Caphtor, and that they belonged to a piratical, 
seafaring people. They m^e their first appearance 
in Biblical history late in the period of the Judges in 
connexion with the prophesied birth of the hero 
Samson . The angel appearing to Saraa, wife of Manue 
of the race of Dan, tells her that, though barren, she 
shall hear a son who "shall begin to deliver Israel 
from the hands of the Philistines (Judges, xiii, 1-5); 
and we are informed in the same passage that ^e 
domination of the Philistines over Israel had lasted 
forty years. In the subsequent chapters graphic 
accounts are given of the encounters between Samson 
and these enemies of his nation who were encroaching 
upon Israel's western border. In the early davs of 
Samuel we find the Philistines trying to make them- 
selves masters of the interior of Palestine, and in one 
of the ensuing battles they succeeded in capturing 
the Ark of the Covenant (I Kings, iv). The coining 
of a pestilence upon them, however, induced them to 
return it, and it remained for many years in the house 
of Abinadab in Cariathiarim (I Kmgs, v; vi; vii). 
After Saul became king the Philistines tried to break 
his power, but were unsuccessful, chiefly owing to the 
bravery of Jonathan (I Kings, xiii; xiv). Their 
progress was not, however, permanently checked, for 
we are told (I Kings, xiv, 52) that there was a ''great 
war against the Plulistines all the days of Saul '', and 
at the end of the latter's reign we find their army still 
in possession of the rich plain of Jezrael including the 
city of Bethsan on its eastern border (I Kings, xxxi, 
10). They met with a severe defeat, however, early 
in the reign of David (II Kings, v, 20-25), who suc- 
ceeded in reducing them to a state of vassalage (II 
Kings, viii, 1). Prior to this date the power of the 
Philistines seems to have been concentrated in the 
hands of the rulers of the cities of Gaza, Ascalon, 
Azotus (Ashdod), Accaron, and Geth, and a pecuHar 
title signifying "Lord of the Philistines" was borne 
by each of these petty kings. The Philistines re- 

fained their independence at the end of the reign of 
)avid, probably about the time of the schism, for 
we find the Kings of Israel in the ninth century en- 
deavouring to wrest from them Gebbethon, a city 




on the border of the maratime plain (III Kmgs, xv, 
27; xvi, 15). Towards the close of the same century 
the Assyrian ruler, King Adad-Nirari, placed them 
under tribute and began the long series of As83rrian 
interference in Philistine affairs. In Amos (i, 6, 8) 
we find a denunciation of the Philistine monarchies 
as among the independent kingdoms of the time. 

During the latter part of the eighth century and 
during the whole of the seventh the history of the Phil- 
istines is made up of a continual series of conspiracies, 
conquests, and rebellions. Their principal foes were 
the Assyrians on the one side and the Egyptians on 
the other. In the year of the fall of Samaria (721 
B. c.) they became vassals of Sargon. They rebelled, 
however, ten years later under the leadership of 
Aahdod, but without permanent success. Another 
attempt was made to shake off the Assyrian yoke 
at the end of the reign of Sennacherib. In this con- 
flict the Philistine King of Accaron, who remained 
faithful to Sennacherib, was cast into prison by King 
Ezechias of Juda. The allies who were thus brought 
together were defeated at Eltekeh and the result was 
the si^e of Jerusalem by Sennacherib (IV Kings, 
xviii-xix). Esarhaddon and Asurbanipal in their 
western campai^s crossed the territory of the Phil- 
istines and held it in subjection, and after the dechne 
of Assyria the encroachments of the Assyrians gave 
place to those of the Egyptians under the Twenty- 
sixth Dynasty. It is probable that the Philistines 
Buffered defeat at the hands of Nabuchodonosor, 
though no record of his conquest of them hajs been pre- 
served. The old title "Lords of the Philistines" has 
now disappeared, and the title "King" is bestowed by 
the Assyrianson the Philistine rulers. The sie^eof Gaza, 
which held out against Alexander the Great, is famous, 
and we find the Ptolemies and Seleucids frequently 
fighting over Philistine territory. The land finally 
passed under Roman rule, and its cities had subse- 
quently an important history. After the time of the 
Assyrians the Philistines cease to be mentioned by 
this name. Thus Herodotus speaks of the "Ara- 
bians" as being in possession of the lower Mediter- 
ranean coast in the time of Cambyses. From this 
it is inferred by some that at that time the Phitistines 
had been supplanted. In the ebb and flow of warring 
nations over this land it is more than probable that 
they were gradually absorbed and lost their identity. 

It is generally supposed that the Philistines adopted 
in the main the religion and civilization of the Cha^ 
naanites. In I Kings, v, 2, we read: "And the Phil- 
istines took the ark of God, and brought it into the 
temple of Dagon, and set it by Dagon", from which 
we infer that their chief god was this Semitic deity. 
The latter appears in the Tel el-Amama Letters and 
also in the Babylonian inscriptions. At Ascalon 
likewise there was a temple dedicated to the Semitic 
goddess Ishtar, and as the religion of the Philistines 
was thus evidently Semitic, so also were probably 
the other features of their civilization. 

Besides the standard Commentaries see Maspero, Histoire 
ancienne dee peuplee de VOrient (6th ed., Paris, 1904), tr.. The 
Davm of Civilitation (4th ed., London, 1901); Bruobch, Egypt 
under the Pharaohe (tr., London, 1880), ix-xiv. 

James F. Driscoll. 

Phillip, Robert, priest, d. at Paris, 4 Jan., 1647. 
He was descended from the Scottish family of Phillip 
of Sanquhar, but nothing is known of his early life. 
Ordained in Rome, he returned in 1612 to Scotland 
where he was betrayed by his father, seized while 
saying Mass, and tried at Edinburgh as a seminary 
pnest, 14 Sept., 1613. The sentence of death was 
commuted to oanishment, and he withdrew to France, 
where he joined the French Oratory recently founded 
by Cardinal de B^rulle. In 1628 he went to England 
as confessor to Oueen Henrietta Maria, and at her re- 
ouest he besou^t the pope for financial aid against 
tne king's enemies. The subsequent negotiations were 

discovered, and Phillip was impeached on the charge! 
of bein^ a papal spy and of having endeavoured to per- 
vert Pnnce Charles, but proceedings dropped owing to 
the displeasure of Richelieu at the introduction of his 
own name into the matter. Later he was committed 
to the Tower for refusing to be sworn on the Anglican 
Bible on 2 Nov.. 1641, when he had been summoned 
by the Lords' committee to be examined touching 
State matters. Released through the queen's influ- 
ence, he accompanied her t^ The Hague in March, 
1642, and remained with her m Paris till his death. 

Nalson, CoUection of Affairs of St^e, II (London, 1682-3); 
BEfrfNQTON, Memoirs of Pansani (Birmingham, 1793) ; Stotbert, 
Catholic Church in Scotland, ed. Gordon ((jrla«|ow, 1869); 
Foley. Records of Eng. Jesuits, V (London, 1879) ; Seccombe m 
Diet. Nat. Biog.t 8. v. Phiups, Robert; Gillow. Bibl. Diet. Eng. 

Cath.,B,y, Edwin Burton. 

Phillips, George, canonist, b. at Kdnigsberg, 6 
Sept., 1804; d. at Vienna, 6 September, 1872, was the 
son of James Phillips, an Englishman who had 
acquired wealth as a merchant in Kdnigsberg, and 
of a Scotchwoman nee Hay. On completing his course 
at the gynmasium, George studied law at tne Univer- 
sities of Berlin and Gottingen (1822-24) ; his principal 
teachers were von Savigny and Eichhom, and, under 
the influence of the latter, he devoted himself mainly 
to the study of Germanic law. After obtaining the 
degree of Doctor of Law at G6ttingen in 1824, he paid 
a long visit to England. In 1826 he Qualified at Berlin 
as Privatdozent (tutor) for German law, an(J in 1827 
was appointed professor extraordinary in this faculty. 
In the same year he married Charlotte Housselle, who 
belonged to a French Protestant familv settled in 
Berlin. Phillips formed a close friendsnip with his 
colleague K. E. Jarcke, professor at Berlin since 1825, 
who had entered the Catholic Church in 1824. 
Jarcke's influence and his own searching studies into 
medieval Germany led to the conversion of PhilUps,^ 
and his wife in 1828 (14 May). Jarcke having re- 
moved to Vienna in 1832, Phillips accepted in 1833 
a call to Munich as counsel in the Bavarian Ministry 
of the Interior. In 1834 he was named professor of 
history, and a few months later professor of law at the 
University of Munich. He now joined that circle of 
illustrious men including the two Gorres, MoUer, 
Dollinger, and Ringseis, who, filled with enthusiasm 
for the Church, laboured for the renewal of the relir 
gious life, the defence of CathoHc rights and religious 
freedom, and the revival of Catholic scholarahip. 
In 1838 he founded with Guide Gorres the still 
flourishing militant " Historischpolitische Blatter". 
His lectures, notable for their excellence and form, 
treated with unusual fullness subjects connected with 
ecclesiastical interests. In consequence of the Lola 
Montez affair, in connexion with which Phillips 
signed, with six other Munich professors, an address 
of sympathy with the dismissed minister Abel, he 
was relieved of his chair in 1847. In 1848 he was 
elected deputy of a Munster district for the National 
Assemblv of Frankfort, at which he energetically 
upheld the Catholic interests. In 1850, after declining 
a call as professor to Wurzburg, he accepted the chair 
of German law at Innsbruck, and there resumed his 
academic activitv. Invited to fill the same chair in 
Vienna in 1851, he removed to the Austrian capital, 
and remained there until his death. Once (1862-7) 
he accepted a long leave of absence to complete his 
' ' Kirchenrech t " . He always maintained his relations 
with his friends in Munich and other cities of Germany, 
and never relaxed his activity in furthering Cathohc 
interests. As a writer, his labours lay in the domain 
of German law, canon law, and their respective his- 
tories. At first his activity was directed mainly to the 
first-mentioned, his principal contributions on the 
subject being: '^Versuch einer Darstellung des angel- 
sachsischen Rechtes" (Gottineen, 1825); "Englische 
Reichs- und Rechtsgeschichte , of which two volumes 



(dealing with the period 1066-1189) appeared (Ber- more on the philosophical and reli^^ous syncretism 

lin, 1827-8); "Deutsche Geschichte mit besonderer prevailing in Greek civilization. They may be divided: 

Rucksicht auf Religion, Recht und Veifassung'', of (1) exposition of the Jewish Law; (2) apologetical 

which two volumes s^one were issued (Berlin, 1832-4), works; (3) philosophical treatises, 
deals with Merovingian and Carlovingian times; (1) The expositions of the Law are in three works of 

"Grundsatze des .gemeinen deutschen Privatrechts varied character: (a) "The Exposition of the Law", 

mit Einschluss des Lehnrechts'' (Berlin, 1838); which begins by a treatise on the creation of the world 

"Deutsche Reichs- und Rechtsgeschichte'' (Munich, (Commentaries on the first chapter of Genesis) and 

1845). After his call to Munich, however, Phillips continues with treatises on Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, 

recognized his chief task in the treatment of canon and Joseph (those on Isaac and Jacob are lost). Each 

law from the strictly Catholic standpoint. In addi- of the patriarchs is considered as a type of a virtue 

tion to numerous smaller treatises, he published in and his life as a natural or unwritten law. Then 

this domun: "Die Diozesansynode (Freiburg, follows a series* of treatises on the laws written by 

1849), and especially his great "Klrchenrecht'^ which Moses, grouped in order according to the Ten Com- 

appeared in seven volumes (Ratisbon, 1845-72), and mandments. The Exposition closes with the laws 

was continued by Vering (vol. VIII, i, Ratisbon, referring to general virtues (On Justice and Courage), 

1889). This comprehensive and important work exer- and a treatise on the reward reserved to those who 

dsed a great influence on the study of canon law and obey the Law. (See "De Prsemiis et Poenis", §§1, 

its principles. Phillips also published a "Lehrbuch 2.) (b) The great "Allegorical (Commentary on 

des Kirchenrechts" (Hatisbon, 1859-62; 3rd ed. by Genesis" is the chief source of information regarding 

Moufang, 1881)and "Vermiscnte Schriften" (3 vols., Philo's ideas; in it he applies systematically the 

Ratisbon, 185&-60). method of allegorical interpretation. The com- 

Bmbhthai^ KonwrfOenWWcr. I (2nd ed.), 478 aqq., Schtjltb mentary foUows the Order of verses (torn Gen., ii, 1, 

?.4%SJ?'^/rT^a^iJ:SL%J^^^ to iv, if With some more or less important lacunie. 

J. P. KiBSCH. 1^ ^ i^ot known whether the work began by a treatise 

-^- ., m,_^ rt^t^^jM a r^ JL r\ \ ^^ chapter 1, concerning creation; in any case, it 

PhUoealian Calendar. See Calendar, Chris- ^ be*;^^ /^^ the alfusions to this chapter tU 

Philo had a system of interpretation on this point. 

Philo JudflBUS, b. about 25 b. c. His family, of a Notwithstanding i\A form, this work is not a series of 

saoerdotaJ line, was one of the most powerful of the interpretations strung together verse by verse; the 

populous Jewish colony of Alexandria. His brother author considers Genesis m its entirety as a history 

Alexander Lvsimachus was steward to Anthony's of the soul from its formation in the intelligible world 

second daughter, and married one of his sons to to the complete development of wisdom alter its fall 

the daughter of Herod Agrippa, whom he had put and its restoration by repentance (see ed. Mangey, 

under financial obligjations. Alexander's son, Tiberius ' ''De Posteritate Caini", p. 259). The object of the 

Alexander, apostatized and became procurator of allegorical method is to discern in each person and in 

Judea ana Prefect of Egypt. Philo must have re- his actions the symbol of some phase either in the fall 

ceived a Jewish education, studying the laws and or in the restoration of* the soul, (c) "Questions and 

national traditions, but he followed also the Greek Solutions" are a series of questions set down at each 

plan of studies (^ammar with reading of the poets, verse of the Mosaic bookis. An Armenian transla- 

geometry, rhetonc. dialectics) which he regarded as a tion has preserved the questions on Genesis (Gen., 

{>reparation for pnilosophy. Notwithstanding the iL 4-xxiii, 8, with lacunae) and the questions on 
ack of direct information about his philosophical Exodus (Ex., xii, 2-xxviii, 38). some Greek f rag- 
training, his works show that he had a first hand ments of these works and of tne questions on Le- 
knowled^e of the stoical theories then prevailing, viticus. a very mediocre Latin translation of the last 
Plato's dialogues, the neo-Pythagorean works, and the part oi the questions on Genesis (iy, 154 sq.)' In 
moral popular literature, the outcome of Cynicism, these treatises as well as in the short discourses on 
He remained, however, profoundly attached to the Samson and Jonas, there is much less unity than in 
Jewish religion with all the practices which it implied the preceding ones. This first group of works is 
among the Jews of the dispersion and of which the addressed to readers already initiated in the Mosaic 
basis was the unitv of worship at the Temple in Jem- Law, i. e. to the author's coreUmonists. 
salem. Toward the Alexandrine commumty and the (2) It is quite different with nis apologetical writ- 
duties which it required of him, his attitude was per^ ings. The "Life of Moses" is a r^sum^ of the Jewi^ 
haps changeable; he possessed in his youth a taste Law, intended for a larger public. The treatise "On 
for an exclusively contemplative life and solitary re- Repentance" \ft$s written for the edification of the 
treats; and he complains of an of&cial function which newly converted. The treatise "On Humanity" 
forced him to abandon his studies. Later he became which followed that "On Piety" seems from its 
engrossed with the material and moral interests of the introduction to pertain to the "Life of Moses" and 
community. His "Allegorical Commentary " of ten al- not to the "Exposition of the Law" as tradition and 
ludes to the vexations to which the Alexandrine Jews some contemporaneous scholars maintain. The 
were subjected; a special treatise is devoted to the *Tiro^eripd (fragments in Eusebius, "Evangelical 
persecution of Flaccus, Prefect of Egjrpt. The best- Preparation". VIII, v, vi) as well as the "Apology 
known episode of his life is the voyage he made to for the Jews' (ibid., VIII, x) were written to defend 
Rome in 39; he had been chosen as head of the em- his coreligionists against calumnies, while the "Con- 
bassy which was to lay before Emperor Caius Caligula templative Life" was to cultivate the best fruits of 
the complaints of the Jews regarding the introduction the Mosaic worship. The "Against Flaccus" and the 
of statues of the emperor in the synagogues. This "Embassy to Caius'', with another work lost in the 
hardship, due to the Alexandrians, was all the more persecution of Scianus, were intended to establish 
grievous to the Jews, as they had long been known for the truth about tne pretended impiety of the Jews, 
their loyalty, and their attachment to the empire was (3) Finally, we have purely philosophical treat- 
doubtless one of the chief causes of anti-Semitism at ises: "On the Liberty of the Wise", "On the Incor^ 
Alexandria. The drawing up of the account of the ruptibility of the World" (authenticity contested by 
embassy shortly after the death of Caius (41) is the Bemays, but generally admitted now), "On Provi- 
latest known fact in the life of Philo. dence", "On Animals" (these last two in the Arme- 
WrUinga, — ^These contain most valuable informa- nian translations). The small treatise "DeMundo" 
tion, not only on the intellectual and moral situation is merely a compilation of passages from other works, 
of the Jewi^ community at Alexandria, but still The question of chronology is more difficult than that 




of classification. The solution of the difficulty would 
be of great value especially for the subdivisions of the 
first group of writings, in order to understand the 
development of Philo's doctrines; but on this point 
there is a wide divergence of opinion. It is probable, 
however, that the "Exposition of the Law" with its 
frequent appeals to the authority of the masters and 
its cautious way of introducing the allegorical inter- 
pretation is anterior to the "Allegorical Commen- 
tary" which shows more assurance and independence 
of thought. 

Doctrine. — Philo's work belongs for the most part 
to the immense literature of comnientaries on the 
Law, and it is especially as a commentator that he 
must be considered. But in this regard he holds a 
unique place. First of all, he uses the Greek transla- 
tion of the Septuagint. The variations that have 
been pointed out between his text and that which we 
pow possess of the Septuagint may be explained to 
our satisfaction, not by the reading of the Hebrew 
text (Hitter), but by the fact that our recension is 
of a later date than the one he used. Furthermore, 
his method of interpretation appears as something 
new and original among the juridical commentaries 
of the Palestinian rabbis. Eliminating what formed 
the common basis of idl commentaries of this kind — 
the interpretation of the Hebrew proper names (Philo 
gives them at times a Greek etymology), the particular 
rules for the signs which indicate that Moses intended 
us to look beyond the hteral sense (Siegfried), the oral 
traditions added to the account of the Pentateuch 
(and again, at the beginning of the "Life of Moses" 
these traditions are clearly of Alexandrine origin), 
and the prescriptions of the worship in Jerusalem — 
two essential features remain: first^ the conviction ' 
that the Jewish law is identical with the natural; 
and then the allegorical interpretation. The first, 
according to which the acts of the prophets and the 
prescriptions of Moses are regarded as ideals con- 
formable to nature (in the Stoic sense), gives to the 
Jewish religjion a universaUty incompatible with the 
narrow national Messianism of the Jewish sibyls. 
Philo thus abandons entirely the Messianic promises; 
there is no national tradition to exclude the Gentile 
from Judaism. To find his precursors one must go 
back to the Prophets; tradition he revives, but only 
with serious modifications. To the idea of moral uni- 
versality he adds the idea of nature which he received 
from the Stoics. His interpretation is wholly bent 
on identifying the Mosaic prescription with natural 

• The second feature is the allegorical interpretation. 
Without doubt Philo had his predecessors among the 
Alexandrines. The proof of this is found not in the 
fragments of Aristobulus (which areggrossly false and 
later than Philo), but in the work of Philo himself, 
which is based sometimes on the authority of his pre- 
decessors, in the "Wisdom of Solomon^' (an Alex- 
andrine work of the first century b. c, which contains 
some traces of this method), and finally in the descrip- 
tion Philo has given us of the occupations of the 
Therapeutse and the Essenes. The tradition, how- 
ever, tnus formed cannot have amounted to much, for 
it does not prevail against personal inspiration and it 
lacks unitv. This interpretation appears to us rather 
as a day-by-day creation of that age, and in Philo's 
works we can follow an allegory in process of forma- 
tion, e. K. the interpretation of man "after the image 
of God . The development of the interior moral-life 
as Philo conceived it is always bound up with his 
allegorical method. This method differs from that of 
mo^ of his Greek predecessors who sought an arti- 
ficial means to bring out the philosophical conceptions 
in time-honoured texts, sucn as that of Homer. As 
a rule he does not search in the sacred text for any 
strictly philosophical theory; more often he puts 
forth these theories directly on their own merits. 

Though at times enthusiastic in his admiration of 
Greek philosophers, he does not try to represent them 
as unavowed disciples of Moses. What he seek^ in 
Genesis is not this or that truth, but the description 
of the attitudes of the soul towards God, such as inno- 
cence, sin, repentance. The allegorical method of 
Philo neither proves nor attempts to prove anything. 
Itjs not a mode of apologetic; m the " Life of Moses 
e. g. this method is seldom employed; the only 
apologetic feature is the presentation of the high 
moral import of the Jewish laws taken in their literal 
sense. But the method is indispensable for the in- 
terior life; it gives the concrete image which the 
mystic needs to explain his effusions, and it makes 
the Jewish books profitable in the spiritual life. The 
spiritual life consists in the feeling oi confidence which 
gives us faith in God, a feeling which coincides with 
that of the nothingness of man left to his own strength. 
Faith in God is not in itself the condition but the end 
or crowning of this life, and human life oscillates 
between confidence lin self and confidence in (}od. 
This God conceived in His relations with the moral 
needs of man has the omnipotence and infinite good- 
ness of the God of the prophets; it is by no means 
the God of the Stoics, in direct relation with the 
cosmos rather than with man. 

Under this influence the Philonian cult became an 
eminently moral one: the originality of Philonism 
consists m its moral interpretation of the actions of 
the divinity upon the world, which till then had been 
regarded more in their physical asi>ect. The funda- 
mental idea is here that of Divine power conceived 
according to the manner of the Jews as goodness and 
sovereignty in relation to man. It is remarkable that 
with this idea the cosmic power of philosophy or of 
Greek religion is transformed by Philo into moral 
power. Divine wisdom is without doubt like the 
Isis in Plutarch's treatise, mother of the world, but 
above all mother of gooaness in the virtuous soul. 
The "Man of God" is the moral consciousness of man 
rather than the prototype or ideal. The Divine spirit 
is transformed from the material ether into the prin- 
ciple of moral inspiration. We recognize^ it is true*, 
the traces of the cosmic origin of the Divine inter- 
mediaries; the angels are material intermediaries as 
well as spiritual, and Philo accepts the belief in the 
power of the heavenly bodies as an inferior degree of 
wisdom. Nevertheless he did his best to suppress 
every material intermediary between man ancf God. 
This is quite evident in the celebrated theory of the 
Logos of God. This Logos, which according to the 
Stoics is the bond between the different parts of the 
world, and according to the HeracHteans the source 
of the cosmic oppositions, is regarded by Philo as the 
Divine word which reveals God to the soul and calms 
the passions (see Logos). It is finally from this point 
of view of the interior life that Philo transforms the 
moral conception of the Greeks which he knew mainly 
in the most popular forms (cynical diatribes); he 
discovers in them the idea of the moral conscience 
accepted though but slightly developed by phi- 
losophers up to that time. A very interesting point 
of view is the consideration of the various moral 
systems of the Greeks, not simply as true or false, but 
as so many indications of the soul's progress or recoil 
at different stages. 

Consult various editions of Philo's works: Manoet (2 vols.. 
Tendon. 1742); Cohn and Wendland. I-V (Berlin. 1896-1906); 
CiTMONT, De /Etemitale Mundi (Berlin, 1891); Conybeare, 
Philo about Contemplative Life (Oxford, 1895); Harris, FraQ- 
tnenta of Philo Judtpua (Cambridge, 1886); Wendland, iVeii- 
enldeckte FragmerUe Philot (Berlin, 1891). Writino*: Grobbmann, 
De Philonis operum continua aerie, I (Leipsig, 1841), II (1842); 
MAHeEBiKAC, L« CUusement des (Euvrea de Philon in Biblioth. 
de I'Ecole dea hautea (tudes, I (1889), 1-91; Mabbebieau and 
Br^hier, Chronologie de la Vie et dea (Eutrea de Philon in Revue 
d'hiat. dea relig. (1906), 1-3. Doctrine: Drummond. Philo 
Judtrua (2 vols.. Ixindon, 1S88): Hkrriot. Philon le Juif; Esfi-ni 
aur VEcole Juive d'Alezandrie (Paris, 1898); Martin, Philon 
(Paria, 1907); Bk^hikr, Lea Idiea Philoaophii^ea et Religierut* 




(I Philon d*Alexandrie (Paris, 1908); SchDrer. Geseh. des 
JUditehm Volkea imZeitaUer Jesu Christi (3rd ed.. Berlin, 1900); 
SiBorBiED, Philo V. Alexaruiria ah Awilegerd. A. T. (Jona, 1875). 

Emile Br^hibr. 

Philomaliuzn, titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of 
Antioch. According to ancient writers Philomelium 
was situated in the south-west of Phrygia near the 
frontier of Lycaonia, on the road from Synnada to 
Iccfnium. It formed part of the **conventus" of Syn- 
nada. Its coins show that it was allied with the neigh- 
bouring city of Mandropolis (now Mandra). In the 
sixth century it formed part of Pisidla, the inhabitants 
of which pronounced its name Philomede or Philo- 
mene. In the Middle Ages it is often mentioned by 
Byzantine historians in connexion with the wars with 
the Seljukian sultans of Iconium. In the twelfth cen- 
tury it was one of the chief cities of the sultanate ; from 
this time it bore the Turkish name of Ak-Sheher 
(white city), and to-day is the chief town of the caza 
of the vilayet of Konieh, numbering 40Q0 inhabitants, 
nearly all Mussulmans, and is a station on the railway 
from Eski-Shehr to Konieh. The ancient ruins are un- 
important; they include a few inscriptions, some of 
them Christian. In a suburb is the tomb of Nasr Ed- 
din Hodja, famous for his sanctity among the Turks. 
Christianity was introduced into PhilomeUum at an 
early date. In 196 the Church of Smyrna wrote to the 
Church of Philomelium announcing the martyrdom of 
St. Poljrcarp (Eusebius "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xix). Seven 
of its bishops are known: Theosebius, present at the 
Council of Constantinople (381); Paul, at Chalcedon 
(451); Marcianus, who signed the letter to Emperor 
Leo from the bishops of Pisidia (458): Aristodemus, 
present at the Council of Constantinople (553) ; Mari- 
nus, at O)nstantinople (680 and 692)^ Sisinnius, at 
Nicsea (787) ; Euthymius at the Photian Council of 
Constantinople (879). In the Greek "Notitiae epis- 
copatuum'' Philomelium is first mentioned among the 
suffragan sees of Antioch in Pisidia, and in the ninth 
century among those of Amorium in Phrygia. It re- 
ceives mention until the thirteenth century. 

Ada SS., Jan., Ill, 317; Lb Quien, Orien« christ., I, 1059; 
Hauiutov, Researches, I, 472; II, 184; Abundell, Diacoveries, I, 
282 sq.; Tbxibb, Aaie Afmeure, 435; Smith, Diet, of Greek and 
Roman Geogr., a. v., contains bibliography of ancient authors; see 
Also the notes of MOller in Ptolemy, ed. Didot, I, 831. 

S. P^TRIDfcs 

Philomana, Saint.— On 25 May, 1802, during the 
quest for the graves of Roman martyrs in the Cata- 
comb of Priscula, a tomb was discovered and opened; 
as it contained a glass vessel it was assumed to oe the 
grave of a martyr. The view, then erroneously enteiv 
tained in Rome, that the presence of such vessels (sup- 
posed to have contained the martyr's blood) in a 
prave was a symbol of martyrdom, has been rejected 
in practice since the investigations of De Rossi (cf. 
Leclercq in "Diet, d'arch^ol. chr6t. et de liturg.", s. v. 
Ampoules de sang) . The remains found in the above- 
mentioned tomb were shown to be those of a young 
maiden, and, as the name Filumena was discovered on 
the earthenware slabs closing the grave, it was As- 
sumed that they were those of a virgin mart3T named 
Philumena, On 8 June, 1805, the relics were trans- 
lated to the church of Mugnano, Diocese of Nola (near 
Naples), and enshrined under one of its altars. In 1827 
Leo XII presented the church with the three earthen- 
ware tiles with the inscription, which may be seen in 
the church even to-day. On the basis of alleged reve- 
lations to a nun in Naples, and of an entirely fanciful 
and indefensible explanation of the all^orical paint- 
ings, which were found on the slabs beside the inscrip- 
tion, a canon of the church in Mugnano, named Di 
Lucia, composed a purely fictitious and romantic 
account of the supposed martyrdom of St. Philomena, 
who is not mentioned in any of the ancient sources. 
In consequence of the woncierful favours received in 
answer to prayer before the relics of the saint at Mu- 

gnano, devotion to them spread rapidly, and, after in- 
stituting investigations into the quo8lion,GregoryXVI 
appointed a special feast to be held on 9 September, 
"in honorem s. Philumense virginis et martyris" (cf. 
the lessons of this feast in the Roman Breviary). The 
earthenware plates were fixed in front of the grave as 
follows : Lumen A Pax tecum Fi. The plates were 
evidently inserted in the wrong order, and the inscrip- 
tion should doubtless read Pax tecum Filumena. The 
Jetters are painted on the plates with red paint, and 
the inscription belongs to the primitive class ol epi- 

§raphical memorials in the Catacomb of Priscilla, thus 
atmg from about the middle or second half of the 
second century. The disarrangement of the inscrip- 
tion proves that it must have been completed before 
the plates were put in position, although m the numer- 
ous other examples of this kind in the same catacomb' 
the inscription was adde^ only after the grave had 
been closeid. Consequently, since the disarrangement 
of the plates can scarcely be explained as arising from 
an error, Marucchi seems justified in concluding that 
the inscription and .plates originally belonged to an 
earlier grave, and were later employed (now in the 
wrong Order) to close another. Apart from the letters, 
the plates contain three arrows, either as a decoration 
or as punctuation, a leaf as decoration, two anchors, 
and a palm as the well-known Christian symbols. 
Neither these signs nor the glass vessel discovered in 
the grave can be regarded as a proof of martyrdom. 

pE Waau D. Grabeehrift d. Philumena aua d. COmeterium d. 

c^., with illustra- 
*%lumena, vergine « 
. Controversia aid ceUbre 
epUaffio di S. Filumena vergine e martire (Rome, 1906) ; Idkm, La 
queetione puramente archeUogica e atmrico-archeologiea neUa contro- 
versia Filumeniana (Rome, 1907) ; Marccchi, Studio areheologieo 
sulla celebre iscrizione di Filumena aeoperta nel cimitero di PriaciUa 
in Nuovo Bullettino di archeal. criat., XII (1^*06), 2.53 aqq. 

J. P. KiRSCH. 

Philoponu8» John. SeeEuTrcniANisM; Monoph- 


Philosophuznena. See Hippolttus. 

Philosophy.— I. Definition of Philosophy. II. 
Division of Philosophy. III. The Principal System- 
atic Solutions. iV. Philosophical Methods. V. 
The Great Historical Currents of Thought. VI. 
Contemporary Orientations. VII. Is Progress in 
Philosophy Indefinite, or Is there a PhMosophia 
Ferennisf VIII. Philosophy and the Sciences. IX. 
Philosophy and Religion. X. The Catholic Church 
and Pliilosophy. XL The Teaching of Philosophy. 
XII. Bibliography. 

I. Definition op Philosophy. — According to its 
etymology, the word "philosophy" (^iXoo'o^^ {torn 
<f>i\eTvj to love, and ffwpia^ wisdom) means "the love 
of wisdom". This sense appears again in aapien' 
liaj the word used in the Middle Ages to designate 
philosoph:^. In the early stages of Greek, as of every 
other, civilization, the boundary line between phi- 
losophy and other departments of human knowledge 
was not sharply defined, and philosophy was under- 
stood to mean "every striving tow^s knowledge". 
This sense of the word survives in Herodotus (I, xxx) 
and Thucydides (II, xl). In the ninth century of 
our era. Alcuin, employing it in the same sense, says 
that philosophy is "naturarum inquisitio, rerum 
humanarum divinarumque cognitio quantum homini 
possibile est sestimare" — investigation of nature, and 
such knowledge of things human and Divine as is 
possible for man (P. L., CI, 952). 

In its proper acceptation, philosophy does not 
mean the aggregate of the human sciences, but "the 
general science of things in the universe by their 
ultimate determinations and reasons"; or again, "the 
intimate knowledge of the causes and reasons of 
things", the profound knowledge of the universal 
order. Without here enumerating all the historic 


definitions of philosophy , some of the most si^fi- ^ particular science (e. g. chemistiy), to this or that 
cant may be given. Plato calls it ''the acquisition process of becoming, or to this or that being (e. s. 
of knowledge , icrija-tf iTurri/ifiTis (Euthydemus, 288 the combinationoftwo bodies), but to all being and wl 
d). Aristotle, mightier than his master at com- becoming. All being has within it its constituent 
pressing ideas, wntes: r^v dvofAa^/idviiv co^law vtpl principles^ which account for its substance (consti- 
r& vpQra oXtm Kal rdt dpx^i (nroKafi^povffi irdvrct — tutive material and formal causes); all becoming, 
''AH men considef philosophy as concerned with or change, whether superficial or profound^ is brought 
first causes and principles'' (Metaph., I, i). These about bv an efficient cause other than its subject; 
notions were perpetuated in the post-Anstotelean and lastly things and events have their bearings irom 
schools (Stoicism, Epicureanism, neo-Platonism), a finality, or final cause. The harmony of prind- 
with this difference, that the Stoics and Epicureans pies, or causes, produces the universal order. And 
accentuated the moral bearing of philosophy ("Phi- thus philosophy is the profound knowledge of the 
losophia studium summsB virtutis , says Seneca in universal order, in the sense of having for its object 
"Epist.'', Ixxxix, 7), and the neo-Platonists its mysti- the simplest and most general principles, by means of 
caloearing (see section V below). The Fathers of the which all other objects of thou^t are, m the last 
Church and the first philosophers of the Middle resort, explained. By these principles, says Aristotle, 
Ages seem not to have had a very clear idea of philoso- we know other things, but other things do not suffice 
phy for reasons which we will develop later on (section to make us know these principles (dtd 7d/> raOra KtU 
IX), but its conception emerges once more in all its iK to&tuv r^lLKKa 7iw/>/ferat, dXX* od raOra did t«p 
purity among the Arabic philosophers at the end of WoKeifUrup — Metaph., I). The expression univer' 
the twelfth century and the masters of Scholasticism sal order should be understood in the widest sense, 
in the thirteenth. 6t. Thbmas, adopting the Aristote- Man is one part of it: hence the relations of man 
lean idea, writes: "Sapientia est scientia quse con- with the world of sense and with its Author be- 
siderat causas primas et universales causas; sapientia long to the domain of philosophy. Now man, on 
causas primas omnium causarum considerat'| — the one hand, is the responsible author of these relar 
"Wisdom [i. e. philosophy] is the science which tions, because he is free, but he is obliged by nature it- 
considers first and universal causes; wisdom con- self to reach an aim, which is his moral end. On the 
siders the first causes of all causes''. (In metaph., I, other hand, he has the power of reflecting upon the 
lect. ii). knowledge which he acouires of all things, and this 

In general, modem philosophers may be said to leads him to study the logical structure of science, 
have adopted this way of looking at it. Descartes Thus philosophical knowledge leads to philosophical 
regards philosophy as wisdom: " PhilosophisB voces acquaintance with morality and logic. And nence 
sapientis studium denotamus" — "By the term phi- we have this more comprehensive definition of phi- 
losophy we denote the pursuit of wisdom" (Pnnc. losophy: "The profound knowledge of the universal 
philos., preface)! ^^^ ^^ understands by it "cognitio order, of the duties which that order imposes upon 
veritatis per pnmas suas causas" — "knowlec^e of man, and of the knowledge which man acquires from 
truth by its first causes" (ibid.). For Locke, philos- reaUty" — "La connaissance approfondie de I'ordre 
ophy is the true knowledge of things; for Berkeley, universel, des devoirs qui en r^ultent pour I'hommeet 
"the study of wisdom and truth (Princ). The de la science que I'homme acquiert de la r6alit^" 
many conceptions of philosophy given by Kant (Mercier, "Lojpque", 1904, p. 23). — The develop- 
reduce it to that of a science of the general prin- ment of these same ideas under another aspect will 
ciples of knowledge and of the ultimate objects be found in section VIII of this article, 
attainable by knowledge — "Wissenschaft von den II. DrvisiON op Philosophy. — Since the universal 
letzten Zwecken der menschlichen Vemunft". For order falls within the scope of philosophy (which 
the numerous German philosophers who derive studies only its first principles, not its reasons in 
their inspiration from his criticism — Fichte, Hegel, detail), philosophy is led to the consideration of 
Schelling, Schleiermacher, Schopenhauer, and the all that is: the world, God (or its cause), and man 
rest — it is the general teaching of science (Wis- himself (his nature, origin, operations, moral end, 
senachaftslehre). Many contemporary authors regard and scientific activities). 

it as the synthetic theory of the particular sciences: It would be out of the question to enumerate here 

"Philosophy", says Herbert Spencer, "is completely all the methods of dividing philosophy that have 

unified knowledge" (First Principles, § 37). Ostwald been given: we confine ourselves to those which have 

haa the same idea. For Wundt, the object of philos- played a part in history and possess the deepest 

ophy is "the acquisition of such a general conception significance. 

of the world and of life as will satisfy the exigencies A. In Greek Philosophy, — ^Two historical divisions 

of the reason and the needs of the heart" — "Gewin- dominate Greek philosophy: the Platonic and the 

nung einer allgemeinen Welt- und Lebensanschauun^, Aristotelean. 

welche die Forderungen unserer Vemunft und die (1) Plato divides philosophy into dialectic, phys- 

Bedilrfnisse unseres Gemiiths bef riedigen soil " ics, and ethics. This division is not found in Plato's 

(Einleit. in d. Philos., 1901, p. 5). This idea of phi- own writings, and it would be impossible to fit his 

losophy as the ultimate science of values (Wert^ diaJogues into the triple frame, but it corresponds to 

lehre) is emphasized by Windelband, Doring, and the spirit of the Platonic philosophy. According to 

others. Zeller, Xenocrates (314 b.c.) his msciple, and the 

The list of conceptions and definitions might be leading representative of the Old Academy, was the 

indefinitely prolonged. All of them affirm the emi- first to adopt this triadic division, which was destined 

nently synthetic character of philosophy. In the to go down through the ages (Grundriss d. Geschichte 

opinion of the present writer, the most exact and com- d. griechischen Philosophic, 144), and Aristotle 

prehensive definition is that of Aristotle. Face to follows it in dividing his master's philosophy. Dia- 

lace with nature and with himself, man reflects and lectic is the science of objective reality, i. e., of the 

endeavours to discover what the world is, and what Idea (W/o, eWof), so that by Platomc dialectic we 

he is himself. Having made the real the object of must understand metaphysics. Physics is concerned 

studies in detail, each of which constitutes science (see with the manifestations of the Idea, or with the Real, 

section Vtll), he is led to a study of the whole, to in the sensible universe, to which Plato attributes no 

incjuire into the principles or reasons of the totality of real value independent of that of the Idea. Ethics 

things, a study which supplies the answers to the last has for its object human acts. Plato deals with logic. 

Why* 8, The last Why of all rests upon all that is and but has no system of logic; this was a product of 

all that becomes: it does not apply, as in any one Aristotle's genius. 

i'HiLosoPEnr 27 pHiLosopmr 

Plato's classification was taken ^up by his school philosopher's reflection. Now there is an order 

(the Academy), built was not long in 3aelding to the which the intelligence does not form but only 

influence of Aristotle's more complete division and lie- considers; such is the order realized in nature, 

cording a place to logic. Following the inspirations of Another order, the practical, is formed either by the 

the old Academics, the Stoics divided philosophy into acts of our intelligence, or by the acts of our will, 

physics (the study of the real), logic '(the study of or by the application of those acts to external things 

the structure of science), and morals (the studv of in the arts: h^ce the division of practical philosophy 

moral acts). This classification was perpetuated by into logic, moral philosophy, and aesthetics, or the 

the neo-Platonists. who transmitted it to the Fathers philosophy of the arts (''Ad philosophiam naturalem 

of the Church, ana through them to the Middle Ages, pertinet considerare ordinem rerum quem ratio 

(2) Aristotle, Plato's illustrious disciple, the most numana conrnderat sed non facit; ita quod sub 
didactic, and at the same time the most synthetic, naturali philosophia comprehendamus et metaphor- 
mind of the Greek world, drew up a remarkable sicam. (Drdo autem quem ratio considerando facit 
scheme of the divisions of philosophy. The philo- in proprio actu, pertinet ad ration^em philosophiam, 
Bophical sciences are divided into theoretic, practical, cujus est considerare ordinem partium orationis ad 
and poetic, according as their scope is pure speculative invicem et ordinem principiorum ad invicem et ad 
knowledge, or conduct (Tpo^tt), or external produc- conclusiones. Ordo autem actionum voluntariarum 
tion (xoiifffii). Theoretic philosophy comprises: (a) pertinet ad considerationem moralis philosophise, 
physics, or the study of corporeal things which are Ordo autem quem ratio considerando facit in rebus 
subject to change (dx<Apt^ro fiiv dXX' od«c dWMyro): exterioribus per rationem humanam pertinet ad 
(b) mathematics, or the study of extension, i. e., ot artes mechamcas.'' To natural philosophy pertains 
a corporeal property not subject to change and con- the consideration of the order of things which human 
sidered, by abstraction, apart from matter {dxlinfTa reason considers but does not create — lust as we in- 
fUp oi x^P^^"^^ ^* tfftat, dXX' wt iv t\Q) ; (c) metaphysics, elude metaphysics also under natural philosophy, 
called theology, or fiirst philosophy, i. e. the study of But the order which reason creates of its own act by 
being in its unchangeable and (whether naturally or consideration pertains to rational philosophy, the 
by abstraction) incorporeal determinations {x*^^"^^ oflice of which is to consider the order of the parts of 
mX dKltnrra), Practical philosophy comprises ethics, a speech with reference to one another and the order 
economics, and politics, the second of these three of the principles with reference to one another and to 
often merging mto the last. Poetic philosophy is the conclusions. The order of voluntary actions per- 
concerU^ in general with the external works con- tains to the consideration of moral philosophy, while 
ceived by human intelligence. To these may conve- the order which the reason creates m external thin^ 
niently be added logic, the vestibule of philosophy, through the human reason pertains to the mechani- 
which Aristotle stucuea at length, and of which he cal arts. — "In X Ethic, ad Nic."j I, lect. i). The 
may be called the creator. philosophy of nature, or speculative philosophy, is 

To metaph3rsics Aristotle rightly accords the place divided into metaphysics, mathematics, and phys- 

of honour m the grouping of philosophical studies, ics, according to the three stages traversed by the 

He calls it "first philosophy . His classification intelligence in its effort to attmn a synthetic com- 

was taken up by the Peripatetic School and was prehension of the universal order, by abstracting from 

famous throughout antiquity; it was eclipsed by movement (ph3rsics), intelligible quantity (mathe- 

the Platonic classification during the Alexandrine matics), being (metaphysics) (In lib. Boeth. de Trini- 

period, but it reappeared during the Middle Ages. tate, .Q. v., a. 1). In this classification it id to be noted 

B. In the Middle Ages. — ^Though the division that, man being one element of the world of sense, 
of philosophy into its branches is not uniform in the psychology ranks as a part of physics, 
first period of the Middle Ages in the West, i. e. down C. In Modem Philosophy. — ^The Scholastic classi- 
to the end of the twelfth century, the classifications fication may be said, generally speaking, to have 
of this i)eriod are mostly akin to the Platonic division lasted, with some exceptions, until the seventeenth 
into logic, ethics, and physics. Aristotle's classifica- century. Beginning with Descartes, we find a mul- 
tion of the theoretic sciences, though made known by titude of classifications arising, differing in the 
Boethius, exerted no influence for the reason that principles which inspire them. Kant^ for instance, 
in the early Middle Ages the West knew nothing distinguishes metaphysics, moral philosophy, reli- 
ef Aristotle exc^t his works on logic and some gion, and anthropology. The most widely accepted 
fragments of his speculative philosophy (see scheme, that which still governs the division of the 
section V below). It should be added here that branches of philosophy in teaching, is due to Wolff 
philosophy, reduced at first to dialectic, or logic, (167^1755), a disciple of Leibniz, who has been called 
and placed as such in the Trivium, was not long in the educator of Germany in the eighteenth century, 
setting itself above the liberal arts. This scheme is as follows: 

The Arab philosophers of the twelfth century ,jx lo_5^» 

(Avicenna, Averroes) accepted the Aristotelean v ; gi ^ 

classification, and when their works — ^particularly | physics^ 

their translations of Aristotle's great original treatises (&) SpeoaUUve Philosophy-^ 

— ^penetrated into the West, the Aristotelean division ' 

definitively took its place there. Its coming is Lspeci*! MeU-^ 

heralded by Gundissaiinus (see section XII), one phymcs 

of the Toletan translators of Aristotle, and rEthica 

author of a treatise, "De divisione philosophic", (8) Practical Philoeophy-i Politics 

which was imitated by Michael Scott and Robert LEconomics 

Kilw£uxiby. St. Thomas did no more than adopt it Wolff broke the ties binding the particular sciences 

and pve it a precise scientific form. Later on we to philosophy, and placed them by themselves; in 

shall see that, conformably with the medieval notion his view philosophy must remain purely rational. 

of 9apieniiaf to each part of philosophy corresponds It is easy to see that the members of Wolff's scheme 

the preliminary study of a group of special sciences, are found in the Aristotelean classification, wherein 

The general scheme of the division of philosophy theodicy is a chapter of metaphysics and psychology 

in the thirteenth century, with St. Thomas's com- a chapter of physics. It may even be said that the 

mentary on it, is as follows: Greek classification is better than Wolff's in regard 

There are as many parts of philosophy as there are to speculative philosophy, where the ancients were 

distinct domains in the order submitted to the guided by the formal object of the study — i. e. by 

rOntoIo^, or General Meta- 

Theodicy (the 
study of God). 

Cosmology (the 
study of the 

PBychology (the 
study ofMan). 




the de^ee of abstraction to which the whole universe 
is subjected, while the modems always look at the 
matenal object— i. e., the three categories of beings 
which it is possible to study, God, the world of sense, 
and man. 

D. In Contemporary PhUosovhy. — ^The impulse 
received by philosophy during the last half-century 
gave rise to new philosophical sciences, in the sense 
that various branches have been detached from 
the main stems. In psychology this phenomenon 
has been remarkable: criteriology, or epistemol- 
ogy (the study of the certitude of knowledge) 
has developed into a special study. Other branches 
which have formed themselves into new psycho- 
logical sciences are: physiological psychology, 
or the study of the physiological concomitants 
of psychic activities; didactics, or the science of 
teaching; pedagogy, or the science of education; 
collective pisychology and the psychology of peoples 
(Vdlkerpsychologie)^ studying the psychic phenomena 
observaole in human groups as such,* and in the dif- 
ferent races. An important section of lo^ic (called 
also noetic, or canonic) is tending*to sever itself from 
the main body^ viz., methodology, which studies 
the special logical formation of various sciences. 
On moral philosophy, in the wide sense^ have been 
grafted the philosopny of law, the philosophy of 
society, or social philosophy (which is much the same 
as sociology), and the philosophies of. religion and 
of histoiy. 

III. THE Principal Systematic Solutions. — 
From what has been said above it is evident that 
philosophy is beset by a great number of questions. 
It would not be possible here to enumerate all those 
questions, much less to detail the divers solutions 
which have been given to them. The solution of 
a philosophic question is called a philosophic doctrine, 
or theoi^r. A philosophic system (from vvviorrifu^ 
put together) is a complete and organized group of 
solutions. It is not an incoherent assemblage or an 
encyclopedic amalgamation of such solutions; it is 
dominated by an organic unity. Only those -phil- 
osophic systems which are constructed conformably 
with the exigencies of organic unity are really power- 
ful : such are the systems of the Upanishads, of Aristotle, 
of neo-Platonism^ of Scholasticism, of Leibniz, Kant, 
and Hume. So that one or several theories do not 
constitute a system; but some theories, i. e. answers 
to a philosophic question, are important enough to 
determine the solution of other important problems 
of a system. The scope of this section is to indicate 
some of these theories. 

A. Monism^ or Pantheism^ and Pluralism^ Indi- 
mdualism, or Theism, — Are there many beings dis- 
tinct in their reality, with one Supreme Being, God, 
at the summit of the hierarchy; or is there but one 
reality (/aoi^i, hence monism), one All-God {Tap-dtbi)^ 
of whom each individual is but a member or fragment 
(Substantialistic Pantheism), or else a force, or energy 
(Dynamic Pantheism)? Here we have an important 
question of metaphysics the solution of which reacts 
upon all other domuns of philosophy. The systems 
of Aristotle, of the Scholastics, and of Leibniz are 
Pluralistic and Theistic; the Indian, neo-Platonic, 
and Hegelian are Monistic. Monism is a fascinating 
explanation of the real, but it only postpones the 
diniculties which it imagines itself to be solving (e. g. 
the difficulty of the interaction of things), to say 
nothing of the objection, from the human point of 
view, that it runs counter to our most deeply-rooted 

B. Objectivism and Suhjectimsm. -^lyoes being, 
whether one or many, possess its own life, independent 
of our mind, so that to be known by us is only accidental 
to being, as in the objective system of metaphysics 
(e. g. Aristotle, the Scholastics, Spinoza)? Or has 
being no other reality than the mental and subjective 

presence which it acquires in our representation of 
it as in the Subjective system (e. g. Hume)? It is 
in this sense that the ''Revue de m^taphysique et 
de morale" (see bibliography) uses the term meta- 
physics in its title. Subjectivism cannot explain 
the passivity of our mental representations, which 
we do not draw out of ourselves, and which therefore 
oblige us to infer the reality of a non-ego. 

C. SubstanHalism and Pkenometiism. — Is all reality 
a flux of phenomena (Heraclitus, Berkeley, Hume, 
Taine), or does the manifestation appear upon a 
basis, or substance, which manifests it»elf, ana does 
the phenomenon demand a noumenon (the Scholas- 
tics)? Without an underlying substance, which 
we only know through the medium of the phenomenon, 
certain realities, as walking, talking, are inexplicable, 
and such facts as memory become absufd. 

D. Mechanism and Dynamism (Pure and Modified). 
— Natural bodies are considered by some to be aggre- 
gations of homogeneous particles of matter (atoms) 
receiving a movement which is extrinsic to them, so 
that these bodies differ only in the number and 
arrangement of their atoms (the Atomism, or Mechan- 
ism, of Democritus, Descartes, and Hobbes). Others 
reduce them to specific, unextended, immaterial 
forces, of which extension is only the superficial 
manifestation (Leibniz). Between the two is Modi- 
fied Dynamism (Aristotle), which distinguishes in 
bodies an immanent specific principle (form) and an 
indeterminate element (matter) which is the source of 
limitation and extension. This theory accounts for 
the specific characters of the entities in question as 
well as for the reality of their extension in space. 

E. MaUrialiem, Agnosiicismy and Spirittudism, — 
That everything real is material, that whatever 
might be immaterial would be unreal, such is the 
cardinal doctrine of Materialism (the Stoics, Hobbes, 
De Lamettrie). Contemporary Materialism is less 
outspoken: it is inspired by a Positivist ideology 
(see section VI), and asserts that, if anything supra- 
material exists, it is unknowable (Agnosticism, from 
d and 7»'5o'tf, knowledge. Spencer. Huxley). Spirit- 
ualism teaches that incorporeal, or immaterial, 
beings exist or that they are possible (Plato, 
Aristotle, St. Augustine, the Scholastics, Des- 
cartes, Leibniz). Some have even asserted that 
only spirits exist: Berkeley, Pichte, and Hegel are 
exaggerated Spiritualists. The truth is that there 
are Dodies and spirits; among the latter we are 
acquainted (though less well than with bodies) with 
the nature of our soul, which is revealed by the nature 
of our immaterial acts, and with the nature of God, 
the infinite intelligence, whose existence is demon- 
strated by the very existence of finite things. Side 
by side with these solutions relating to the problems 
of the real, there is another group of solutions, not 
less influential in the orientation of a system, and 
relating to psychical problems or those of the human 

F. Sensualism and Ralionalismy or Spiritualism. — 
These are the opposite poles of the ideogenetic ques- 
tion, the Question of the origin of our knowledge. 
For Sensualism the only source of human knowledge 
is sensation: everything reduces to transformed 
sensations. This theory, long ago put forward in 
Greek philosophy (Stoicism, Epicureanism), was 
developed to the full by the English Sensualists 
(Locke, Berkeley, Hume) and the English Associa- 
tionists (Brown, Hartley, Priestley); its modem 
form is Positivism (John Stuart Mill, Huxley, Spen- 
cer, Comte, Taine, Littrd etc.). Were this theory trtie, 
it would follow that we can know only what falls 
under our senses, and therefore cannot pronounce 
upon the existence or non-existence, the reality or 
unreality, of the super-sensible. Positivism is more 
logical than Materialism. In the New World, the 
term Agnosticism has been very happily employed 




to indicate this attitude of reserve towards the super- 
sensible. Rationalism (from ratio ^ reason), or Spirits 
ualism, establishes the existence in us of concepts 
higher than sensations, i. e. of abstract and general 
concepts (Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, the Scholas- 
tics, Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Cousin etc.)- Ideo- 
logic SpirituaUsm has won the adherence of hmnan- 
ity's greatest thinkers. Upon the spirituality, or 
immateriality, of our higher mental operatiozis is based 
the proof of the spirituality of the principle from 
which they proceea and, hence, of the immortality 
of the soul. 

G. Scepticism^ Dogmatism^ and Crilidsm.-^So 
many answers have been given to the question: 
whether man can attain truth, and what is the 
foundation of certitude, that we will not attempt 
to enumerate them all. Scepticism declares reason 
incapable of arriving at the truth, and holds certitude 
to be a purely subjective affair (Sextus Empiri- 
cus, ^nesidemus). Dogmatism asserts that man can 
attain to truth, and that, in measure to be further 
determined, our cognitions are cert.ain. The motive 
of certitude is, for the Traditionalists, a^ Divine rev- 
elation, for the Scotch School (Reid) it is ^an in- 
clination of nature to affirm the principles of com- 
mon sense; it is an irrational, but social, necessity 
of admitting dertain principles for practical dogma- 
tism (Balfour in his 'Foundations of Belief" speaks 
of "non-rational impulse", while Mallock holds that 
"certitude is found to be the child, not of reason but 
of custom" and Bruneti^re writes about "the bank- 
ruptcy of science and the need of belief"); it is an 
affective sentiment, a necessity of wishing that cer- 
tain things may be verities (Voluntarism; Kant's 
Moral Dogmatism), or the fact of living certain 
verities (contemporary Pragmatism and Humanism; 
William James, Schiller). But for others^— and 
this is the theory which we accept — the motive of 
certitude is the very evidence of the connexion 
which appears between the predicate and the sub- 
ject of a proposition, an evidence which the mind 
perceives, out which it does not create (Moderate 
Dogmatism). Lastly for Criticism, which is the 
Kantian solution of the problem of knowledge, 
evidence is created by the mind by means of tne 
structural functions with which every human in- 
tellect is furnished (the categories of the understand- 
ing). In conformity with these functions we con- 
nect the impressions of the senses and construct the 
world. Knowledge, therefore, is valid only for the 
world as represented to the mind. Kantian Crit- 
icism ends in excessive Idealism, which is also 
called Subjectivism, or Phenomenalism, and accord- 
ing to which the mind draws all its representations 
out of itself . both the sensory impressions and the 
categories wnich connect them: the world becomes a 
mental poem, the object is created by the subject 
as representation (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel). 

H. Nominaliamf RealisMf and Conceptualism are 
various answers to the question of the real objectiv- 
ity of our predications, or of the relation of fidelity 
existing between our general representations and the 
external world (see Nominalism, Realism, (Dok- 

I. Determinism and Indeterminiam. — Has every 
phenomenon or fact its adequate cause in an ante- 
cedent phenomenon or fact (Cosmic Determinism)? 
And, in respect to acts of the will, are they likewise 
determined in all their constituent elements (Moral 
Determinism, Stoicism, Spinoza)? If so, then liberty 
disappears, and with it human responsibifity, merit, 
and demerit. Or, on the contrary, is there a cate- 
gory of volitions which are not necessitated, and 
which depend upon the discretionary power of the 
win to act or not to act and in acting to follow a 
freely chosen direction? Does liberty exist? Most 
Spintualists of all schools have adopted a liber- 

tarian philosophy, holding that liberty alone 
gives the moral life an acceptable meaning; by 
various argumente they have confirmed tie testimony 
of conscience and the data of common consent. In 
physical nature causation and determinism rule; 
m the moral life, liberty. Others, by no means 
numerous, have even t^retended to discover cases of 
indeterminism in physical nature (the so-called 
Contingentist theories, e. g. Boutroux). 

J. Utilitarianism and the Morality of Obligatum.-^ 
What constitutes the foundation of morality in our 
actions? Pleasure or utility say some, personal 
or egoistic pleasure (Egoism — Hoboes, Bentham, and 
"the arithmetic of pleasure"); or again, in the 
pleasure and utility of all (Altruism — John Stuart 
Mill). Others hold that morality consists in the 
performance of duty for duty's sake, the observance 
of law because it is law, independently of personal 
profit (the Formalism of the Stoics and of Kant). 
According to another doctrine, which in our opinion 
is more correct, utility, or personal advantage, is 
not incompatible with duty, but the source of the 
obligation to act is in the last analysis, as the very 
exigencies of our nature tell us, the ordinance of 

IV. Philosophical Methods. — Mefhod {/uB* 66^y^ 
means a path taken to reach some objective point. 
By philosophical method is imderstood the path 
leading to philosophy, which, again, may mean 
either the process employed in the construction of 
a philosophy (constructive method, method of in- 
vention), or the way of teaching philosophy (method 
of teaching, didactic method). We will deal here 
with the former of these two senses; the latter will 
be treated in section XI. Three methods can be, 
and have been, applied to the construction of 

A. Experimental (Empiric, or Analytic) Method, — 
The method of all Empiric philosophers is to observe 
facts, accumulate them, and co-ordinate them. 
Pushed to its ultimate consequences, the empirical 
method refuses to rise beyond observed and observ- 
able fact; it abstains from investigating anything 
that is absolute. It is found among the Materialists, 
ancient and naodem, and is most unreservedly applied 
in contemporary Positivism. (Domte opposes the 
''positive mode of thinking", based solely upon 
observation, to the theological and metaphysical 
modes. For Mill, Huxley, Bain. Spencer, there is 
not one philosophical proposition but is the product, 
pure ana simple, of experience: what we take for a 
general idea is an aggregate of sensations; a judgment 
IS the union of two sensations; a syllogism, the 
passage from particular to particular (Mill, ''A 
system of Logic, Rational and Inductive", ed. 
Lubbock, 1892; Bain, '/Logic", New York, 1874). 
Mathematical propositions, fundamental axioms 
such as a=a, the principle of contradiction, the prin- 
ciple of causality are only "generalizations from facte 
of e]9)erience" (Mill, op. cit., vii. §5). According 
to this author, what we oelieve to be superior to ex- 
perience in the enunciation of scientific laws is derived 
from our subjective incapacity to conceive ite con- 
tradictory; according to Spencer, this inconceivabil- 
ity of the negation is developed by heredity. 

Applied in an exaggerated and exclusive fashion, 
the experimental method mutilates facts, since it is 
powerless to ascend to the causes and the laws which 
govern facte. It suppresses the character of objective 
necessity which is inherent in scientific jud^ente, 
and reduces them to collective formulie of facte 
observed in the past. It forbids our asserting, e. g., 
that the men who will be bom after us will be subject 
to death, seeing that all certitude reste on experience, 
and that by mere observation we cannot reach the 
unchangeable nature of things. The empirical 
method, left to its own resources, checks the upward 




movement of the mind towards the causes or objects 
of the phenomena which confront it. 

B. Efeducavef or Synthetic a Priorif Method. — At 
the opposite pole to the preceding, the deductive 
method starts from vei^ general principles, from 
higher causes, to descend (Lat. deducerCf to lead down) 
to more and more complex relations and to facts. 
The dream of the Deductionist is to take as the 
point of departure an intuition of the Absolute, of 
the Supreme Reality — ^for the Theists, God; for the 
Monists, the Universal Being — ^and to draw from this 
intuition the synthetic knowledge of all that depends 
upon it in the universe, in conformity with the 
metaphysical scale of the real. Plato is the father of 
deductive philosophy: he starts from the world of 
Ideas, and from the Idea of the Sovereign Good, and 
he would know the reality of the world of sense 
only in the Ideas of which it is the reflection. 
St. Au^stine, too, finds his satisfaction in studying 
the universe, and the least of the beings which com- 
pose it, only in a synthetic contemplation of God, the 
exemplary, creative, and final cause of all things. 
So, too, the Middle Ages attached great importance 
to the deductive method. "I propose", writes 
Boethius, ''to build science by means of concepts 
and maxims, as is done in mathematics." Anselm 
of Canterbury draws from the idea of God, not 
only the proof of the real existence of an infinite 
being, but also a group of theorems on His attributes 
and His relations with the world. Two centuries 
before Anselm, Scotus Eriugena, the father of anti- 
Scholasticism, is the completest type of the Deduc- 
tionist: his metaphysics is one long descrii)tion of the 
Divine Odyssey, inspired by the neo-Platonic, monistic 
conception of the descent of the One in its successive 
generations. And, on the very threshold of the thir- 
teenth century, Alain de Lille would apply to phi- 
losophy a mathematical methodology. In the thir- 
teenth century Raymond Lully believed that he had 
found the secret of "the Great Art" {ars magna), 
a sort of syllogism-machine, built of general tabu- 
lations of ideas, the combination of which would give 
the solution of any question whatsoever. Des- 
cartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz are Deductionists: they 
would construct philosophy after the manner of 
geometry {more aeom£irico)j linking the most special 
and complicatea theorems to some very simple 
axioms. The same tendency appears among the 
Ontologists and the post-Kantian Pantheists in Ger- 
many (Fichte, Schelling, Hegel), who base their 
philosophy upon an intuition of the Absolute Being. 

The deductive philosophers generally profess to 
disdain the sciences of observation. Their great 
fault is the comprombing of fact, bending it to a 
preconceived explanation or theory assumed a priori, 
whereas the observation of the fact ought to precede 
the assignment of its cause or of its adequate reason. 
This defect in the deductive method appears glaringly 
in a youthful work of Leibniz's, "Specimen denion- 
strationum politicarum pro rege Polonorum eli- 

§endo", published anonjrmously in 1669, where he 
emonstrates by geometrical methods {more geo- 
melrico)f in sixty propositions, that the Count Pala- 
tine of Neuburg ought to be elected to the Polish 

C. Anatytico-Synthetic Method, — This corrhiiuition 
of analysis and S3rnthe8is, of observation and deduc- 
tion, is the only method appropriate to philosophy. 
Indeed, since it undertakes to furnish a general 
explanation of the universal order (see section I), 
philosophy ought to be^n with complex effects, 
facts known by observation, before attempting to 
include them in one comprehensive explanation of 
the universe. This is manifest in psychology, where 
we begin with a careful examination of activities, 
notably of the phenomena of sense, of intelligence, 
and of appetite; in cosmology, where we observe the 

series of changes, superficial and profound, of bodies; 
in moral philosophy, which sets out from the observa- 
tion of moral facts; in theodicy, where we interrogate 
religious betiefs and feelings; even in metaphysics, 
the starting-point of which is really existing being. 
But observation and analysis once completed, the 
work of synthesis begins. We must pass onward 
to a synthetic psychology that shall enable us to 
comprehend the destinies of man's vital principle; 
to a cosmology that shall explain the constitution 
of bodies, their changes, and the stabiUty of the laws 
which govern them: to a synthetic moral philosophy 
establiSiing the end of man and the ultimate ground 
of duty; to a theodicy and deductive metaphysics 
that shall examine the attributes of God and the 
fundamental conceptions of all being. As a whole 
and in each of its divisions, philosophy applies the 
analytic-synthetic method. Its ideal would be to 
give an account of the universe and of man by a 
synthetic knowledge of God, upon whom all reality 
oepends. This panoramic view — the eagle's view 
of things — ^has allured all the great geniuses. St. 
Thomas expresses himself admirably on this synthetic 
knowledge of the imiverse and its first cause. 

The analytico-eynthetic process is the method, not 
only of philosophy, but of every science, for it is the 
natural law of thought, the proper function of which 
is unified and orderly knowledge. ''Sapientis est 
ordinare." Aristotle, St. Thomas, Pascal, Newton, 
Pasteur, thus understood the method of the sciences. 
Men hke Helmholtz and Wundt adopted erjmthetic 
views after doing anal3rtical work. Even the Posi- 
tivists are metaphysicians, though they do not know 
it or wish it. ifoes not Herbert Spencer call his 
philosophy synthetic? and does he not, by reasoning, 
pass beyond that domain of the '' observable" within 
which he professes to confine himself? 

V. The Great Historical Currents. — ^Among 
the many peoples who have covered the globe phil- 
osophic culture appears in two groups: the Semitic 
and the Indo-European, to which may be added the 
Egyptians and the Chinese. In the Semitic group 
(Arabs, Babylonians, Assyrians, Aramsans, Chal- 
deans) the Arabs are the inost important; neverthe- 
less, their part becomes insignificant when compared 
with the intellectual life of the Indo-Europeans. 
Amon^ the latter, philosophic life appears succes- 
sively in various ethnic divisions, and the succession 
forms the great periods into which the history of 
philosophy is divided; first, among the people of 
India (since 1500 b. c); then among the Greeks and 
the Romans (sixth century B. c. to sixth century of 
our era)^ again, much later, among the peoples of 
Central and Northern Europe. 

A. Indian Philosophy. — The philosophy of India 
is recorded principally in the sacred books of the 
Veda, for it has always been closely united with 
religion. Its numerous poetic and religious produc- 
tions carry within themselves a chronology which 
enables us to assign them to three periods. (1) The 
Period of the Hymns of the Rig Veda (1500-1000 
B. c). This is the most ancient monument of Indo- 
Germanic civilization; in it may be seen the progres- 
sive appearance of the fundamental theory that 
a single Being exists under a thousand forms in the 
multiplied phenomena of the universe (Monism). 
(2) The Period of the Br&hmAnas (1000-500 b. c). 
This is the age of Brahminical civilization. The 
theory of the one Being remains, but little by little 
the concrete and anthropomorphic ideas of the one 
Being are replaced by the doctrine that the basis of 
all things is in oneself {dtman). Psychological 
Monism appears in it« entirety in the Upanishads: 
the absolute and adequate identity of the Ego — 
which is the constitutive basis of our individuality 
{dlmati) — and of all things, with Brahman, the 
eternal being exalted above time, space, number. 




and change, the generating principle of ail things, 
in which all things are finally reabsorbed— such is 
the fundamental theme to be found in the Upanishads 
under a thousand variations of form. To arrive at 
the &tman, we must not stop at empirical reality, 
which is multiple and cognizable; we must pierce 
this husk, penetrate to the unknowable and in- 
effable superessence, and identify ourselves with 
it in an imconscious unity. (3) The Post-Vedic, 
or Sanskrit, Period (since 500 b. c). From the 
germs of theories contained in the Upanishads, 
a series of systems spring up, orthodox or neterodox. 
Of the orthodox systems, Yedanta is the most inter- 
esting; in it we find the principles of the Upanishads 
devek>ped in an integral philosophy which comprises 
metaphysics, cosmology, psychology, and ethics 
(transmigration, metempsychosis). Among the sys- 
tems not in harmony with the Vedic dogmas, the 
most celebrated is Buddhism, a kind of Pessimism 
which teaches liberation from pain in a state of 
unconscious repose, or an extinction of person- 
ahty {Ntrvdna), Buddhism spread in China, where 
it lives side by side with the doctrines of Lao Tsee 
and that of Confucius. It is evident that even the 
systems which are liot in harmony with the Veda 
are permeated with religious ideas. 

B. Greek Philosophy, — ^This philosophy, which 
occupied six centuries before, and six after, Christ, 
may be divided into four periods, corresponcung with 
the succession of the principal tines of research: 

(1) From Thales of Miletus to Socrates (seventh to 
fifth centuries b. c. — preoccupied with cosmology); 

(2) Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle (fifth to fourth 
centuries b. c. — psychology) ; (3) From the death of 
Aristotle to the rise of neo-Platonism (end of the 
fourth century b. c. to third century after Christ 
— moral philosophy); (4) neo-Platonic School (from 
the third century after Christ, or, including the sys- 
tems of the forerunners of neo-Platonism, from Uie 
first century after Christ, to the end of Greek philos- 
ophy in the seventh century — ^mysticism). 

(1) The pre-Socratic philosophers either seek for 
the stable basis of things — which is water, for Thales 
of Miletusj air, for Anaximenes of Miletus: air 
endowed with intelligence, for Diogenes of Apollonia; 
number, for Pythagoras (sixth century b. c); ab- 
stract and immovable being, for the Eleatics— or 
they study that which changes: while Parmenides 
and the Eleatics assert that everything is, and noth- 
ing clumges or becomes. Heraclitus (about 535-475) 
h(3ds that everything becomes, and nothing is 
unchangeable. Democritus (fifth century) reduces 
all beings to groups of atoms in motion, and this 
movement, according to Anaxagoras, has for its cause 
an inteltigent being. (2) The Period of Apogee: 
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. When the Sopmsts 
(Protagoras, Gorgias) had demonstrated the insuffi- 
ciency of these cosmologies, Socrates (470-399) 
brought philosophical investigation to bear on man 
himself, studying man chiefly from the moral point 
of view. From the presence in us of abstract ideas 
Plato (427-347) deduced the existence of a world 
of supersensible reaUties or ideas, of which the 
visible world is but a pale reflection. These ideas, 
which the soul in an eartier life contemplated, are 
now, because of its union with the body, but faintly 
perceived. Aristotle (384-322), on the contrary, 
shows that the real dwells in the objects of sense. 
The theory of act and potentiatity, of form and matter, 
is a new solution of the relations between the per- 
manent and the 'changing. His psychology, founded 
upon the principle of the unity of man and the 
substantial union of soul and boay, is a creation of 
^nius. And as much may be said of his logic. (3) 
The Moral Period. After Aristotle (end of the fourth 
century b. c.) four schools are in evidence: Stoic, 
Epicurean, Platonic, and Aristotelean. The Stoics 

(2ieno of Citium, Cleanthes, Chrysippus), tike the 
Epicureans, make speculation subordinate to the 
quest of happiness, and the two schools, in spite of 
uieir divergencies, both consider happiness to be an 
drapa^la or absence of sorrow and preoccupation. 
The teachings of both on nature (Dynamistic Monism 
with the Stoics, and Pluralistic Mechanism with the 
Epicureans) are only a prologue to th^ir moral phi- 
losophy. After the latter half of the second century 
B. c. we perceive reciprocal infiltrations between the 
various schools. This issues in Eclecticism. Seneca 
(first century b. c.) and Cicero (106-43 b. c.) are at- 
tached to Eclecticism with a Stoic basis; two great 
commentators of Aristotle, Andronicus of Rhodes 
(first century b. c.) and Alexander of Aphrodisias 
(about 200), affect a Peripatetic Eclecticism. Paral- 
lel with Eclecticism runs a current of Scepticism 
(iEnesidemus, end of first century b. Cm and Sextus 
Empiricus, second century a. d.). (4) The Mystical 
Period. In the first century b. c. Alexandria had be- 
come the capital of Greek intellectual tife. Mystical 
and theurgic tendencies, bom of a longing for the ideal 
and the beyond, began to appear in a current of Greek 
philosophy which originated in a restoration of 
Py thagonsm and its alliance with Platonism (Plutarch 
of Chaeronea. first century b. c. ; Apuleiusof Madaura; 
Numenius, about 160 and others), and still more in the 
Grseco-Judaic philosophy of Pbilo the Jew (30 b. c. 
to A. D. 50). But the dominance of these tendencies is 
more apparent in neo-Platonism. The most brilUant 
thinker of the neo-Platonic series is Plotinus (a. d. 
204-70) . In his '' Enneads " he traces the paths which 
lead the soul to the One, and estabtishes, in keeping 
with his mysticism, an emanationist metaphysical 
system. Porphyry of Tyre (232-304), a disciple 
of Plotinus. popularizes his teaching, emphasizes 
its retigious oearing, and makes Aristotle's '' Organon " 
the introduction to neo-Platonic philosophy. . Later 
on, neo-Platonism, emphasizing its religious features, 
placed itself, with JambUchus, at the service 
of the pagan pantheon which growing Chris^ 
tianity was ruining on all sides, or again, as with 
Themistius at Constantinople (fourth century), 
Proclus and Simpticius at Athens (fifth century), and 
Anunonius at Alexandria, it took an Encyclopedic 
turn. With Ammonius and John Philoponus (sixth 
century) the neo-Platonic School of Alexandria 
developed in the direction of Christianity. 

C. Patristic Philosophy. — In the closmg years of 
the second century and. still more, in the third cen- 
tury, the philosophy or the Fathers of the Church 
was developed. It was born in a civilization domi- 
nated by Greek ideas, chiefly neo-Platonic, and on this 
side its mode of thought is still the ancient. Still, 
if some, like St. Augustine, attach the greatest value 
to the neo-Platonic teachings, it must not be forgotten 
that the Monist or Pantheistic and Emanationist ideas, 
which have been accentuated by the successors of 
Plotinus, are carefully replaced by the theory of 
creation and the substantial distinction of bemgs; 
in this respect a new spirit animates Patristic phi- 
losophy. It was developed, too, as an auxiUary of the 
dogmatic system which the Fathers were to establish. 
In the third century the great representatives of the 
Christian School of Alexandria are Clement of 
Alexandria and Oriffen. After them Gregory of 
Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Ambrose, and, 
al>ove idl, St. Augustine (354-430) appear. St. 
Au([ustine gathers up the intellectual treasures of the 
ancient world, and is one of the principal interme- 
diaries for their transmission to the modem world. 
In its definitive form Au^ustinism is a fusion of in- 
tellectualism and mysticism, with a study of God 
as the centre of interest. In the fifth century, 
pseudo-Dionysius perpetuates many a neo-Platonio 
doctrine adapted to Christianity, and his writings 
exercise a powerful influence in the Middle Ages. 




p. Medieval Philosophy, — The philosophy of the 
Middle Ages developed simultaneously in the West, 
at Byzantium, and in divers Eastern centres; but 
the Western philosophy is the most important. It 
built itself up with great effort on the ruins of bar- 
barisin: until the twelfth century, nothing was known 
of Aristotle, except some treatises on logic, or of 
Plato, except a few dialogues. Gradually, problems 
arose, and, foremost, in importance, the question of 
universals in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries 
(see Nominalism), ^t. Anseim (1033-1109) made a 
firet attempt at systematizing Scholastic philosophy, 
and developed a theodicy. But as early as the 
ninth century an anti-Scholastic philosophy had 
arisen with £riugena who revived the neo-Platonic 
Monism. In the twelfth century Scholasticism formu- 
lated new anti-Realist doctrines with Ad^ard of 
Batn, Gauthier de Mortagne, and, above all, Abelard 
and Gilbert de la Porr^e, whilst extreme Realism 
took shape in the schools of Chartres. John of 
Salisbury and Alain de Lillc, in the twelfth 
century, are the co-ordinating minds that in- 
dicate the maturity of Scholastic thought. The 
latter of these waged a campaign against the Pan- 
theism of David of Pinant and the Epicureanism of 
the Albigenses — the two most important forms of 
anti-Scholastic philosophy. At Byzantium, Greek 
philosophy held its ground throughout the Middle 
Ages, and kept apart from the movement of Western 
ideas. The same is true of the S3rrians and Arabs. 
But at the end of the twelfth century the Arabic 
and Byzantine movement entered into relation with 
Western thought, and effected, to the profit of the 
latter, the brilliant philosophical revival of the thir- 
teenth century. This was due, in the first place, 
to the creation of the University of Paris; next, to 
the foundation of the Dominican and Franciscan 
orders; lastly, to the introduction of Arabic and 
Latin translations of Aristotle and the ancient au- 
thors. At the same period the works of Avicenna and 
Averroes became known at Paris. A pleiad of bril- 
liant names fills the thirteenth century — Alexander 
of Hales, St. Bonaventure, Bl. Albertus Magnus, St. 
Thomas Aquinas, Godfrey of Fontaines. Henry of 
Ghent, Giles of Rome, and Duns Scotus bring Scho- 
lastic synthesis to perfection. They all wage war on 
Latin Averroism and anti-Scholasticism, defended in 
the schools of Paris by Siger of Brabant. Roger 
Bacon, Lully, and a group of neo-Platonists occupy 
a place apart in this century, which is completely 
filled by remarkable figures. In the fourteenth cen- 
tury Scholastic philosophy betrays the firat symptoms 
of decadence. In place of individualities we have 
schools, the chief being the Thomist, the Scotist, 
and the Terminist School of William of Occam, 
which soon attracted numerous partisans. With 
John of Jandun, Averroism perpetuates its most 
audacious propositions; Eckhart and Nicholas 
of Cusa formulate philosophies which are sympto- 
matic of the approaching revolution. The Renais- 
sance was a troublous period for philosophy. Ancient 
systems were revived: the Dialectic of the Humanistic 
philologists (Lauren tins Valla, Viv^s), Platonism. 
Aristoteleanism, Stoicism. Telesius, CampancUa, and 
Giordano Bruno follow a naturalistic philosophy. 
Natural and social law are renewed with Thomas 
More and Grotius. All these philosophies were 
leaded together against Scholasticism, ana very often 
against Catholicism. On the other hand, the 
Scholastic philosophers grew weaker and weaker, 
and, excepting for the brilliant Spanish Scholasticism 
of the sixteenth century (Bafiez, Suarez, Vasquez, 
and so on), it may be said that ignorance of the fun- 
damental doctrine became general. In the sevon- 
toenth century there was no one to support Schohis- 
ticism: it fell, not for lack of ideas, but for lack of 

E. Modem Philosophy. — The philosophies of the 
Renaissance are mainly negative: modem philosophy 
is, first and foremost, constructive. The latter is 
emancipated from all do^a: many of its syntheses 
are powerful; the definitive formation of the various 
nationalities and the diversity of languages favour 
the tendency to individualism. The two great initia- 
tors of modem philosophy are Descartes and Francis 
Bacon. The former inaugurates a spiritualistic 
philosophy based on the data of consciousness, and 
his influence may be traced in Malebranche, Spinoza, 
and Leibniz. Bacon heads a line -of Empiricists, who 
regarded sensation as the only source of knowledge. 
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a 
Sensualist philosophy grew up in England, based on 
Baconian Empiricism, and soon to develop in the 
direction of Subjectivism. Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, 
and David Hume mark the stages of this logical 
evolution. Simultaneously an Associationist psy- 
chology appeared also inspired by Sensualism, and, 
before long, it formed a special field of research. 
Brown, David Hartley, and Priestley developed the 
theory of association of ideas in various directions. 
At the outset Sensualism encountered vigorous opposi- 
tion, even in Endand, from the Mystics and Plato- 
nists of the Cambridge School (Samuel Parker and, 
especially, Ralph Cudworth). The reaction was still 
more lively in the Scotch School, founded and chiefly 
represented by Thomas Reid, to which Adam Fer- 
guson, Oswald, and Dugald Stewart belonged in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and which 
had great influence over Eclectic Spiritualism, chiefly 
in America and France. Hobbes's "selfish" system 
was developed into a moraUty by Bentham, a parti- 
san of Egoistic Utilitarianism, and by Adam Smith, 
a defender of Altruism, but provoked a reaction 
amoiig the advocates of the moral sentiment theory 
(Shaftesbury, Hutcheson, Samuel Clarke). In 
England, also, Theism or Deism was chiefly 
developed, instituting a criticism of all positive 
religion, which it sou^t to supplant with a 
philosophical religion. English Sensualism spread 
m France during the eighteenth century: its influence 
is traceable in de Condilla<^ de la Mettrie, and the 
Encyclopedists; Voltaire popularized it in France 
and with Jean-Jacques Rousseau it made its way 
among the masses, undermining their Christianity 
and preparing the Revolution of 1789. In Germany, 
the philosophy of the eighteenth century is, directly 
or indirectly, connected with Leibniz — the School of 
Wolff, the iGsthetic School (Baumgarten), the philoso- 
phy of sentiment. But all the German philosophers 
of the eighteenth century were eclipsed by the. great 
figure of Kant. 

With Kant (1724-1804) modem philosophy enters its 
second period and takes a critical orientation. Kant 
bases his theory of knowledge, his moral and aesthetic 
system, and his judgments of finality on the structure 
of the mind. In the first half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, German philosophy is replete with great names 
connected with Kantianism — after it had been put 
through a Monistic evolution, however — Fichte, 
Schellmg. and Hegel have been called the triumvirate 
of Pantheism; then a^ain, Schopenhauer, while 
Herbart returned to individualism. French philos- 
ophy in the nineteenth century is at first dominated 
by an eclectic Spiritualistic movement with which 
the names of Maine de Biran and, especially, Victor 
Cousin are associated. Cousin had disciples in 
America (C. Henry), and in France he gained favour 
with those whom the excesses bf the Revolu- 
tion had alarmed. In the first half of the 
nineteenth century French Catholics approved 
the Tnulitionalism inaugurated by de Bonald 
and de Lamennais, while another group took 
refuge in Ontologism. In the same period Auguste 
Comte founded Positivism, to which lAitr6 and Taine 




adhered, though it rose to its greatest height in the 
KnglJRh-apeflking countries. In fact, England ma^ 
be said to have been the second fatherland of Posi- 
tivism: John Stuart Mill, Huxley, Alexander Bain, 
and Herbert Spencer expanded its doctrines, com- 
bined them with Aasociationism and emphasized its 
criteriological aspect, or attempted (Spencer) to 
construct a vast synthesis of human sciences. The 
Associationist philosophy at this time was con- 
fronted by the Scotch philosophy which, in Hamil- 
ton, Combined the teachings of Reid and of Kant, 
and found an American champion in Noah Porter. 
Mansel spread the doctrines of Hamilton. As- 
sociationism regained favour with l^homas Brown 
and James Mill, but was soon enveloped in the larger 
conception of Positivism, the dominant philosophy in 
England. Lastly, in Italy, Hegel was for a long time 
the leader of nineteenth-century philosophical thou^t 
(Vera and d'Ercole), whilst Gioberti, the ontologist, 
and Rosmini occupy a distinct position. More 
recently. Positivism ^as gained numerous adherents 
in Italy. In the middle of the century, a large Krau- 
sist School existed in Spain, represented cbaefly by 
Sanz del Rio (d. 1869) and N. SaJmeron. Balmes 
(1810-48), the author of "Fundamental Philosophy", 
is an original thinker whose doctrines have many 
points of contact with Scholasticism. 

VI. Contemporary Omentations. — A. Favourite 
Problems. — Leaving aside social questions, the study 
of which belongs to philosophy in only some of 
their aspects, it may be said that in the philosophic 
interest of the present day peychologicai questions 
hold the first place, and that chief among them is the 
problem of certitude. Kant, indeed, is so important 
a factor in the destinies of contemporary philosophy, 
not only because he is the initiator of critical formal- 
ism, but still more because he obliges his successors 
to deal with the preliminary and fundamental ques- 
tion of the limits of knowledge. On the other hand, 
the experimental investigation of mental processes 
has become the object of a new study, psychos- 
physiology, in which men of science co-operate with 
philosophers, and which meets with increasing suc- 
cess. This study figures in the programme of most 
modem universities. Originating at Leipzig (the 
School of Wundt) and Wtirzburg, it has quickly be- 
come naturalized in Europe and America. In 
America, "The Psychological Review" has devoted 
many articles to this branch of philosophy. Psycho- 
logical studies are the chosen field of the Americans 
(I^d, William James, Hall). 

The great success of psycholopr has emphasized 
the subjective character of sesthetics, in which hardly 
anyone now recognizes the objective and metaphysi- 
cal element. The solutions in yogue are the Kantian, 
which represents the sesthetic judgment as formed in 
accordance with the subjective, structural functions 
of the mind, or other psychologic solutions which 
reduce the befkutiful to a psychic impression (the 
"sympathy", or EinfUhlung, of Lipps; the "con- 
crete intuition ' ' of Benedetto Croce) . These explana- 
tions are insufficient, as they neglect the objective 
aspect of the beautiful — ^those dements which, on 
the part of the object, are the cause of the iesthetic 
impression and enioyment. It may be said that the 
neonScholastic philosophy alone takes into account 
the objective sesthetic factor. 

The absorbing influence of psychology also mani- 
fests itself to the detriment of other branches of 
philosophy; first of all, to the detriment of meta- 
physics, which our contemporaries have unjustly 
ostracized — ^unjustly^ since, if the existence or pos- 
sibitity of a thing-in-itself is considered of importance, 
it behooves us to inquire under what aspects of reality 
it reveals itself. .This ostracism of metaphysics, 
moreover, is largely due to misconception and to a 
wrong understanding of the theories of substance, 
XII.— 3 

of faculties, of causes etc., which belong to the tr»» 
ditional metaphysics. Then again, the invasion of 
psychology b manifest in logic: side by side with the 
ancient logic or dialectic, a mathematical or symbotic 
logic has developed (Peano, Russell, Peirce, Mitchell, 
and others) and, more recently, a genetic logic which 
would study, not the fixed laws of thought, but the 
changing process of mental life and its genesis 

We have seen above (section II, D) how the increasing 
cultivation of psychology has produced other scientific 
ramifications which findf a vour with the learned world. 

Moral philosophy, long neglected, enjoys a renewed 
vogue notably m America, where ethnography is 
devoted to its service (see^ e. g., the publications of 
the Smithsonian Institution). "The International 
Journal of Ethics" is a review especially devoted 
to this line of work. In some quarters, where the 
atmosphere is Positivist, there is a desire to get rid of 
the ola morality, with its notions of value and of duty, 
and to replace it with a collection of empiric rules 
subject to evolution (Sidgwick, Huxley, Leslie 
Stephen, Durkheim, Levy-Bruhl). 

As to the history of philosophy, not only are very 
extended special studies devot«d to it, but more and 
more room is given it in the study of every philosophic 
question. Among the causes of this exaggerated 
vogue are the impulse given by the Schools oTCousin 
and of Hegel, the progress of historical studies in 
general, the confusion arising from the clash of rival 
doctrines, and the distrust engendered by that con- 
fusion. Remarkable works have been produced by 
Deussen', on Indian and Oriental philosophy ; by Zeller, 
on Greek antiquity; by Denifle, Haureau, B&umker, 
and Mandonnet, on the Middle Ages; by Windelband, 
Kuno Fischer, Bioutroux and Hdffding, on the modem 
period; and the list might easily De considerably 

B. The Opposing Systems. — ^The rival systems of 
philosophy of the present time may be reduced to 
various groups: Positivism, neo-Kantianisin. Mon- 
ism, neo-Scholasticism. Contemporary philosophy 
lives in an atmosphere of Phenomenism, since Posi- 
tivism and neo-Kantianism are at one on this impor- 
tant doctrine: that science and certitude are possible 
only within the limits of the world of phenomena, 
which is the immediate object of experience. Posi- 
tivism, insisting on the exclusive rights of sensory 
experience, ana Kantian criticism, reasoning from 
the structure of our cognitive faculties, hold that 
knowledge extends only as far as appearances; that 
beyond this is the absolute, the dark depths, the 
existence of which there is less and less disposition to 
deny, but which no human mind can fathom. On the 
contrary, this element of the absolute forms an 
integral constituent in neo-Scholasticism, which has 
revived, with sobriety and moderation, the funda- 
mental notions of Aristotelean and Medieval metar- 
physics, and has succeeded in vindicating them against 
attack and objection. 

(1) Positivism, under various forms, is defended in 
England by the followers of Spencer, by Huxley, 
Lewes, Tyndall, F. Harrison, Congreve, Beesby, J. 
Bridges, Urant Allen (James Martineau is a reaction- 
ary against Positivism) ; by Balfour, who at the same 
time propounds a characteristic theory of belief, 
and falls back on Fideism. From England Posi- 
tivism passed over to America, where it soon 
dethroned the Scottish doctrines (Carus) . De Roberty, 
in Russia, and Ribot, in France, are among its most 
distinguished disciples. In Italy it is found in the 
writings of Ferran, Ardigo, Mid Morselli; in Ger- 
many, in those of Laas, Riehl, Guyau, and Durkheim. 
I^icss brutal than Materialism, the radical vice of 
Positivism is its identification of the knowable with 
the sensible. It seeks in vain to reduce general ideas 
to collective images, and to deny the abstract 




and universal character of the mind's concepts. It 
vainly denies the super-experiential value of the first 
logical principles in which the scientific life of the 
mind is rooted; nor will it ever succeed in showing 
that the certitude of such a iud^ent as 2+2=^4 
increases with our repeated additions of numbers of 
oxen or of coins. In morals, where it would reduce 
precepts and judgments to sociological data formed 
m the collective conscience and varying with the 
period and the environment, Positivism stumbles 
|Lgainst the judgments of value, and the supersensible 
ideas of obligation, moral good, and law, recorded 
in every human conscience and unvarying in their 
essential data. 

(2) Kantianism had been forgotten in Germany 
for some thirty years (1830-60); Vogt, Biichner, and 
Moleschott haa won for Materialism an ephemeral 
vogue; but Materialism was swept away by a strong 
Kantian reaction. This reversion towards Kant 
{RUckhehr zu Kant) begins to be traceable in 1860 
(notably as a result of Lange's *' History of Mate- 
rialism ), and the influence of Kantian doctrines 
may be said to permeate the whole contemporary 
German philosophy (Otto Liebmann, von Hartmann, 
Paulsen, Rehmke. Dilthey, Natorp, Eucken, the 
Imman^ntists, ana the Empirico-criticists). French 
nco-Criticism, represented oy Renouvier, was con- 
nected chiefly with Kant's second "Critique" and 
introduced a specific Voluntarism. . Vacherot, Secr6- 
tan, Lachelier, Boutroux, Fouillde, and Bergson are 
all more or less under tribute to Kantianism. Ra- 
vaisson proclaims himself a follower of Maine de 
Biran. Kantianism has taken its place in the state 
programme of education and Paul Janet, who, with 
F. Bouillier and Caro, was among the last legatees of 
Cousin's Spiritualism, appears, in his "Testament 
philosophique", affecting a Monism with a Kantian 
inspiration. All those who, with Kant and the Posi- 
tivists, proclaim the "bankruptcy of science" look 
for the basis of our certitude in an imperative demand 
of the will. This Voluntarism, also called Pragmatism 
(William James), and, quite recently. Humanism 
(Schiller at Oxford), is inadequate to the establish- 
ment of the theoretic moral and social sciences upon 
an unshakable base: sooner or later, reflection will 
afik what this need of living and of willing is worth, 
and then the intclligeilce will return to its position as 
the supreme arbiter of certitude. 

From Germany and France Kantianism has spread 
everywhere. In England it has called into activity 
the Critical Idealism associated with T. H. Green and 
Bradley. Hodgson, on the contrary, returns to Real- 
ism. S. Laurie may be placed between Green and 
Martineau. Emerson^ Harris, Everett, and Royce 
spread Idealistic Criticism in America; Shad- 
worth Hodgson, on the other hand, and Adamson tend 
to return to Realism, whilst James Ward emphasizes 
the function of the will. 

(3) Monism.-^With a great many Kantians, a 
stratum of Monistic ideas is superimposed on Criti- 
cism, the thing in itself being considered numerically 
one. The same tendencies are observable among 
Positivist Evolutionists like Clifford and Romanes, 
or G. T. Ladd. 

(4) Neo-Scholasticism, the revival of which dates 
from the last third of the nineteenth century (Libera- 
tore^ Taparelli, Comoldi, and others), and which 
received a powerful impulse under Leo XIII, is tending 
more and more to become the philosophy of Catholics. 
It replaces Ontologism, Traditionalism, Gunther's 
Dualism, and Caxlesian Spiritualism, which had 
manifestly become insufficient. Its S3mtheses, re- 
newed and completed, can be set up in opposition to 
Positivism and Kantianism, and even its adversaries 
no longer dream of denving the worth of its doctrines. 
The bearings of neo-Scholasticism have been treated 
elsewhere (see Neo-Scholasticism). 


THERE A Philosophia Perbnnib? — Considering the 
historic succession of systems and the evolution of 
doctrines from the remotest ages of India down to our 
own times, and standing face to face with the progress 
achieved by contemporary scientific philosophy, must 
we not infer the indefinite progress of pnilosophic 
thought? Many have allowed themselves to be led 
away by this ideal dream. Historic IdeaUsm (Karl 
Marx) regards philosophy as a product fatally en- 
gendered by pre-existing causes in our physical and 
social environment. Auguste Comte's "law of the 
three states", Herbert Spencer's Evolutionism, 
Hegers "inde^nite becoming of the soul", sweep 
philosophy along in an ascending current toward an 
ideal perfection, the realization of which no one can 
foresee. For all these thinkers, philosophy is vari- 
able and relative: therein lies tneir serious error. 
Indefinite progress, condemned by history in many 
fields, is untenable in the history of philosophy. 
Such a notion is evidently refuted by the appearance 
of thinkers like Aristotle and Plato three centuries 
before Christ, for these men, who for ages have domi- 
nated, and still dominate, human thought, would 
be anachronisms, sinc6 they would be inferior to 
the thinkers of our own time. And no one would 
venture to assert this. History shows, indeed, that 
there are adaptations of a synthesis to its environ- 
ment, and that every age has its own aspirations and 
its special way of looking at problems and their 
solutions; but it also presents unmistakable evidence 
of incessant new beginnings, of rhythmic oscillations 
from one pole of thought to the other. If Kant found 
an original formula of Subjectivism and the reine 
Innerlichkeitf it would be a mistake to think that Kant 
had no intellectual ancestors: he had them in the 
earliest historic ages of philosophy: M. Deussen has 
found in the Vedic hymn of the tJpanishads the dis- 
tinction between noumenon and phenomenon, and 
writes, on the theory of M&y&, "Kants Grunddogma, 
80 alt wie die Philosophic" ("Die Philos. desUpani- 
shad's", Leipzig, 1899, p. 204). 

It is false to say that all truth is relative to a given 
time and latitude, and that philosophy is the product 
of economic conditions in a ceaseless course of evo- 
lution, as historical Materialism holds. Side by side 
with these things, which are subject to change and 
belong to one particular condition of the life of man- 
kind, there is a soul of tnith circulating in every sys- 
tem, a mere fragment of that complete and unchange- 
able truth which haunts the human mind in its most 
disinterested investigations. Amid the oscillations 
of historic systems there is room for a philosophia 
perennis — as it were a purest atmosphere of truth, 
enveloping the ages, its clearness somehow felt in 
spite of cloud and mist. "The truth Pythagoras 
sought after, and Plato, and Aristotle, is the same that 
Augustine and Aquinas pursued. So far as it is 
developed in history, truth is the daughter of oiine; 
so far as it bears within itself a content in- 
dependent of time, and therefore of history, it is 
the daughter of eternity" [Willmann, "Gesch. d. 
Idealismus", II (Brunswick, 1896). 550; cf. Commer 
"Die immerwahrende Philosophic" (Vienna, 1899)]. 
This does not mean that essential and permanent 
verities do not adapt themselves to the intellectual 
life of each epoch. Absolute immobility in philos- 
ophy, no less than absolute relativity, is contrary 
to nature and to history. It leads to decadence and 
death. It is in this sense that we must interpret 
the adage: Vita in molu. 

VIII. Philosophy and the Sciences. — Aristotle 
of old laid the foundation of a philosophy supported 
by observation and experience. We need only glance 
through the list of his works to see that astronomy, 
mineralogy, physics and chemistry, biology, zoology, 
furnished him with examples and baaes for his theories 




on the constitution, of the heavenly and terrestrial 
bodies, the nature of the vital principle, etc. Be- 
sides, the whole Aristotelean classification of the 
branches of philosophy (see section II) is inspired 
b^r the same idea of making philosophy — general 
science — rest upon the particular sciences. The 
early Middle Ages, with a rudimentary scientific 
culture, regarded all its learning, built up on the Tri- 
vium (grammar, rhetoric, dialectic) and Quadrivium 
(arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music), as a 
preparation for philosophy. In the thirteenth cen- 
tury, when Scholasticism came under Aristotelean 
influences, it incorporated the sciences in the pro- 
gramme of philosophy itself. This may be seen m a 
regulation issued by the Faculty of Arts of Paris, 
19 March, 1255, '^De libris qui legcndi e88ent'\ 
This order prescribes the study of commentaries on 
various scientific treatises of Aristotle, notably those 
on the first book of the ''Meteorological', on the^ 
treatises on Heaven and Earth, Generation, the 
Senses and Sensations, Sleeping and Waking, Mem- 
ory, Plants, and Animals. Here are amply sufficient 
means for the magiairi to familiarize the ''artists'' 
with astronomy, botany, physiology, and zoology, 
to say nothing of Aristotle s "Physics",' which was 
also prescribedas a classical text, and which afforded 
opportunities for numerous observations in chemistry 
and physics as then understood. Grammar and 
rhetoric served as preliminary studies to logic; 
Bible history, social science, and politics were intro- 
ductory to moral philosophy. Such men as Albertus 
Magnus and Roger Bacon expressed their views on 
the necessity of linking the sciences with philosophy, 
and preached it by example. So that both antiquity 
and the Middle Ages knew and appreciated scientific 

In the seventeenth century the question of the 
relation between the two enters upon a new phase: 
from this period modem science takes shape and 
begins that triumphal march which it is destined to 
continue through the twentieth century, and of which 
the human mind is justly proud. Modem scientific 
knowledge differs from that of antiquity and the 
Middle Ages in three important respects: the multi- 
plication of sciences; their independent value; the 
divergence between common knowledge and scien- 
tific knowledge. In the Middle A^es astronomy was 
closely akin to astrology, chemistry to alchemy, 
physics to divination; modern science has severely 
excluded all these fantastic connexions. Considered 
now from one side and again from another, the 
physical world has revealed continually new aspects, 
and each specific point of view has become the focus 
of a new study. On the other hand, by defining 
their respective limits, the sciences have acquired 
autonomy; useful in the Middle Ages only as a prep- 
aration for rational physics and for metaphysics, 
they are nowadays of value for themselves, and no 
longer play the part of handmaids to philosophy. 
Indeed, the progress achieved within itself by each 
particular science brings one more revolution in 
knowledge. So long as instruments of observation 
were imperfect, and inductive methods restricted, it 
was practically impossible to rise above an elementary 
knowledge. People knew, in the Middle Ages, that 
wine, when left exposed to the air, became vinegar; 
but what do facts like this amount to in comparison 
with the complex formulse o^ modem chemistry? 
Hence it was that an Albertus Magnus or a Roger 
Baoon could flattei himself, in those oays, with having 
acquired all the science of his time, a claim which 
would now only provoke a smile. In every department 
progress has drawn the line sharply between popular 
and scientific knowledge; the former is ordinarily the 
starting-point of the latter, but the conclusions and 
teachings involved in the sciences are unintelligible 
to those who lack the requisite preparation. 

Do not, then, these profound modifications in the 
condition of the sciences entail modifications in the 
relations which, until the seventeenth century, had 
been accepted as existing between the sciences and 
philosophy? Must not the separation of philosophy 
and science widen out to a complete divorce? Many 
have thought so, both scientists and philosophers, 
and it was for this that in the eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries so many savants and philosophers 
turned their backs on one another. For the former, 
philosophy has become useless; the particular sci- 
ences, they say, multiplying and becoming perfect, 
must exhaust the whole field of the knowable, and a 
time will come when philosophy shall be no more. 
For the philosophers, philosophy has no need of the 
immeasurable mass of scientific notions which have 
been acquired, many of which possess only a pre- 
carious and provisional value. Wolff, who pro- 
nounced the divorce of science from philosophy, 
did most to accredit this view, and he has been fol- 
lowed by certain Cath6lic philosophers who held that 
scientific study may be excluded from philosophic 

What shall we say on this question? That the 
reasons which formerly existed for keeping touch 
with science are a thousand times more imperative 
in our day. If the profound synthetic view of things 
which justifies the existence of philosophy presu])- 
poses* analytical researches, the multiplication and 
perfection of thosd researches is certainly reason for 
neglecting them. The horizon of detailed knowledge 
widens incessantly; research of every kind is busy 
exploring the departments of the universe which it has 
mapped out. And philosophy, whose mission is to 
explain the order of the universe by general and ulti- 
mate reasons applicable, not only to a group. of facts, 
but to the whole body of known phenomena, cannot 
be indifferent to the matter which it has to explain. 
Philosophy is like a tower whence we obtain the 
panorama of a great city — its plan, its monuments, 
its great arteries, with the form and location of each-r- 
things which a visitor cannot discern while he goes 
through the streets and lanes, or visits libraries, 
diurches, palaces, and museums, one after another. 
If the city grows and develops, there is all the more 
reason, if we would know it as a whole, why we 
should hesitate to ascend the tower and study from 
that height the plan upon which its new quarters 
have been laid out. 

It is, happily, evident that contemporary phi- 
losophy is inclined to be first and foremost a scientific 
philosophy; it has found its way back from its wan- 
derings of yore. This is noticeable in philosophers 
of the most opposite tendencies. There would be no 
end to the list if we had to enumerate every case 
where this orientation of ideas has been adopted. 
''This union", says Boutroux, speaking of the sci- 
ences and philosophy, "is in tmth the classic tradition 
of philosophy. But there had been established a 
psychology and a metaphysics which aspired to set 
themselves up beyond the sciences, by mere reflection 
of the mind upon itself. Nowadays all philosophers 
are agreed to make scientific data their starting-point " 
(Address at the Intemational Congress of Philosophy 
in 1900; Revue de M6taph. et de Morale, 1900, p. 
697). Boutroux and many others spoke similarly 
at the Intemational Congress of Bologna (April, 
1911). Wundt introduces this union into the very 
definifion of philosophy, which, he says, is "the gen- 
eral science whose function it is to unite in a system 
free of all contradictions the knowledge acquired 
through the particular sciences, and to reduce to thpir 
principles the general methods of science and the 
conditions of knowledge supposed by them" ("Einlei- 
tung in die Philosophic", Leipzig, 1901, p. 19). And 
R. Eucken says: "The farther back the limits of the 
observable world recede, the more conscious are we 




of the lack of an adequately comprehensive expla- 
nation'' ['^Gesammelte Aufsatze zur Philos. u. Leben- 
sanschanung" (Leipzig^ 1903), p. 157]. This same 
thought inspired Leo XIII when he placed the paral- 
lel and harmonious teaching of philosophy and of the 
sciences on the programme of the Institute of Phi- 
losophy created by him in the University of Louvain 
(see Ned-Scholasticism). 

On their side, the scientists have been coming to 
the same conclusions ever since they rose to a syn- 
thetic view of that matter which is the object of their 
study. So it was with Pasteur, so with Newton. 
Ostwald, professor of chemistry at Leipzis, has under- 
taken to publish the " Annalen der Naturphilosophie ", 
a review "devoted to the cultivation of the territory 
which is common to philosophy and the sciences . 
A great many men of science, too, are engaged 
in philosophy without knowing it: in their con- 
slant discussions of "Mechanism", "Evolutionism", 
"Transformism", they are using terms which imply 
a philosophical theory of matter. 

If philosophy is the explanation as a whole of that 
world which the particular sciences investigate in 
detail, it follows that the latter find their culmination 
in the former, and that as the sciences are so will 
philosophy be. It is true that objections are put 
forward against this way of uniting philosophy and the 
sciences. Common observation, it is said, is enough 
support for philosophy. This is a mistake: philoso- 
phy cannot ignore whole departments of knowledge 
which' are inaccessible to ordinary experience; 
biology, for example, has shed a new light on the 
philosophic study of man. Others again adduce the 
extent and the growth of the sciences to show that 
scientific philosophy must ever remain an unattain- 
able ideal; the practical solution of this difficulty 
concerns the teaching of philosophy (see section 

IX. Philosophy and Religion. — ^Religion pre- 
sents to man, with authority, the solution of many 
problems which also concern philosophy. Such are 
.the questions of the nature of God, of His relations 
with the visible world, of man's origin and destiny. 
Now religion, which precedes philosophy in the social 
life, naturally obliges it to take into consideration 
the points of religious doctrine. Hence the close 
connexion of philosophy with religion in the early 
stages of civihzation. a fact strikingly apparent in 
Indian philosophy, wnich, not only at its beginning, 
but throughout its development, was intimately bound 
up with the doctrine of the sacred books (see above). 
The Greeks, at least during the most important 
periods of their history j were much less subject to the 
influences of pagan reli^ons; in fact, they combined 
with extreme scrupulosity in what concerned cere- 
monial usage a wide liberty in regard to do^ma. 
Greek thought soon took its independent flight; 
Socrates ridicules the gods in whom the common 
people believed; Plato does not banish religious ideas 
ffom his philosophy; but Aristotle keepjs them en- 
tirely apart, his God is the Actus purusj with a mean- 
ing exclusively philosophic, the prime mover of the 
universal mecnanism. The Stoics point out that all 
things obey an irresistible fatality and that the wise 
man fears no gods. And if Epicurus teaches cosmic 
determinism and denies all finality, it is onl^ to con- 
clude that man can lay aside all fear of divine inter- 
vention in mundane affairs. The question takes a 
new aspect when the influences of the Oriental and 
Jewish religions are brought to bear on Greek 
philosophy by neo - Pjrthagorism, the Jewish the- 
ology (end of the first century), and, above all, neo- 
Platonism (third century b. c). A yearning for 
religion was stirring in the world, and philosophy 
became enamoured of every religious doctnne. 
Plotinus (third century after Christ), who must 
always remain the most perfect type of the 

neo-Piatonic mentality, makes philosophy identical 
with religion, assigning as its highest aim the union 
of the soul with God by mystical ways. This mystical 
need of the supernatural issues in the most bizarre 
lucubrations from Plotinus's successors, e. g. Jambli- 
cus (d. about a. d. 330), who, on a foundation of neo- 
Platonism, erected an international pantheon for all 
the divinities whose names are known. 

It has often been remarked that Christianity, with 
its monotheistic dogma and its serene, purifying 
morality, came in the fulness of time and appeased 
the inward unrest* with which souls were afflicted at 
the end of the Roman world. Though Christ did 
not make Himself the head of a philosophical school, 
the religion which He founded supplies solutions for a 
group of problems which philosophy solves by other 
methods (e. g. the immortality of the soul). The first 
Christian philosophers, the Fathers of the Church, 
were imbued with Greek ideas and took over from the 
circumambient neo-Platonism the commingling of 
philosophy and religion. With them philosophy 
IS incidental .and secondary, employed only to 
meet polemic needs, and to support dogma; their 
philosophy is religious. In this Clement of Alexan- 
dria and Origen are one with St. Augustine and 
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. The early 
Middle Ages continued the same traditions, and 
the first philosophers may be said to have re- 
ceived neo-Platonic influences through the channel 
of the Fathers. John Scotus Eriugena (ninth cen- 
tury), the most remarkable mind of this first period, 
writes that "true religion is true philosophy and, 
conversely, true philosophy is true religion" (De 
div. prsecl., I,. I). But as the era advances a process 
of dissociation sets in, to end in the complete separa- 
tion between the two sciences of Scholastic theology 
or the study of dogma, based fundamentally on Holy 
Scripture, and Scholastic philosophy, based on purely 
rational inve^igation. To understand the successive 
stages of this differentiation, which was not completed 
until the middle of the thirteenth century, we must 
draw attention to certain historical facts of capital 

(1) The ori^n of several philosophical problems, 
in the early Middle Ages, must be sought within the 
domain of theology, in the sense that the philosophical 
discussions arose in reference to theological questions. 
The discussion, e. g. of transubstantiation (Beren- 
garius of Tours), raised the problem of substance 
and of change, or becoming. (2) Theology being 
regarded as a superior and sacred science, the whole 
p^agogic and didactic organization of the period 
tended to confirm this superiority (see section XI). 
(3) The enthusiasm for dialectics, which reached its 
maximum in the eleventh century, brought into 
fashion certain purely verbal methods of reasoning 
bordering on tne sophistical. Anselm of Besata 
(Anselmus Peripateticus) is the type of this kind of 
reasoner. Now the dialecticians, in discussing theo- 
logical subjects, claimed absolute validity for their 
methods, and they ended in such heresies as Gott- 
schalk's on predestination, Berengarius's on tran- 
substantiation, and Roscelin's Tritheism. Beren- 
garius's motto was: "Per omnia ad dialecticam 
confugere". There followed an excessive reaction on 
the p^ of timorous theologians, practical men before 
all things, who charged dialectics with the sins of 
the dialecticians. This antagonistic movement coin- 
cided with an attempt to reform religious life. At 
the head of the group was Peter Damian (1007- 
72), the adversary of the liberal arts; he was the 
author of the saying that philosophy is the handmaid 
of theology. From this saying it has been concluded 
that the Middle Ages in general put philosophy under 
tutelage, whereas the maxim was current only among 
a narrow circle of reactionary theologians. Side by 
side with Peter Damian in Italy, were Mancgold 


of Laujtenbach and Othloh of St. Emmeram, in sides. Theism^ being only a form of Natorism applied 

Germany. to religion, suited the independent wavs of the Henais- 

(4) At the same time a new tendency becomes dis- Hance. As in building up natural law, human na- 

cemible in the eleventh century, in Lanfranc, Wil- ture was taken into consideration, so reason was in> 

liam of Hirschau, Rodulfus Ardens, and particularly terrogated to discover religious id^. And hence the 

St. Anselm of Canterbury; the theolo^an calls in the wide acceptance of Theism, not among Protestants 

aid of philosophy to demonstrate certam dogmas or to only, but generally among minds that had* been 

show their rational side. St. Anselm, in an Angus- carried away with the Renaissance movement 

tinian spirit, attempted this justification of dogma, (Erasmus, Coomheert). 

without perhaps invariably applying to the demon- For this tolerance or religious indifferentism modem 
strative value of his arguments the requisite limi- philosophy in more than one instance substituted a 
tations. In the thirteenth century these efforts disdain of positive reUgions. The English Theism or 
resulted in a new theological method, the dialec- Deism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
tic. (5) While these disputes as to the relations criticizes all positive religion and, in the name of an 
of philosophy and theology went on, many philosophi- innate religious sense, builds up a natural retigion 
cal questions were nevertheless treated on their own which is reducible to a collection of theses on the 
account, as we have seen above (universals, St. An- existence of God and the immortality of the soul. 
Belm'stheodicy,Abelard's philosophy, etc.). (6) The The initiator of this movement was Herbert of Cher- 
dialectic method, developed fully in the twelfth cen- bury (1581-1648); J. Toland (1670-1722), Tmdal 
tury, just when scholastic theology received a power- (1656-1733), and Lord Bolingbroke took part in it. 
ful impelus, is a theological not a philosophical. This criticizing movement inaugurated in England 
method. The principal method in theology is the was taken up m France, where it combined with an 
interpretation of Scripture and of authority; the outright hatred of Catholicism. Pierre Bayle (164er- 
dialectic method is secondary and consists m first 1706) propounded the thesis that all religion is anti- 
establishing a dogma and then showing its reasonable- rational and absurd, and that a state composed of 
ness, confirming the argument from authority by the Atheists is possible. Voltaire wished to substitute 
argument from reason. It is a process of apologetics, for Catholicism an incoherent mass of doctrines about 
From the twelfth century onward, these two theo- God. The religious philosophy of the eighteenth 
logical methods are fairly distinguished by the words century in France led to Atheism and paved the ^a.y 
auctoritateSf rationes. Scholastic theology, condensed for the Revolution. In justice to contemporary phi- 
in the ^'summse" and "books of sentences", is hence- losophy it must be credited with teaching the amplest 
forward regarded as distinct from philosophy. The tolerance towards the various religions; and in its 
attitude of theologians towards philosophy is three- programme of research it has included religious psy- 
fold: one group, the least influential, still opposes its chology, or the study of the reUgious sentiment, 
introduction into theology, and carries on the reaction- For Catholic philosophy the relations between 
ary traditions of the preceding period (e. g. Gauthier philosophv and theology, between reason and faith, 
de Saint- Victor) ; another accepts philosophy, but were fixed, in a chapter of scientific methodology, by 
takes a utilitarian view of it, regarding it merely the great Scholastic thinkers of the thirteenth cen- 
as a prop of dogma (Peter Lombard); a third group, tury. Its principles, which still retain their vitality, 
the most influential, since it includes the three theo- are as follows: (a) Distinctness of the two sciences. — 
logical schools of St. Victor^ Abelard^ and Gilbert Theindependenceof philosophy in regard to theologv, 
de la Porr6e^ grants to philosophy, in addition to as in regard to any other science whatsoever, is only 
this apologetic r61e, an independent value which en- an interpretation of this undeniable principle of sci- 
titles it to be cultivated and studied for its own entific progress, as applicable in the twentieth century 
sake. The members of this group are at once both aa it was in the thirteenth, that a rightly constituted 
theologians and philosophers. science derives its formal object, its principles, and 

(7) At the opening ol the thirteenth century one its constructive method from its own i:esources, and 
section of Au^ustinian theologians continued to em- that, this being so, it cannot borrow from any other 
phasize the utilitarian and apologetic office of philoso- science without compromising its own right to exist. 
phy. But St. Thomas Aouinas created new Scholastic (b) Negative, not positive, material, not formal, sub- 
trsbditions, aiid wrote a chapter on scientific method- ordination or philosophy in regard to theology. — 
ology in which the distinctness and independence of This means that, while the two sciences keep their 
the two sciences is thoroughljr established. Duns formal independence (the independence of the prin- 
Scotus, again, and the Temiinists exaggerated this ciples by wmch their investigations are guided), there 
independence. Latin Averroism, which had a bril- are certain matters where philosophv cannot con- 
liant but ephemeral vogue in the thirteenth and tradict the solutions afforded by theology. The 
fourteenth centuries, accepted whole and entire in Scholastics of the Middle Ages justified this subordi- 
philoflophy Averroistic Peripateticism, and, to saf&- nation, being profoundly convinced that Catholic 
guard Catholic orthodoxy, took refuge behind the dogma contains the infallible word of God, the ex- 
sophism that what is true in philosophy may be false pression of truth. Once a proposition, e. g. that two 
in theology, and conversely — wherein they were more and two make four, has been accepts as certain, 
reserved than Averroes and the Arab philosophers, logic forbids any other science to form any conclusion 
who regarded religion as something inferior, good subversive of that proposition. The material mutual 
enough for the masses, and who did not trouble them- subordination of the sciences is one of those laws out 
selves about Moslem orthodoxy. Lully, goine to . of which logic makes the indispensable guarantee of 
extremes, inaintained that all dogma is susceptible of the unity of knowledge. "The truth duly demon- 
demonstration, and that philosophy and theology strated oy one science serves as a beacon in an- 
ooalesce. Taken as a whole, the Middle Ages^ pro- other science." The certainty of a theory in chemistry 
foundly religious, constantly sought to reconcile its imposes its acceptance on physics, and the physicist 
philosophy with the Cathohc Faith. This bond the who should go contrary to it would be out of his 
Renawsance philosophy severed. In the Reformation course. Similarly, the philosopher cannot contradict 
period a group of pubhcists, in view of the prevailing the certain data of theology, any more than he can 
strife, formed projects of reconciliation among the contradict the certain conclusions of the individual 
numerous religious bodies. They convinced them- sciences. To deny this would be to deny the conform- 
selves that all religions possess a common fund of ity of truth with truth, to contest the principle of 
essential truths relating to God, and that their con- contradiction, to surrender to a relativism which is 
tent ia identical, in spite of divergent dogmas. Be- destructive ot all certitude. "It being supposed that 


nothing but what is^ true is included in this science tion between God and matter, and of various doo- 
(ac. theology) . . \ it being supposed that what- trines condemned in the fourteenth century as tend- 
ever is true by the decision and authority of this ing to the negation of morality. It has been the same 
science can nowise be false by the decision of right in modem times. To mention onlv the condemnations 
reason: these things, I say, being supposed, as^it is of Gfinther, of Rosmini, and of Ontolosism in the 
manifest from them that the authority of this science nineteenth century, what alarmed the Church wafl 
and reason alike rest upon truth, and one verity can- the fact that the theses in question had a theological 
not be contrary to anouier, it must be said absolutely bearing. 

that reason can in no way be contrary to the authoritv B. The Church has never imposed any philosophi- 

of this Scripture, nay, all ri^t reason is in accord with cal system, though she has anathematized many 

it" (Henty of Ghent, '^Summa Theologica", X, iii, doctrines, or branded them as suspect. — This oor- 

n. 4). responds with the prohibitive, but not imperative, 

But when is a theory certain? This is a question attitude of theology in regard to philosopny. To 

of fact, and error is easy. In proportion as tne prin- take one example, faith teaches that the world was 

ciple is simple and absolute, so are its appUcations created in time; and yet St. Thomas maintains that 

complex and variable. It is not for philosophy to the concept of eternal creation {ab cBtemo) involves 

establish the certitude of theological data, any more no contradiction. He did not think himself obliged 

than to fix the conclusions of chemistry or of physiol- to demonstrate creation in time: his teacb^g would 

oj^. The cert^dntv of those data and those conclu- have been heterodox only if, with the Averroists of 

sions must proceed from another source. ''The pr&- his day, he had maintained the necessary eternity 

conceived idea is entertained that a Catholic savant of the world. It may, perhaps, be objected that many 

is a soldier in the service of his religious faith, and Thomistic doctrines were condemned in 1277 by 

that, in his hands, science is but a weapon to defend Etienne Tempier, Bishop of Paris. But it is well to 

his Credo. In the eyes of a great many people, the note, and recent works on the 'subject have abun- 

Catholic savant seems to be always under the menace dantly proved this, that Tempier's condemnation, in 

of excommunication, or entangled in dogmas which so far as it applied to Tliomas Aquinas, was the issue 

hamper him, and compelled, for the sake of loyalty of intrigues and personal animosity, and that, in. 

to his Faith^ to renounce the disinterested love of canon law, it had no force outside of the Diocese of 

science and its free cultivation" (Mercier, "Rapport Paris. Moreover, it was annulled by one of Tempier's 

sur les Etudes sup6r. de philos.'^ 1891, p. 9). Nothing successors, Etienne de Borr^te, in 1325. 
could be more untrue. C. The Church has encouraged philosophy.— To 

X. The Catholic Church and Philosophy. — gay nothing of the fact that ail those who applied 

The principles which govern the doctrinal relations of themselves to science and philosophy in the Middle 

philosophy and theology have moved the Catholic Ages were churchmen, and that the liberal arts found 

Church to intervene on various occasions in the his- an asylum in capitular and monastic schools until the 

tory of philosophy. As to the Church's right and twelfth century, it is important to remark that the 

duty to intervene for the purpose of maintaining the principal universities of the Middle Ages were pon- 

int^pity of theological dogma and the deposit of tifical foundations. This was the case with Paris, 

faith, there is no need of discussion in this place. It To be sure, in the first years of the university's ac- 

is interesting, however, to note the attitude taken quaintance with the Aristotelean encyclopaedia (late 

by the Church towards philosophy throughout the twelfth century) there were prohibitions against read- 

a^^ and particularly in the Middle Ages, when a ing the "Physics", the "Metaphysics , and the 

civihzation saturated with Christianity had estab- treatise "On the Soul". But these restrictions were 

lished extremely intimate relations between theology of a temporary character and arose out of par- 

and philosophy. ticular circumstances. In 1231, Gregory IX laid 

A. The censures of the Church have never fallen upon a commission of three consultors the charge to 
upon philosophy as such, but upon theological appli- prepare an amended edition of Aristotle "ne utile per 
cations, judged false, wnich were based upon pnil- mutile vitietur" (lest what is useful suffer damage 
osophical reasonings. John Scotus Eriugena, Rosce- through what is useless). Th^ work of expurgation 
lin, Berengarius, Abelard, Gilbert de la Porr6e were was done, in point of fact, by the Albertine-Thomist 
condemned because their teachings tended to subvert School, and, beginning from the year 1255, the 
theological dogmas. Eriugena denied the substantial Faculty of Arts, with the knowledge of the ecclesiasti- 
distinction between God and created things; Rosce- cal authority, ordered the teaching of all the books 
lin held that there are three Gods; Berengarius, that previously prohibited (see Mandonnet, "Siger de 
there is no r€«l transubstantiation in the Eucharist: Brabant et raverrolsme latin au XIII® s.", Louvain, 
Abelard and Gilbert de la Porr^ essentially modified 1910). It might also be shown how in modem times 
the dogma of the Trinity. The Church, through her and in our own day thepopes have encouraged phil- 
councib^condemned their theological errors ;wit£ their osophic studies. Leo XIII, as is well known, con- 
philosophy as such she does not concern herself, sidered the restoration of pnilosophic Thomism one 
"NominaUsm", says Haur6au. "b the old en^ny. of the chief tasks of his pontificate. 
It is, in facf, the doctrine wnich, because it best XI. The Teaching of Philosophy. — ^The methods 
accords with reason, is most remote from axioms of of teaching philosophy have varied in various ages, 
faith. Denounced before council after council, Nom- Socrates used to interview his auditors, and hold 
inalism was condemned in the person of Abelard as it symposia in the market-place, on the porticoes, 
had been in the person of Rosceun" (Hist, philos. scol., and m the public gardens. His method was interro- 
1, 292). gation, he whetted the curiosity of the audience and 

No assertion could be more inaccurate. What practised what had become known as Socratic irony 
the Church has condemned is neither the so-called and the maieutic art {funevriKii r^ny), the art of de- 
Nominalism, nor Realism, nor philosophy in general, livering minds of their conceptions. His successors 
nor the method of arguing in theology, but certain opened schools properly so called, and from the places 
applications of that method which are judged dan- occupied by these schools several systems took their 
gerous. i. e. matters which are not philosopMcal. In names (the Stoic School, the Academy, the Lyceum). 
5ie thirteen^ century a host of teachers adopted the In the Middle Ages and down to the seventeenth 
philosophical theories of Roscelin and Abelard, and century the learned language was Latin. The Ger- 
no councils were convoked to condemn them. The man discourses of Eckhart are mentioned as merely 
same may be said of the condemnation of David of sporadic examples. From the ninth to the twelfth 
Dinant (thirteenth century), who denied the distinc- century teachmg was confined to the monastic 




and cathedral schools. It was the golden age of 
schools. Masters and students went from one school 
to another: Lanfranc travelled over Etiroi)e; John 
of Salisbury (twelfth century) heard at Paris all the 
then famous professors of philosophy; Abelard 
gathered crowds about his rostrum. Moreover: as 
the same subjects were taught everywhere, and from 
the same text-books scholastic wanderings were 
attended with few disadvantages. The books took 
the form of eommentaries or monographs. From the 
time of Abelard a method came into use which met 
with great success, that of setting forth the pros 
and cons of a question, which was later perfected by 
the addition of a soltUio. The application of this 
method was extended in the thirteenth century (e. 
g. in the "Summa theologica^' of St. Thomas). 
Lastlv, philosophy being an educational preparation 
for theology, the "Queen of the Sciences "^ philo- 
sophical and theological topics were combmed in 
one and the same book, or even in the same 

At the end of the twelfth century and the beginning 
of the thirteenth, the University of Paris was organ- 
ized, and philosophical teaching was concentrated 
in the Faculty of Arts. Teaching was dominated by 
two principles: internationalism and freedom. The 
student was an apprentice-professor: after receiving 
the various degrees, he ootained from the chan- 
cellor of the university a licence to teach (licentia 
docendi). Many of the courses of this period have 
been preserved, the abbreviated script of the Middle 
Ages being virtually a stenographic system. The 
programme of courses drawn up in 1255 is well known: 
it comprises the exegesis of all the books of Aristotle. 
The commentary, or lectio (from legerCy to read), is the 
ordinary form of instruction (whence the German 
Vorlesungen and the English lecture). There were 
also disputations, in which questions were treated 
by means of objections and answers ; the exercise took a 
lively character, eaieh one being invited to contribute 
his thoughts on the subject. The University of Paris 
was the model for all the others, notably those of 
Oxford and Cambridge. These forms of instruction 
in the universities lasted as long as Aristotelcanism, 
i. e. until the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth 
century — the aikde deslumihes (ErHdrung) — philos- 
ophy took a popular and encyclopedic form, and 
was circulated in the literary productions of the 
period. In the nineteenth century it resumed its 
didactic attitude in the universities and in the semi- 
naries, where, indeed its teaching had long continued. 
The advance of philological and historical studies had 
a great influence on the character of philosophical 
teaching: critical methods were welcomed, ancf little 
by little the professors adopted the practice of special- 
izing in this or that branch of philosophy— a practice 
which is still in vogue. Without attempting to touch 
on all the questions involved in modem methods of 
teaching philosophy, we shall here indicate some of 
the principal features. 

A. The L/anguage of Philosophy. — ^The earliest of 
the modems — as Descartes or Leibniz — ^used both 
Latin and the vernacular, but in the nineteenth cen- 
tury (except in ecclesiastical seminaries and in certain 
academical exercises mainly ceremonial in character) 
the living languages supplanted Latin; the result has 
been a gain in clearness of thought and interest and 
vitality of teaching. Teaching in Latin too often con- 
tents itself with formulae: the living language effects 
a better comprehension of things which must in any 
case be difficult. Personal experience, writes Fr. 
Hogan, formerly superior of the Boston Seminary, in 
his "Clerical Studies" (Philadelphia, 1895-1901). 
has shown that among students who have learned 
philosophy, particularly Scholastic, only in Latin, 
very few have acquired anything more than a mass 
of formulse, which they hardly understand; though 

this does not always prevent their adhering to their 
formulae throu^ thick and thin. Those who continue 
to write in Latin — ^as many Catholic philosophers, of- 
ten of the highest worth, still do — ^have the sad ex- 
perience of seeing their books confined to a very 
narrow circle of readers. 

B. Didactic Processes. — Aristotle's advice, fol- 
lowed by the Scholastics, still retains its value and its 
force: before giving the solution of a problem, ex- 
pound the reasons for and against. This explains, in 
particular, the great part played by the history of 
philosophy or the critical examination of the solutions 
proposed by the great thinkers. Commentary on a 
treatise still figures in some special higher courses; 
but contemporary philosophical teachmg is princi- 
pally divided accoraing to the numerous branches of 
philosophy (see section II). The introduction of 
laboratories and practical seminaries (siminaires pra- 
tiques) in philosophical teaching has been of the great- 
est advantage. Side by side w^ith libraries and shelves 
full of periodicals there is room for laboratories and 
museums, once the necessity of vivifying philos- 
ophy by contact with the sciences is admitted (see 
section VIII). As for the practical seminary, in 
which a group of students, with the aid of a teacher, 
investigate to some special problem, it may be ap- 
plied to any branch of philosophy with remarkable 
results. The work in common, where each directs 
his individual efforts towards one general aim, makes 
each the beneficiary of the researches of all; it 
accustoms them to handling the instruments of re- 
search, facilitates the detection of facts, teaches the 
pupil how to discover for himself the reasons for what 
ne observes, affords a real experience in the con- 
structive methods of discovery proper to each sub- 
ject, and very often decides the scientific vocation 
of tnose whose efforts have been crowned with a first 

C. The Order of Philosophical Teaching. — One of 
the most complex questions is: With what branch 
ought philosopnical teaching to begin, and what order 
should it follow? In conformity with an immemorial 
tradition, the beginning is often niade with logic. 
Now logic, the science of science, is difficult to under- 
stand and unattractive in the earliest stages of teach- 
ing. It is better to begin with the sciences which take 
the real for their object: psychology, cosmology, 
metaphysics, and theodicy. Scientific logic will be 
better understood later on; moral philosophy pre- 
supposes psychology; systematic nistory of plii- 
losophy requires a preliminary acquaintance with all 
the tranches of philosophy (see Mercier, "Manuel de 
philosophic". Introduction, third edition, Louvain, 

Connected with thia question of the order of teaching 
is another: viz. What should be the scientific teaching 
preliminary to philosophy? Only a course in the sciences 
specially appropriate to philosophy can meet the man- 
ifold exigencies of the problem. The general scientific 
courses of our modem universities include too much 
or too little: "too much in the sense that professional 
teaching must go into numerous technical facts and 
details with which philosophy has nothing to do; too 
little, because professional teaching often makes the 
observation of facts its ultimate aim, whilst, from our 
standpoint, facts are, and can be, only a means, a 
starting-point, towards acquiring a knowledge of the 
most general causes and laws" (Mercier, "Rapport 
sur les etudes sup^rieures de philosophic", Louvain, 
1891, p. 25). M. Boutroux, a professor at the Sor- 
bonne, solves the problem of philosophical teaching at 
the university in the same sense, and, according to him, 
the flexible and very liberal organization of the faculty 
of philosophy should include "the whole assemblage 
of the sciences, whether theoretic, mathematico- 
physical, or philologico-historical " ("Revue Inter- 
nationale de Tenseignement", Paris, 1901, p. 510). 




The programme of courses of the Institute of Philos- 
ophy of Louvain is drawn up in conformity with 
this spirit. 

Gbncral Works. — Mercicr, Cow* de philosophie. Logique, 
CriUriologie ghUraU. OrUotogie. Ptychologie (Louvain, 1905-10) ; 
Nt6, Co9moloifie (Louvain, 1904) ; Stonyhur$t Philosophieal Seriu: 
— CuLRKB, I^)ffic (London, 1909); John Rickabt, Firti Princi- 
vlet of KnotoUdge (London, 1901) ; Josbph Rickabt, Moral Phi- 
lotophy (London, 1910); Boeddsr, NcUural Theology (London* 
1906); Maher, Psychology (London, 1909); John Rickabt, Gen- 
eral Metaphyaica (London, 1909) ; Walkkr, Theories of Knowledge 
(London, 1910 — ) ; Ziguara, Summa philoe. (Paris) ; Schiffini, 
Prineipia philoa, (Turin); UrrAburu, IvMittU. philosophiae 
(Vaiiodoiid); Idem, Compend. phil. schoL (Madrid); Philoeophia 
. Lacensit: — Pbsch, Inst, logicales (Freiburg, 1888) ; Idem, Inst, 
phil. natur. (Freiburg, 1880); Idem, Insl. psyckol. (Freiburg, 
189S); HONTHEiM, Inst, theodiceea; Meter, Ifuf. jiuris natur.; 
DoMET DE VoRQEs, Abrigi de tnftaphytique (Paris); Faroes, 
Etudes phil. (Paris); Gutberlbt, Lehrbuch der Philos. Logik und 
Erkenntnisth^nie, Algemeine Metaphys., Naturphilos., Die psy- 
chol.^ Die Theodieee, Ethik u. NcUurrecht, Ethik u. Religion 
(MQnster, 1878-85): Rabier, Lecons de phil. (Paris); Windbi.- 
BAND with the collaboration of Liebmann, Wundt, Ijppb, 
Bauch, La0K, Rickert, Troeltsch, and Grooa, Die Philos. im 
Beginn des twanzigsten Jahrhund. (Heidelberg); Systematisehe 
Philosophie by Dilthbt, Riehl, Wundt, Obtwald, Ebbinghaub, 
EucKEM, Paulbbn, and Mcnch; Lipps, Des Oesamttoerkers, Die 
KtUtur der Oegenwdrt (Leipsig), pt. I, vi; Db Wulf, tr. Coffet, 
S<^iolasticistn Old and New. An Introduction to Neo-Scholastic 
Philosophy (Dublin, 1907); Kulpe, Einleitung in die Philos. 
(Leipsig); Wundt, Einleitung in die Philos. (Leipsig) ; Harper, 
The Metaphysics of the School (London, 187^-84). 

Dictionaries. — Baldwin, Diet, of Philosophy and Psychology 
(London, 1901-05) ; Franck, Diet, des sciences phil. (Paris, 1876) ; 
Eislbr, WiMerhuch der Philosoph. Begriffe (Berlin, 1899) ; Voca- 
bulaire technique et critique de phil., in course of publication by the 
8oo. fran^aiae de philosophie. 

Collections. — Bibliothique de Vlnstitut supSrieur de philoso- 

g\ie; Peillaubb, Bibl. de phil. expirimentale (Paris); RJvitRB, 
ibl. de phil. eontemporaine (Paris) ; CoU. historique des grands 
fhilosoMes (Paris) ; Lb Bon, Bibl. de philosophie scientif. (Paris) ; 
*IAT. Les grands philosophes (Paris); Philosophische BMiolhek 

Periodical Pubucations. — Mind, a quarterly review of ncy- 
chology and philosophy (London, 1876 — ); The Philosoph. Rev. 
(New York, 1892—); Intemat. Jour, of Ethics (Philadelphia); 
Proe. of Aristotelian Society (London, 1888 — ) ; Rev. nio-^cholas- 
tique dephil. ^Louvain, 18 94 ) ; Rev.des sciences ^il. et thioL (Paris) ; 
Revue Thomtste (Toulouse. 1893 — ) ; Annales de philosophie chrit. 
(Paris, 1831 — ): Rev. de pnilos. (Paris); Philosophisches Jahrbuch 
(Fulda); Zeitschr, Mr philos. und philosophische Kritik, formerly 
Fichte-Ulrisische Zeitschr. (Leipsig, 1847—); Kantstvdien (Ber- 
lin, 189d — ); Arch. /. wtssenschafUiche Philos. und Soeiologie 
(Leipsig, 1877 — ); Arch.f. systematisehe Philos. (Berlin, 1895 — ); 
Arch. f. Qesch. d. Philos. (Berlin, 1888 —) ; Rev. phil. de la France 
et de VEtranger (Paris, 1876 — ) ; Rev, de mitaph, et de morale (Paris, 
1894—); Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte (Amsterdam, 1907—); Riv. 
di fUosofia neo-scholaetica (Florence, 1909 — ); Rivisia di filosofia 

Division or Philosopht. — Methods. — Maribtan, Le pro- 
bUme de la classification des sciences d'Aristote d S. Thomas (Paris, 
1901); WiLLMANN. Didaktik (Brunswick, 1903). 

General Histort. — Ubbbrwbg, Hist, of Philosophy, tr. Mor- 
ris (New York, 1875-76); Erdmann, Hist, of Phil. (London. 
1898) ; Windelband, Hist, of Phil. (New York, 1901) ; Turner, 
Hist, of Phil. (Boston, 1903) ; Willmann, Gesch. des Idealismus 
(Brunswick, 1908) ; Zeller, Die Philos. der Oriechen (Berlin), tr. 
Alletne, Reichel, Goodwin, Costelloe, and Muirhead (Lon- 
don) ; Db Wulf. Hist, of Mediaeval Phil. (London, 1909; Paris, 
TQbingen, and Florence, 1912); Windelband, Gesch. der neueren 
Philos. (Leipsig, 1872-80), tr. Tufts (New York, 1901) ; Hoffding, 
Den nyere rilosofis Historic (Copenhagen, 1894), tr. Mater, A 
Hist, of Mod. Phil. (London, 1900) ; Fisher, GeschicfUe der neueren 
Philosophie (Heidelberg, 1889-1901); 8t6ckl, Lehrbuch der Oe- 
schichte der Philosophie ( Mains, 1888; tr. in part by Finlat, Dub- 
lin, 1903) ; Weber, History of Philosophy, tr. Thillt (New York, 

Contemporart Histort. — Euckbn, Oeistige Sirihnungen der 
Gegenwart (Leipsig. 1901); Windelband, Die Philos. im Beginn 
d. XX. Jahr., I (Heidelberg); Caldbron, Les courants phil. dans 
VAmirique latine (Heidelberg. 1909) ; Ceulemanb. Le mouvement 
phil. en AmSrique in Rev. h^o-scholast. (Nov., 1909); Baumann, 
Deutsche u. ausserdeutsche Philos. der letzen Jahrxehnte (Gotha, 

Philosopht and Thbologt. — Heitz, Essai hist, tnir les rapp. 
entre la philosophie et la foi de Bh-enger de Tours d S. Thomas 
(Paris. 1909); jBrunhes, La foi chrH. et la phil. au temps de la 
renaiss. caroling. (Paris, 1903); Grabmann, Die Gesch. der scht/- 
last, methode (Freiburg, 1909). 

M. De Wulf. 

Philoxanus (Akhsenata) of Mabbogh, b. at Ta- 
hal, in the Persian province of Beth-Garmal in the 
second quarter of the fifth century; d. at Gangra, in 
Paphlagonia, 523. He studied at Edessa when Ibas 
was bishop of that city (435-57). Shortly after he 
joined the ranks of the Monophysites and became 
their most learned and courageous champion. In 485 
he was appointed of Hierapolis, or Mabbogh 

(Manbidj) by Peter the Fuller. He continued to 
attack the Decrees of Chalcedon and to defend the 
"Henoticon" of Zeno. He twice visited Constanti- 
nople in the interests of his party, and in 512 he per- 
suaded the Emperor Anastasius k) depose Flavian of 
Antioch and to appoint Severus in his stead. His tri- 
umph, however, was short-lived. Anastasius died in 
518 and was succeeded by the orthodox Justin I. By a 
dqcree of the new ruler the bishops who had been de- 
posed under Zeno and Anastasius were restored to 
their sees, and Philoxenus, with fifty-three other 
Monophysites, was banished. He went to Philippop- 
olis, in Thrace, and afterwards to Gangra where he 
was murdered. 

Philoxenus is considered one of the greatest masters 
of Syriac prose. He wrote treatises on liturgy, exe- 
gesis, moral and dogmatic theology, besides many 
letters which are important for the ecclesiastical history 
of his time. Notice must be taken of the Philoxenian 
Syriac version of the Holy Scriptjiires. This version 
was not Philoxenus's own work^ but was made, upon 
his request and under his direction, by the chorepiaca- 
jma Polycarp about 505. It seems to have been a free 
revision of the Peshitta according to the Lucian re- 
cension of the Septuagint. It is not known whether it 
extended to the whole Bible. Of the Philoxenian ver- 
sion of the Old Testament we have only a few frag- 
ments of the Book of Isaias (xxviii, 3-17; xhi, 17-xlix, 
18; Ixvi, 11-23) preserved in Syr. MS. Add. 17106 of 
the British Museum, and pubUshed by Ceriani. Of 
the New Testament we have the Second Epistle of St. 
Peter, the Second and Third Epistles of St. John and 
the -Epistle of St. Jude, all of which are printed in our 
S3rriac Bibles. There remain also a few fragments of 
the Epistles of St. Paul (Rom., vi, 20; I Cor., i 28; II 
Cor., vii, 13; x, 4; Eph., vi, 12), first published by 
Wiseman from Syr. MS. 153 of the Vatican. Gwynn 
is of the opinion that the Syriac text of the Apocalypse 
published by himself in 1897 probably belongs to the 
original Philoxenian. 

Duval, Littirature Syriaque (3rd ed., Paris, 1907); Wright, A 
Short History of Syriac Literature (London, 1894); Abbemani, 
Bibliotheca Orientalis, II (Rome, 1719) ; Wiseman, Hora Syriacte 
(Rome, 1828); Ceriani, Monumenta sacra Hprofana, V (Milan. 
1868); Renaudot, Liturgiarum Orientalium CoUectio, II (Frank- 
fort, 1847); Martin. Syro-Chaldaicce Institutiones (1873); Guidi, 
La Lettera di Filosseno ai monad di Tell 'Adda (Rome. 1886); 
Frothingham, Stephen bar Sudaili, the Syrian Mystic and the 
Book of Hierotheos (Leyden, 1886); Walus-Budoe, The Dis- 
courses of Philoxenus, Bishop of Maobogh (2 vols., London, 1894) ; 
Vabchaloe, Three Letters of Philoxenus, Bishop of Mabbogh 
U85-519) : being the letter to the monks, the first letter to the monks of 
Beth-Gaugal, arui the letter to Emperor Zeno, with an English trans- 
lation, and an introduction to the life, works, and doctrine of 
Philoxenus (Rome, 1902) ; Idem, Philoxeni Mabbugensis Traclatus 
de lyinitate et Incamatione in Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum 
Orientalium (Paris, 1907) ; Gwtnn, T^e Apocalypse of St. John in 
a Syriac Version hitherto unknown (Dublin, 1897); Idem, Rem- 
nants of the later Syricu: Versions of the Bible (Oxford. 1909) ; 
Baethoen. Philoxenus von Mabug Hber den Glauben in Zeitschrift 
far Kirchgeschichte, V (1882). 122-38. 

A. A. Vaschalde. 

PhoCfloa, titular see in Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. 
The town of Phocaea was founded in the eleventh 
century b. c. by colonists from Phocidia led by two 
Athenians. They settled first on a small island on 
the neighbouring coast, a territory given by the 
Cymseans, between the Bays of Cyma?us and Her- 
mseus, 23 miles north of Smyrna. It was ad- 
mitted to the Ionian Confederation after having 
accepted kings of the race of Codrus. Its fine posi- 
tion, its two ports, and the enterprising spirit of the 
inhabitants made it one of the chief maritime cities of 
ancient times. Historians speak of it but rarely before 
the Roman wars against Antiochus. The praptor 
iEmilius Regillus took possession of the town (189 
B. c.) ; he disturbed neither its boundaries nor its laws. 
During the war against Aristonicus, who reclaimed the 
throne of Per^amum, the Phocaeans took his part and, 
through the mtervention of Massilia, escaped being 
severely punished by the Romans. At the time the 




latter had definitively established his power in Asia, 
Phocflea was only a commercial town; its money was 
coined until the time of the later Empire; but its har- 
bour gradually silted up and the innabitants aban- 
doned it. In 978 Theodore Carentenus built Bardas 
Sclerus near Phocsea. In 1090 the Turk Tchaga of 
Smyrna took possession of it for a short time. The 
Venetians traded' there after 1082, but the Genoese 
quickly supplanted them. 

In 1275 Michael VIII Palaeologus gave Manuel Zac- 
caria the territory of the city and the right to exploit 
the neighbouring alum mines. In 1304 the Genoese, 
with the co-operation of the Greeks of the adjoining 
towns, erected a fortress to defend the town against 
the Turks, and some distance from the ancient Pho- 
c»a founded a city which they called New Phocaea. 
In 1336 Andronicus the Young, allied with Saroukhan, 
Sultan of Magnesia, besieeed the two towns ana 
obliged them to pay the tribute stipulated in 1275. 
They continued also to pay annually to Saroukhan 
500 ducats. From 1340 to 1345 the Greeks occupied 
the two towns, and filjgain in 1358 for a short period. 
At the time of the invasion of Timur in 1403, they pur- 
chased peace bv the payment of money. In the midst 
of difficulties the Genoese colony continued until the 
end of 1455, when it passed into the hands of the 
Turks. In 1650 a naval battle between the Turks and 
Venetians took place in sight of Phocsea. To-day 
Phocsea, in Turkish Fotchatin, or Eski Fotcha (an- 
cient Phocsea), is the capital of a cazaof the vilayet of 
Smvma, has about 6000 inhabitants (4500 Greeks) ^ 
ana exports salt. About six miles to the north, Yem 
Fotcha (new Phootea) is situated on the Gulf of Tchan- 
darh; it has 4500 inhabitants (3500 Greeks), and ex- 
ports agricultural products. 

Seven Greek bishops of Phocsea are known by their 
signatures at the Councils; Mark, at Sardica (344); 
Theoctistus, at Ephesus (441); Quintus, at Chalcedon 
(451); John, at Constantinople (692); Leo, at Nice 
(787); Nicetas, at Constantinople (869); Paul, at Con- 
stantinople (879). In 1387 smcient Phocsea was sepa- 
rated from Ephesus and given to the suffragan of 
Smyrna. In 1403 it still had a titular. The Genoese 
colony had its Latin bishops, seven of whose names 
are recorded from 1346 to 1475; the later ones were 
undoubtedly non-residents: Bartholomew, 1346; John, 
1383; John, before 1427; Nicholas, 1427; Ludovicus, 
about 1450; Stephanus, 1457; iBsddius. 1475. 

Lb Quien, Orient chritt., I, 735; III. 1077; Tsxier. Am 
mineure, 371-5; Thisquen, Pkocaiea (Bonn, 1842); de. Mas- 
Latrib, Trisor de chronologie (Paria, 1889), 1787; Tomaschek, 
Zur kietcrieehen Topographie von Kleinasien im MitlelaUer (Vienna, 
1891). 25-27; Wabchteb, Z>er VerfdU dee Orieehentunu in KUina- 
Mien im XIV. Jahrhundert (Leipsig, 1903), 63; Cuinbt. La Tur- 
auM <rA««, III. 478-86. S. P^TRIDiJS. 

PhoBnicia is a narrow strip of land, about one him- 
dred and fifty miles long and thirty miles wide, shut in 
between the Mediterranean on the west and the high 
range of Lebanon on the east, and consisting mostly of 
a succession of narrow valleys, ravines, and hills, the 
latter descending gradually towards the sea. On the 
north it is bounded by the River Orontes and Mount 
Casius. and by Mount Carmel on the south. The land 
is fertile and well irrigated by numerous torrents and 
streams deriving their waters mainly from the melting 
snows and rain-storms of the winter and spring seasons. 
The principal vegetation consists of the renowned 
cedars of Lebanon, cypresses, pines, palms, olive, vine, 
fig, and pomegranates. On tnis narrow strip of land, 
the Phoenicians had twenty-five cities of which the 
most important were Tyre, Sidon, Aradus, Byblus, 
Marathus, and Tripolis. Less important were Lao- 
dicea, Simyra, Area, Aphaca, Bers^tus, Ecdippa, Akko, 
Dor, Joppa. Gabala, Betrys, and Sarepta. The name 
"Phoemcia is in all probability of Greek origin, <t>otvi^ 
being a Greek derivative of ^oiwf, blood-red. Our 
principal sources of information concerning Phcenicia 
are: first, numerous Phoenician inscriptions found 

in Phoenicia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Sicily, Spain, 
Africa, Italy, and France, and published in the Cor- 
pus Inscriptionum Semiticarum", the oldest being a 
simple one of the ninth century b. c; the rest of 
little historical value, and of comparatively late date, 
i.e., from the fourth century b. c. down: second, 
Egyptian and Assyro-Babylonian historical inscrip- 
tions, especially the Tell-el-Amama letters of the fif- 
teenth century b. c, in which are found f refluent and 
valuable references to Phcenicia and its political rela- 
tions with Western Asia and Egypt; the Old Testa- 
ment, especially in III Kings, v, xvi; Isaias, xxiii ; Jere- 
mias, XXV, xxvii, and Ezechiel, xxvi-xxxii; finally, 
some Greek and Latin historians and writers, both 
ecclesiastical and papan. 

The oldest historical references to Phoenicia are 
found in the Egyptian inscriptions of the Pharaohs, 
Aahmes (1587-62 b. c.) and his successoni, Thothmes > 
I (1541-16 b. c:), and Thothmes III (1503-1449 b. c.) 
in which the Fj^oenicians are called ''Dahe" or 
''Zahi", and "Fenkhu". . In the Tell-el-Amama let- 
ters is found much interesting information concerning 
their cities and especially Tyre, famous for her wealth. 
During all this period Egyptian suzerainty was more 
or less effective. Sidon was gradually eclipsed by the 
risinig power and wealth of Tyre, against which the 
Philistines were powerless, though they constantly 
attacked the former. About the year 1250, after con- 

auering Ashdod, Askelon, Ekron, Gaza, and Gath, \ 
iey forced the Sidonians to surrender the city of Dor. 
At this time Tyre became foremost in Phoenicia and 
one of the greatest and wealthiest cities of the Medi- 
terranean region. Its first king was Hiram, the son of 
Abi-Baal and contemporary of David and Solomon. 
His reign lasted some forty years, and td his energy 
Tyre owed much of its renown. He enlarged the city, 
surrounding it with massive walls, improved its har- 
bours, and rebuilt the temple of Melkarth. He forced 
the Philistine pirates to retreat, thus securing pros- 
perity in maritime commerce and caravan trade, and . 
Phoenician colonization spread along the coast of Asia 
Minor, Sicily. Greece, and Africa. He established a 
commercial alliance with the Hebrews, and his Phoeni- 
cian artists and craftsmen greatly aided them in build- 
ing the temple, and palaces of Solomon. He quelled 
the revolt in Utica and established Phoenician su- 
premacy in North Africa where Carthage, the most 
important of all Phoenician colonies, was later built. 

Hiram was succeeded in 922 by his son, Abd-Starte I, 
who, after seven years Of troubled reign, was mur- 
dered, and most of his successors also met with a 
violent end. About this time hostilities arose between 
Phoenicia and Assyria, although two centuries earlier 
Tiglath-rpileser I, when marching through the northern 
part of Phoenicia, was hospitably entertained by the 
inhabitants of Aradus. In 880 Ithbasd became King 
of Phoenicia, contemporaneous with Asshur'-nasir-pal 
in Assyria and Achab in Israel. He was succeeded by 
Baal-azar and Metten I. Metten reigned for nine 
years and died, leaving Pygmalion, an infant son, but 
nominating as his successor Sicharbas, the high priest 
of Melkarth, who was married to Elissa, his daughter. 
The tale runs that when Pygmalion came to manhood 
he killed Sicharbas, upon which Elissa, with such 
nobles as adhered to her, fled first to C3rpru8 and after- 
wards to Africa, where the colony of Carthage was 
founded (c. 850 b. c). Asshur-nasir-pal and his son 
and successor Shalmaneser II nominally conquered 
Phoenicia; but in 745 b. c. Tiglath-pileser III com- 
pelled the northern tribes to accept Assyrian gov- 
ernors. As soon as this scheme of complete absorption 
became manifest a general conflict ensued, from which 
Assyria emerged victorious and several Phoenician 
cities were captured and destroyed. The invasion of 
Shalmaneser IV in 727 was frustrated, but in 722 he 
almost sacked the city of Tyre. Sargon, his successor 
and great general, compelled Elulaeua^ ^"w^ ^^ '^^^^^ ^ 




to come to honourable terms with him. In 701 Sen- 
nacherib conquered the revolting cities of Syria and 
PhcBnicia. Elukeus fled to Cyprus and Tubaal was 
made king. 

In 680 Abd-Melkarth, his successor, rebelled against 
the Assyrian domination, but fled before Esarhs^don, 
the son of Sennacherib. Sidon was practically de- 
stroyedj most of its inhabitants carried off to Assyria, 
and their places filled by captives from Babylonia ana 
Elam. During the reign of Asshurbanipal (668-625 
B. c.) Tyre was once more attacked and conquered, 
but, as usual, honourably treated. In 606 the Assyr- 
ian empire itself was the allied Baby- 
lonians and Medes, and in 605 Nabuchadonosor, son 
and successor of Nabopolassar, after having conquered 
Elam and the adjacent countries, subdued (586 b. c.) 
Syria, Palestine, Phoenicia, and Egypt. As the 
Tyrians had command of the sea, it was thirteen years 
before their city surrendered, but the long siege 
crippled its commerce, and Sidon regained its ancient 
position as the leading city. Phoenicia was passing 
through its final stage of national independence and 
glory. From the fifth century on, it was continually 
harassed by the incursions of various Greek colonies 
who gradually absorbed its commerce and industry. 
It passed repeatedly under the rule of the Medo- 
Persian kings, Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius, and finally 
Xerxes, who attacked the Athenians at Salamis witn 
the aid of the Phoenician navy, but their fleet was 
defeated and destroyed. In 332, it was finally and 
completely conquered by Alexander the Great, after 
whose death and subsequent to the partition of his 
great Macedonian empire amongst his four generals, 
it fell to Laodemon. In 314, Ptolemy attacked Lao- 
demon and annexed Phoenicia to Egypt. In 198 b. c, 
it was absorbed by the Seleucid dynasty of Syria, 
after the downfall of which (65 a. d.), it became a 
Roman province and remained such till the Moham- 
medan conquest of Syria in the seventh century. 
Phoenicia now forms one of the most important 
Turkish vilayets of Syria with Beyrout as its prin- 
cipal city. 

The whole political history and constitution of 
Phoenicia may be summarized as follows: The 
Phoenicians never built an empire, but each city had 
its little independent territory, assemblies, kings, and 
government, and for general state business sent dele- 
gates to Tyre. They were not a military, but essen- 
tially a seafaring and conunercial people, and were 
successively cofiquered by the Egyptians, Assyrians, 
Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans, to whom, 
because of their great wealth, they fulfilled all their 
obligations by the payinent of tribute. Although 
blessed with fertile land and well provided by nature, 
the Phccnicians, owing to their small terntory and 
comparatively large population, were compelled, from 
the very remotest antiquity, to gain their livelihood 
through commerce. Hence, their numerous caravan 
routes to the East, and their wonderful marine com- 
merce with the West. They were the only nation of 
the ancient East who had a navy. By land they 
pushed their trade to Arabia for gold, a^^ate, onyx, 
mcense, and myrrh* to India for pearls, spices, ivory, 
ebony, and ostrich plumes; to Mesopotamia for 
cotton and linen clothes; to Palestine and Egypt for 
grain, wheat, and barley; to the regions of the Black 
Sea for horses, slaves, and copper. By sea they en- 
circled all the Mediterranean coast, along Syria, 
North Africa, Asia Minor, the i^gean Sea, and even 
Spain, France, and England. A logical result of this 
remarkable commercial activity was the founding in 
Cyprus, Egypt, Crete, Sicily, Africa, Malta, Sardinia, 
Spain, Asia Minor, and Greece of numerous colonies, 
which became important centres of Phoenician com- 
merce, and civilization, and in due time left their 
deep m.irk upon the history and civilization of the 
chisaicul nations of the Mediterranean world. 

Owin^ to this activity also, the Phoenicians devel- 
oped neither literature nor arts. The work done by 
them for Solomon shows that their architectural and 
mechanical skill was great only in superiority to that 
of the Hebrews. The remains of their architecture 
are heavy and their sesthetic art is primitive in char- 
acter. In literature, they left nothing worthy of 
preservation. To them is ascribed the simplification 
of the primitive^ pictorial or ideographic, and syllabic 
systems of writmg into an alphabetic one consisting 
of twenty-two letters and written from right to left, 
from which are derived all the lat«r and modem 
Semitic and European alphabets. This tradition, 
however, must be accepted with some modification. 
There is also no agreement as to whether the basis of 
this Phoenician alphabet is of Eg>'ptian (hieroglyphic 
and hieratic) or of Assyro-Babylonian (cuneiform) 
origin. Those who derive it from a Cypriot prototype 
have not as yet sufliciently demonstrated the plau- 
sibility and probability of their opinion. The recent 
discovery of numerous- Minoan inscriptions in the 
Island of Crete, some of them dating as early as 2000 
b. c, has considerably complicated the problem. 
Other inventions, or improvements, in science and 
mechanics, such as weights and measures, glass manu- 
facture, coinage, the finding of the polar star, and 
navigation are perhaps justly attributed to the 
Phoenicians. Both ethnographically and linguistic- 
ally, they belong to the so-called Semitic group. 
They were called Canaanites, and spoke a dialectical 
variety of the Canaanite group of Western Semitic 
tongues, closely akin to the dialects of the Semitic 
inhabitants of Syria, Palestine, and Canaan. A few 
specimens of their language, as it was spoken by the 
colonics in North Africa towards the end of the third 
century b. c, may still be read in Plautus, from which 
it appears to have already attained a great degree of 
consonantal and vocal decay. The dialect of the 
inscriptions is more archaic and less corrupt. 

Our information concerning the rehgion of the 
Phoenicians is meagre and mainly found in the Old 
Testament, in classical traditions, and legends. Of 
special interest, however, are the votive inscriptions 
in which a great number of proper names generally 
construed with that of some divinity are found. 
Phoenician polytheism, like that of the other Semitic 
nations, was based partly on Animism and partly 
on the worship of the great powers of nature, mostly 
of astral origin. They deified the sun and the moon, 
which they considered the great forces that create 
and destroy, and called them Baal and Astaroth. 
Each city had its divine pair: at Sidon it was Baal 
Sidon (the sun) and Astarte (the moon); at Gebel. 
Baal Tummuz and Baaleth; at Carthage, Baal 
Hainon and Tanith. But the same god changed his 
name according as he was conceived as creator or 
destroyer; thus Baal as destroyer was worshipped 
at Carthage under the name of Moloch. These gods, 
represented by idols, had their temples, altars, and 
pnests. As creators they were honoured with orgies 
and tumultuous feasts; as destroyers, by human vic- 
tims. Astoreth (Venus), whom the Sidonians repre- 
sented by the crescent of the moon and the dove, 
had her cult in the sacred woods. Baal Moloch was 
figured at Carthage as a bronze colossus with arms 
extended and lowered. To appease him children were 
laid in his arms, and fell at once into a pit of fire. 
When Agathocles besieged the city the principal 
Carthaginians sacrificed to Moloch as nTany as two 
hundred of their children. Although this sensual and 
sanguinary religion inspired the surrounding nations 
with horror, they, nevertheless, imitated it. Hence, 
the Hebrews frequently sacrificed to Baal on the 
mountains, and the Greeks adored Astarte of Sidon 
under the name of Aphrodite, and Baal Melkart of 
Tyre under the name of Heraklos. The principal 
Pha^nician divinities arc Adonis, Kl, Ksbinon, Htial, 


Gad, Molochi Melkarth, Sakan, Anath, Astaroth, St. Hilary translates TXan^M^-Au and 0'v0'rAXc0'^«, while 
Rasaph, Sad, and man]^ others. (For the history oi Mercator's version of Nestorius's fourth sermon gives 
Christianity in Phcenicia and its present condition ''extended and collected''). This is exactly the word- 
see Syria.) . ing of Sabellius, who said that God TXari/ycreu, is 
Movers. Di« Phdniner (Bomtt-Berlin, 1841-66); LENOBMAinp- broadened out, into Son and Spirit. To Photinus the 

^''JS^^rT^ iLJiSTi^L& anilf '; f?PrJ''A^'?T^^*' ^l' r''^ « °?t. until the human 

Rawunson. Hi$t. of Phmicia (London, 1889) ; Metbb. Oeseh, Durth of ^hnst. Hence before the Incarnation there is 

(L AUeHunu (Stuttgart, 1884-1902) : Piktschmann. Geactu d, nO Son, and God is Father and Word, AoyoTdrtap, The 

f^iilf^i^l^^t^.'SiJi^'oriHTn fk^t^iZ^.: Incarnation seems to have been conmved after a Nee- 

1885); Bacdimin. Studien mr »emUuchen Rdiaianaqeich., I, II tonan fashion, for Photmus declared the Son of Mai^ 

(Leipiig, 1876-TO) ; Baetbgbn, BeUrOo^ lur Semiiuehen Rdi- to be mere man, and this is the best-known point in his 

«?JESSi:- '^liiSrTSr^AS-o^tSin^Tl^S.i'^'-^^ ^Wng. He was consequently class^ wS Paul of 

1902); Landav, Die Phffnizier in DerAUe Orient (Leipsig. 1903); Samosata; Jerome even calls him an Ebionite, prob- 

EisKLBN. SidoH, a Study in Oriental HisL (New York, 1907). ably because, like Mercator, he believed him to have 

Gabriel Oubsani. denied the Virgin birth. But this is perhaps an error. 

He certainly said that the Hol^ Ghost descended upon 
Photinus, heretic of the fourth century, a Galatian Christ and that He was conceived by the Holy Ghost, 
and deacon to Marcellus, Metro|x>litan of Ancjrra; d. By His union with the prophoric Word, Christ was the 
376. He became Bishop of Sirmium in Pannonia, an Son. The Holy Ghost is iaentified like the Word with 
important position on account of the frequent residence the Unbegotten; He is a part of the Father and the 
of the Emperor Constantiusthere. The city was more Word, as the Word is a part of the Father. It is evident 
Latin than Greek, and Photinus knew both languages, that Photinus went so far beyond Marcellus that it is 
Marcellus was deposed by the Arian party, but was imfair to call him his follower. In his Trinitarian doc- 
restored by Pope Juhus and the Synod of Saidica trine he is a Modalist Monarchian, and in his Chris- 
(343) , and was believed bv them to be orthodox. But tology aDynamistic Monarchian, combining the errors 
Photinus was obviously heretical, and the Eusebian of Theodotus with those of Sabellius. 3ut it is clear 
court-party condemned them both at the Synod of that his views were partly motived by the desire to get 
Antioch (344), which drew up the *' macrostich '' creed, away from the Ditheism which not only the Arians but 
Three envoys were sent to the West and in a synod at even the Eastern moderates were unable to avoid, and 
Milan (345) Photinus was condemned, but not Mar- he especially denounced the Arian doctrine that the 
cellus; communion was refused to the envoys because Son is produced by the Will of the Father. His writ- 
they refused to anathematize Alius. It is evident ings are lost; thechief of them were ''Contra Gentes" 
from the way in which Pope liberius mentions and "Libri ad Valentinianum", according to St. 
this synod that Roman l^ates were present, and Jerome; he wrote a work in both Greek and Latin 
St. Hilary calls its sentence a condemnation by the against all the heresies, and an explanation of the 
Romans. Two years later another synod, perhaps also Creed, 
at Milan, tried to obtam the deposition of Photinus ^ See Awanim*: alio flmi.^ CouneiU, II; Walch, Hitiorie 

but this was. impossible owing to an outbreak of the Ifa^^ett^ri '^L^^^f affi.^Sa^": ^V^, S^r^t* ^l^: 

populace m his favour. Another synod was held Ancyra (Gotha. 1867) ; Ffoulkss in Diet. Christ. Biog. (1887). 

against him at Sirmium; some Arianizmg propositions John Chapman. 
from it are quoted by St. Hilary. The heretic appealed 

to the emperor, who appointed judges before wnom he Photius of Constantinopla, chief author of the 

should be heaid. For this purpose a great synod as- great schism between East and West, was b. at Con- 

sembled at Sirmium (351). . Basil, the supplanter of stantinople c. 815 (Uergcnrother says "not much ear- 

Marcellus as Bishop of Ancjrra and the future leader Her than 827 '\ "Photius'', 1, 316; others, about 810); 

of the Semi-Arians, disputed with Photinus. The her- d. probably 6 Feb., 897. His father was a spcUharios 

etic was deposed, anci twentynseven anathematisms (lifeguard) named Sergius. Symeon Magister ("De 

were agreed to. Photinus probably returned to his see Mich, et Theod.", Bonn ed., 1838, xxix, 668) says that 

at the accession of Julian, uke the other exiled bishops, his mother was an escaped nun and that he was ille- 

for St. Jerome says he was banished by Valentinian gitimate. He further relates that a holy bishop, 

(364-75). Eventually he settled in Galatia. Epipha- Michael of Synnada, before his birth foretold that he 

nius, writing at about the date of his death, considered would become patriarch, but would work so much evil 

his heresy dead in the West. In Pannonia there were that it would be better that he should not be bom. 

still some Photinians in 381, and a Photinian named His father then wanted to kill him and his mother, but 

Marcus, driven from Rome under Innocent I, found the bishop said: "You cannot hinder what God has 

adherents in Croatia. In later writers, e. g.. St. Augus- ordained. Take care for yourself.'' His mother also 

tine, Photinian is the name for any who held Christ dreamed that she would give birth to a demon. When 

to be a mere man. he was bom the abbot of the Maximine monastery 

We obtain some knowledge of the heresies of Pho- baptized him and gave him the name Photius (En- 

tinus from the twenty-seven anathematisms of the ligntened), saying: "Perhaps the anger of God will be 

council of 351, of which all but 1, 10, 12, 13, 18, 23, 24, turned from him'' (Symeon Magister, ibid., cf. Her- 

25 (according to St. Hilary's order: 1, 10, 11, 12. 17, genrother, "Photius^ I, 318-19). These stories 

22, 24, 25) and possibly 2 are directed against niip. need not be taken seriously. It is certain that the fu- 

We have corroborative evidence from many writers, ture patriarch belonged to one of the great families of 

especially St. Epiphanius, who had before him the Constantinople; the Patriarch Tarasius (784-806), in 

complete minutes of the disputation with Basil of whose time the seventh general council (Second of 

Ancyra. The canons obviously misrepresent Pho- Nicsea, 787) was held, was either elder brother or uncle 

tinus's doctrine in condemning it, in so far as they of his father (Photius: Ep. ii. P. G., CIII, 009), The 

sometimes say " Son" where Photinus would have said family was conspicuously ortnodox and had suffered 

"Word". He makes the Father and the Word one some persecution in Iconoclast times (under Leo V, 

Person (TpScforov), The Word is equally with the 813-20). Photius says that in his youth he had had a 

Father unbegotten, or is called a part of the Father, passing inclination for the monastic life ("Ep. ad 

eternally in Him as our logos is m us. The latent Orient, et OBcon.", P. G., CII, 1020), but the prospect 

Word (MMtTot) becomes the explicit Word (vpo- of a career in the world soon eclipsed it. 

^opucAt) not, apparently, at the creation, but at the He early l£id the foundations of that erudition 

Incarnation, lor only then is He really Son. The which eventually made him one of the most famous 

Divine Substance can be dilated and contracted (so scholars of all the Middle Ages. His natural aptitude 




must have been extraordinary, his industir was colos* 
sal. Photius does not appear to have had, anv teach- 
, ers worthy of being remembered; at any rate he never 
alludes to his masters. Hergenr6ther, however, notes 
that there were many good scholars at Constantinople 
while Photius was a cmld and young man, and argues 
from his exact and systematic knowledge of all 
branches of learning that he could not have been en- 
tirely self-taught (op. cit., I, 322). His enemies ap- 
preciated his learning. Nicetas, the friend and biog- 
rapher of his rival Ignatius, praises Photius's skill m 
grammar, poetry, rhetoric, philosophy, medicine, law, 
^and all science" ("Vita S. Ignatii'^in Mansi, XVI, 
229). Pope Nicholas I, in the heat of the quarrel, 
writes to the Emperor Michael III: "Consider very 
carefully how Photius can stand, in spite of his great 
virtues and universal knowledge" (Ep. xcviii "Ad 
Mich.", P. G., CXIX, 1030). It is curious that so 
learned a man never knew Latin. While he was still a 
young man he made the first draft of his encyclopedic 
"Myrobiblion". At an early age. also, he be^an to 
teach grammar, philosophy, and theology in his own 
house to a steaaity increasing number ofstudents. 

His public career was to be that of a statesman, 
coupled with a military command. His brother 
Sergius married Irene, the emperor's aunt. This 
connexion and his undoubted merit procured Photius 
speedy advancement. He became chief secretary of 
State (rptiyroirjiKpiiTit) and captain of the Life Guard 
{Tpunoffwaddpios). He was unmarried. Probably about 
838 he was sent on an embacey "to the Assyr- 
ians" ("Myrobiblion", preface), i. e., apparently, to 
the Khalifa at Bagdad. In the year 857, then, when 
the crisis came in his life. Photius was already one of 
the most prominent members of the Court of Constan- 
tinople. That crisis is the story of the Great Schism 
(see Greek Church). The emperor was Michael 
III (842-6^). son of the Theodora who had finally re- 
stored the holy images. When he succeeded his 
father Theophilus (829-842) he was only three years 
old; he grew to be the wretched boy known in Byzan- 
tine history as Michael the Drunkard (6 ^^vo-ri^s). 
Theodora, at first regent, retired in 856, and her 
brother Bardas succeeded, with the title of Csesar. 
Bardas lived in incest with his daughter-in-law 
Eudocia. wherefore the Patriarch Ignatius (846-57) 
refused nim Holy Communion on the Epiphany of 
857. Ignatius was deposed and banished (Nov. 23, 
857), and the more pliant Photius was intruded into 
his place. He was hurried through Holy Orders in 
six days; on (^hristmas Day, 857, Gregory Asbestos 
of Syracuse, himself excommunicate for insubordina- 
tion by Ignatius, ordained Photius patriarch. By this 
act Photius committed three offences against canon 
law: he was ordained bishop without having kept the 
interstices, by an excommunicate consecrator, and 
to an already occui)ied see. To receive ordination 
from an excommunicate person made him too ex- 
communicate ipso facto. 

After vain attempts to make Ignatius resign his see, 
the emperor tried to obtain from Pope Nicholas I 
(858-67) recognition of Photius by a letter grossly 
misrepresenting the facts and asking for legates to 
come and decide the question in a synod. Photius 
also wrote, very respectfully, to the same purpose 
(Hergenrother, "Photius", I, 407-11). The pope 
sent two legates, Rodoald of Porto and Zachary of 
Anagni, with cautious letters. The legates were to 
hear both sides and report to him. A synod was held 
in St. Sophia's (May, 861). The legates took heavy 
bribes and agreed to Ignatius's deposition and Photius s 
succession. They returned to Rome with further 
letters, and the emperor sent his Secretary of State, 
Leo, after them with more explanations (Hergen- 
rother, op. cit., I, 439-460). In all these letters both 
the emperor and Photius emphatically acknowledge 
the Roman primacy and categorically invoke the 

pope's jurisdiction to confirm wha.t has happened. 
Meanwhile Ignatius, in exile at the island Terebinth, 
sent his friend the Archimandrite Theognostus to 
Rome with an urgent letter setting forth his case (Her- 
genrother, Ij 46&-61). Theognostus did not arrive 
till 862. Nicholas, then, having heard both sides, 
decided for Ignatius, and answered the letters of 
Michael and Photius by insisting that Ignatius must 
be restored, that the usurpation of his see must cease 
(ibid., I, 511-16, 516-19). He also wrote in the same 
sense to the other Eastern patriarchs (5 10-1 1 ) . From 
that attitude Rome never wavered: it was the immedi- 
ate cause of the schism. In 863 the pope held a synod 
at the Lateran in which the two legates were tried, 
degraded, and excommunicated. The synod repeats 
Nicholas's decision, that Ignatius is lawful Patnarch 
of Constantinople; Photius is to be excommunicate 
unless he retires at once from his usurped place. 

But Photius had the emperor and the Court on his 
side. Instead of obeying the pope, to whom he had 
appealed, he resolved to dfeny hfs authbrity altogether. 
Ignatius was kept chained in prison, the pope's letters 
were not allowed to be published. The emperor sent 
an answer dictated^ by Photius saying that nothing 
Nicholas could do would help Ignatius, that all the 
Eastern Patriarchs were on Photius's side, that the 
excommunication of the legates must be explained 
and that unless the pope altered his decision, Michael 
would come to Rome with an army to punish him. 
Photius then kept his place undisturbed for four 
years. In 8^7 he carried the war into the enemy's 
camp by excommunicating the pope and his Latins. 
The reasons he gives for this, in an encyclical 
sent to the Eastern patriarchs, are: that Latins (1) 
fast on Saturday, (2) do not begin Lent till Ash 
Wednesday (instead of three days earlier, as in the 
East), (3) do not allow priests to be married, (4) do 
not allow priests to administer confirmation, (5) have 
added the filioque to the creed. Because of these 
errors the pope and all Latins are: "forerunners of 
apostasy, servants of Antichrist who deserve a 
tnousand deaths, liars, fighters against God" (Her- 
genrother, I, 642-46). It is not easy to say what the 
Melchite patriarchs thought of the quarrel at this 
juncture. Afterwards, at the Eighth General Coun- 
cil, their legates declared that they had pronounced 
no sentence against Photius because that of the pope 
was obviously sufficient. 

Then, suddenly, in the same year (Sept., 867), 
Photius fell. Michael III was murdered and Basil I 
(the Macedonian, 867-86) seized his place as emperor. 
Photius shared the fate of all Michael's friends. He 
was ejected from the patriarch's palace, and Ignatius 
restored. Nicholas I died (Nov. 13, 867). Adrian II 
(867-72), his successor, answered Ignatius's appeal for 
legates to attend a synod that should examine the 
whole matter by sending Donatus, Bishop of Ostia, 
Stephen, Bishop of Nepi^ and a deacon, Marinus. 
They arrived at CJonstantmople in Sept., 869, and in 
October the synod was opened which Catholics recog- 
nize as the Eighth General (Ik)uncil (Fourth of Con- 
stantinople). This synod tried Photius, confirmed 
his deposition, and, as he refused to renounce his 
claim, excommunicated him. The bishops of his 

?arty received li^t penances (Mansi, XVI, 308-409). 
hotius was banished to a monastery at Stenos on the 
Bosphorus. Here he spent seven years, writing let- 
ters to his friends, organizing his party, and waiting 
for another chance. Meanwhile Ignatius reigned as 
patriarch. Photius, as part of his policy, professed 
great admiration for the emperor and sent him a 
fictitious pedigree showing his descent from St. 
Gregory the Illuminator and a forged prophecy fore- 
telling his greatness (Mansi, XVI, 284). Basil was 
so pleased with this that he recalled him in 876 and 
appointed him tutor to his son Constantine. Photius 
ingratiated himself with everyone and feigned recon- 


eiliation with Ignatius. It is doubtful how far Igna- of Photius in 867; so Rome refused to recognise hitfi. 
tius believed in him, but Photius at this time never It was only under his successor Antony 11 (893-95) 
tires of expatiating on his close friendship with the that a synod was held which restored reunion for 
patriarch. He became so popular that when Ignatius a century and a half, till the time of Michael Caerular- 
died (23 Oct., 877) a strong party demanded that ius (1043-68). But Photius had left a powerful anti- 
PhotiuB should succeed him; the emperor was now Roman piuty, eager to repudiate the pope's primacy 
on their side, and an embassy went to Rome to explain and reaay for another schism. It was this^arty. to 
that everyone at Constantmople wanted Photius to wluch Csrularius belonged, that triumphed at Con- 
be patriarch. The pope (John VIII, 872-82) agreed, stantinople under him. so that Photius fe rightly con- 
absolved him from all censure, and acknowledged sidered the author oi the schism which still lasts, 
hin as patriarch. After this second deposition Photius suddenly dis- 

This concession has been much discussed. It has appears from history. It^is not even known in what 

been represented, truly enough, that Photius had monastery he spent his last years. Among his many 

shown himself unfit for such a post; John VII I's letters there is none that can be dated certainly as be- 

acknowledgment of him has been described as showing longing to this second exile. The date of his death, 

deplorable weakness. ' On the other hand, by Igna- not quite certain, is generally given as 6 February, 

tius's death the See of Constantinople was now really 897. 

vacant; the clergy had an undoubted right to elect That Photius was one of the greatest men of the 

their own patriarch; to refuse to acknowledge Photius Middle Ages, one of the most remarkable characters 

would have provoked a fresh breach with the East, in all church history, will not be disputed. His fatal 

would not have prevented his occupation of the see, quarrel with Rome, though the most famous, was only 

and would have given his party (including the emperor) one result of his many-sided activity. During the 

just reason for a quarrel. The event proved that stormy years he spent on the patriarch's throne, while 

almost anything would have been better than to alUw he was warring against the Latins, he was negotiating 

his succession, if it could be prevented. But the pope with the Moslem Khalifa for the protection of the 

could not foresee that, and no doubt hoped that Christians under Moslem rule and the care of the Holy 

Photius, having reached the height of his ambition. Places, and carrying on controversies against various 

would (uop the quarrel. Eastern heretics, Armenians, Paulicians etc. His 

In 878. then, Photius at last obtained lawfully the interest in letters never abated. Amid all his ciaies 

place he had formerly usurped. Rome acknowledged he found time to write works on dogma, Biblical criti- 

him and restored him to her communion. There was cism, canon law, homilies, an encyclopsedia of all kinds 

no possible reason now for a fresh quarrel. But he had of learning, and letters on all questions of the day. 

identified himself so completely with that strong Had it not been for his disastrous schism, he mi^t be 

anti-Roman party in the East which he mainly had counted the last, and one of the greatest, of the Greek 

formed, and, doubtless, he had formed so great a hatred Fathers. There is no shadow ofsuspicion against his 

of Rome, that now he carried on the old quarrel with private life. He bore his exiles and other troubles 

as much bitterness as ever and more infiuence. manfully and well. He never despaired of his cause 

Nevertheless he applied to Rome for legates to come and spent the years of adversity in building up his 

to another synod. There was no reason for the synod, party, writing letters to encourage his old friends and 

but he persuaded John VIII that it would clear up make new ones. 

the last remains of the schism and rivet more firmly . And yet the other side of his character is no less 

the union between East and West. Hb real motive evident. His insatiable ambition, his detennination 

was, no doubt, to undo the effect of the synod that had to obtain and keep the patriarchal see, led him to the 

deposed him. The pope sent three legates, Cardinal extreme of disdionesty. His claim was worthless. 

Peter of St. Chrysogonus-^ Paul, Bishop of Ancona. That Ignatius was the rightful patriarch as lon^ as he 

and Eugene, Bishop of Ostia. The synod was opened lived, and Photius an intruder, cannot be demed by 

in St. Sophia's in ^fovember. 879. This is the " Pseu- any one who does not conceive the Church as merely 

dosy nodus Photiana'* which the Orthodox count as the slave of a civil government. And to keep this 

the Eighth General Council. Photius had it all his place Photius descended to the lowest depth of deceit, 

own way throughout. He revoked the acts of the At the very time he was protesting his obedience to 

former E^od (869), repeated all his accusations against the pope he was dictating to the emperor insolent 

the Latins, dwelling especially on the fUioque griev- letters that denied all papal jurisdiction. He misrep- 

ance, anathematized all who added an3rthing to the resented the story of Ignatius's deposition with un- 

Creed, and declared that Bulgaria should belong to blushing lies, and he at least connived at Ignatius's 

the Byzantine Patriarchate. The fact that there ill-treatment in banishment. He proclaimed openly 

was a great majority for all these measures shows how his entire subservience to the State in the whole 

strong Photius s partv had become in the East. The question of his intrusion. He stops at nothing in his 

legates, like their predecessors in 861, a^^-eed to every- war against the Latins. He heaps up accusations 

thing the majority desired (Mansi, AVlI, 374 sq.). against them that he must have known were lies. 

As soon as they had returned to Rome, Photius sent His effrontery on occasions is almost incredible. For 

the Acts to the pope for his confirmation. Instead instance, as one more grievance against Rome, he 

John, naturally, again excommunicated him. So the never tires of inveighing against the fact that Pope 

schism broke out again. This time it lasted seven Marinus I (882-84), John VIIPs successor, was 

years, till Basil I's death in 886. translated from another see, instead of being ordained 

Basil was succeeded by his son Leo VI (886-912), from the Roman clergy. He describes this as an 
who strongly disliked Photius. One of his first acts atrocious breach of canon law, quoting against it 
was to accuse him of treason, depose, and banish the first and second canons of Sardica; and at the saine 
him (886). The story of this second deix)sition time he himself continually transferred bishops in his 
and banishment is obscure. The charge was that patriarchate. The Orthodox, who look upon him, 
Photius had conspired to depose the emperor and rightly, as the great champion of their cause against 
put one of his own relations on the throne — an accusa- Rome, have for^ven all bis offences for the s&e of 
lion which probably meant that the emperor wanted this championship. They have canonized him, and 
to get rid of him. As Stephen, Leo's younger brother, on 6 Feb., when they keep his feast, their office over- 
was made patriarch (886-93) the real explanation flows with his praise. He is the "far-shining radiant 




of Roman pride'' (''Menolodon" for 6 Feb., ed. Malt- 
£ew, I, 916 sq.). The Catnolic remembers this ex- 
traordmaiy man with mixed feelings. We do not 
dmy his eminent qualities and yet we certainly do not 
remember him as a thrice blessed speaker for God. 
One may perhaps sum up Photius b^ saying that he 
was a great man with one blot on his character — ^his 
insatiable and unscrupulous ambition. But that blot 
80 covers his life that it eclipses ever3rthing else and 
makes him deserve our final judgment as one of the 
worst enemies the Church of Christ ever had, and the 
cause of the greatest calamity that ever befell her. 

Works. — Of Photius's prolific literary production 
part has been lost. A great merit of what remains is 
that he has preserved at least fragments of earlier 
Greek works of which otherwise we should know noth- 
ing. This applies especially to lus *'Myriobiblion". 
(1) The "Myriobiblion" or "Bibliotheca" is a col- 
lection of descriptions of books he had read, with notes 
and sometimes copious extracts. It contains 280 
such notices of books (or rather 279; no. 89 is lost) on 
every possible subject — theology, philosophy, rhet- 
oric, grammar, physics, medicine. He quotes pagans 
and Christians, Acts of Councils, Acts of Martyrs, 
and so on, in no sort of order. For the works thus 
partitdly saved (otherwise unknown) see Krumbacher, 
^*Bya. Litter.", 518-19. (2) The "Lexicon" (A^^wk 
ffvpaywyij) was compiled, probably, to a great extent 
by his students under his direction (Krumbacher, ibid., 
521), from older Greek dictionaries (Pausanias, Har- 
pokration, Diogenianos, MMus Dionysius). It was 
intended as a practical help to readers of the Greek 
classics, the Septuagint, and the New Testament. 
Only one MS. of it exists, the defective "Codex 
Galeanus" (formerly in the possession of Thomas 
Gale, now at Cambridge), wntten about 1200. (3) 
The " Amphilochia", dedicated to one of his favourite 
disciples, Amphilochius of Cyzicus, are answers to 

Questions on Biblical, philosophical, and theological 
ifficulties, written during his first exile (867-77). 
There are 324 subjects discussed, each in a regular 
form — question^ answer, difficulties, solutions — ^but 
arranged again m no order. Photius ^ves mostly the 
views of famous Greek Fathers, Epiphanius, Cyril 
of Alexandria, John Damascene, especially Theodoret. 
(4) Biblical works. — Only fr^ments of these are 
extant, chiefiy in Catenas. The longest are from 
Commentaries on St. Matthew and Romans. (5) 
Canon Law. — ^The classical "Nomocanon" (q. v.), the 
official code of the Orthodox Church, is attributed to 
Photius. It is, however, older than his time (see 
John Scholasticus). It was revised and received 
additions (from thes^odsof 861 and 879) in Photius's 
time, probably by his orders. The "Collections and 
Accurate Expositions" (2 vya7(iryat Kal dirodt^it dxpifiets) 

(Her^enrother, op. cit., Ill, 165-70) are a series of 
questions and answers on points of canon law, really 
an indirect vindication of his own claims and position. 
A number of his letters bear on canonical questions. 
(6) Homilies. — Hergenrother mentions twenty-two 
sermons of Photius (III, 232). Of these two were 
printed when Hergenrother wrote (in P. G.^ CII, 548 
sq.), one on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, and 
one at the dedicatior4 of a new church during his 
second patriarchate. Later, S. Aristarches published 
eighty-three homilies of different kinds (Constanti- 
nople, 1900). (7) Dogmatic and polemical works. — 
Many of these bear on his accusations against the 
Latins and so form the beginning of the long series of 
anti-Catholic controversy produced by Orthodox 
theologians. The most important is " Concerning the 
Theology about the Holy Ghost" (Hepi r^ rod iiylov 
TwfdfMTot fiv^Tayuylatj P. G., CII, 264-541), a defence 
of the Procession from God the Father alone, based 
chiefly on John, xv, 26. An epitome of the same 
work, made by a later author and contained in 
Euthymius Zigabenus's ''Panoplla", XIII, became 

the favourite weapon of Orthodox controversialists 
for many centuries. The treatise ' * Against Those who 
say that Rome is the First See", also a very popular 
Orthodox weapon, is only the last part or supplement 
of the '' Collections", often written out separately. 
The '^ Dissertation Concerning the Reappearance of the 
Manichseans" {Ai'fhrv^tf vcpi rift ftanx^f^y dvafilkaari^ 
^«wj, P. G., CII, 9-264), in four books, is a history and 
refutation of the Paulicians. Much of the '^Amphu- 
ochia" belongs to this heading. The little work 
'' Against the Franks and other Latins " (Hergenrother, 
"Monumenta", 62-71), attributed to Photius, is not 
authentic. It was written after Cserularius (Hergen- 
rother, "Photius", IIIj 172-224). (8) Letters.— 
Migne. P. G., CII, publishes 193 letters arranged in 
three books; Balettas (London, 1864) has edit^ a 
more complete collection in five parts. Thev cover 
all the chief periods of Photius's life, and are the most 
important source for his history. 

A. Ehrhard (in Krumbacher, "Bysantinische Lit- 
teratur", 74-77) judges Photius as a distinguished 

Sreacher, but not as a tneolo^an of the first importance, 
[is theological work is chiefiy the collection of ex- 
cerpts from Greek Fathers and other sources. His 
erudition is vast, and probably unequalled in the Mid- 
dle Ages, but he has little originality, even in his con- 
troversy against the Latins. Here, too, he only 
needed to collect angry things said by Byzantine 
theologians before his time. But his discovery of the 
filioque grievance seems to be original. Its success 
as a weapon is considerably greater than its real value 
deserves (Fortescue, "Orthodox Eastern Church", 

Editions. — The works of Photius known at the time 
were collected by Migne, P. G., CI-CV. J. Balettas, 
^tariov iiruFTo\al (London^ 1864), contains other let- 
ters (altogether 2^) not in Migne. A. Papadopulos- 
Kerameus, "S. Patris Photii Epistote XLV^ (St. 
Petersburg, 1896) gives forty-five more, of which, how- 
ever, only the first twenty-one are authentic. S. Aris- 
tarches, ^tariov X^yoi jra( 6iu\Uu 83 (Constantinople, 
1900, 2 vols.), gives other homilies not in Migne. 
Oikonomos has edited the "Amphilochia" (Athens, 
1858) in a more complete text. J. Hergenr6ther, 
"Monumenta grsca ad Photium eiusoue historiam 
pertinentia" (Ratisbon, 1869), and Papaaopulos-Kera- 
m^us^ "Monumenta graeca et latina aa historiam 
Photii patriarchs pertinentia" (St. Petersburg, 2 parts, 
1899 and 1901), add further documents. 

The AcUofthe Synods of 869 and 879 are the most important 
■ources (Mansi, Xvl and XVII). Theognobtus (Archimandrite 

at Constantinople), AifitXXo^ irtpi^x*"!' *5*^? rd ff«rdL r6r Mryay 


Btof 'lyvartov (Manai, aVI> 209 sq.). Papadopuix>8-Kerambus 

'lyKATior, a contemporary account ofthe beadnning of the schism 


(in Mansi, XVI. 295 sq.) : Niketab David Paphlaoon (d. 890) ; 
Btof 'lyvartov (Manai, aVI> 209 sq.). Papadopulob-Kerameub 
declared this to be a fourteenth-century forgery in the ViMont. 
Vremennik (1899), 13-38, i'cvdoviK^af & ira^AaYwr) ; he was suo- 
cessfully refuted by Vabiljewbki (»6uf., 39-56); ej. Byzant. Zeit- 

Vremennik (1899), lZ-^,irtv6ovuciTat bwa^\aym¥);he was suo- 

' ily refuted by Vabiljewbki (»6uf., 39-56); ef. ^ ' 

achrifl, IX (1900) . 268 sq. Qbiybbiob, BaaiAtrat (written between 

945-959). a history of the emperors and Court from Leo V (813- 
20) to Basil I (867-86), published in Corpus Serijaiorum Hut, 
Bytantina (Bonn, 1834) and P.O.,CIX, 985 sqq.; Tbbopbakm 
CoNTiNUATUB for 813-961 in Corpus Script., 1838. and P. O., 
CIX, 15 sqq.; Leo Gbammaticub, re-edition of Stmbon Maoib- 
TER, CkronieU, in Corpus Script., 1842, and P. (7., CVIII. 1037 Bq9. 
HeroeniiOthbr, Photitu, Piitriarch von KonslarUinopd, soin 
L^>en^ seine Schrifien u. das griechische Schisma (Ratisbon, 1867- 
69) (the most learned and exhaustive work on the subject). 
DeiietraKOPULOS, 'Ivropia rov VYcV^arof riff Aariyuciff iwh n^f 

ba$fM(ov cfficAifa-taf (Leipiig. 1867), is ah attempted rejoinder to 
Hergenrother, as is also KRBMOB,'I<rropia rov ^vi^iiarot n»v Avo 
cfficAifo-twi' (Athens, 190&-07, two volumes published out of 

four). UlMMER, Pap^ Nikolaus u. die bysantinische Staatskirehe 
seiner Zeii (Berlin, 1857); Pichlbr, Qeschidde der kirchliehen 
Trenntmg svoischen dem Orient, u. Occident (Munich, 1864-65); 
NoRDBN, Das PapsUum und Bysanz (Berlin, 1903) ; Krumbachbr, 
OeschiefUe der Bysantinisehen LiUeratur (Munich, 1897). 73-79, 
515-524 (with copious bibliography) ; Fortebcue, The Orthodox 
Eastern Church (London, 1907), 13^171 ; Rcinaut, Le schisms do 
Photius (Paris. 1910). 

Adrian Fortbscub. 
PhrygiaDJ. See Montanistb. 

PhylactariM (^vXaxri^Mor. safeguard, amulet, or 
charm). The word occurs only once in the New Tea- 




tament (Matt., xxiii, 5), in the great discourse of Our 
Lord against the Pharisees whom He reproaches with 
ostentation in the discharge of their religious and 
social duties: "For they make their phylacteries 
broad and enlarge their fringes". By the Jews the 
phylacteries are termed tephilliTif plural of the word 
tephiUahf "a prayer", and consist of two small square 

Arm entwined with Phylactery 

cases of leather, one of which is worn on the forehead, 
the other on the upper left arm. The case for the 
forehead holds four distinct compartments, that for 
the arm only one. They contain narrow strips oi 

Parchment on which are copied passages from the 
entateuch, viz., Ex., xiii, 1-10; and Deut., vi, 4-9; 
xi, iat-21. The practice of wearing the phylacteries 
at stated moments is still regarded as a sacred reli- 
gious duty by the orthodox Jews. 

Klgin. 6ie Toiapholh nach Bibel und Tradition in JahrbUeher 
f. Prol. Thtol. (Berlin, 18S1), 606-689; Viqouroux, Did. de la 
Bible, a. v. Phylactirea. 

James F. Driscoll. 

PhysicSi History of. — The subject will be treated 
under the following heads: — I. A Glance at Ancient 
Physics; II. Science and Early Christian Scholars; 
III. A Glance at Arabian Physics; IV. Arabian Tradi- 
tion and Latin Scholasticism; V. The Science of Ob- 
servation and Its Progress — Astronomers — ^The Stat- 
ics of Jordanus — Thierry of Freiberg — Pierre of 
Maricourt; VI. The Articles of Paris (1277)— Possi- 
bility of Vacuum; VII. The Earth's Motion— -Oresme; 
VIII. Plurality of Worlds; IX. Dynamics— Theory of 
Impetus — Inertia — Celestial and Sublunary Mechan- 
ics Identical; X. Propagation of the Doctrines of the 
School of Paris in Germany and Italy — Purbach and 
Regiomontanus — Nicholas of Cusa — Vinci; XI. Ital- 
ian Averroism and its Tendencies to Routine — At- 
tempts at Restoring the Astronomy of Homocentric 
Spheres; XII. The Copemican Revolution} XIII. 
Fortunes of the Copemican System in the Sixteenth 
Century; XIV. Theory of the Tides; XV. Statics in 
the Sixteenth Century — Stevinus; XVI. Dynamics in 
the Sixteenth Century; XVII. Galileo's ,Work; 
XVIII. Initial Attempts in Celestial Mechanics — 
Gilbert — Kepler; XI A. Controversies concerning 
Geostatics; aX. Descartes'sWork; XXI. Progress of 
Experimental Physics; XXII. Undulatoiy Theory of 
Light; XXIII. Development of Dynamics; XXIV. 
Newton's Work ; XXV. Progress of General and Celes- 
tial Mechanics in the Eighteenth Century; XXVI. 
Establishifient of the Theory of Electricity and Mag- 
netism; XXVII. Molecular Attraction; XXVIIl. 
Revival of the Undulatory Theory of Light; XXIX. 
Theories of Heat. 

I. A Glance at Ancient Physics. — Although at 
the time of Christ's birth Hellenic science had pro- 
duced nearly all its masterpieces, it was still to give 
to the world Ptolemy's astronomy, the way for which 
had been pavejl for more than a century by the works 
of Hipparchus. The revelations of Greek thought on 
the nature of the exterior world ended with the 
"Almagest", which appeared about a. d. 145, and 
then began the decline of ancient learning. Those of 
its works that escaped the fires kindled by Moham- 
medan warriors were subjected to the barren inter- 
pretations of Mussulman commentators and, like 
parched seed, awaited the time when Latin Chris- 
tianity would furnish a favourable soil in which they 
could once lAore flourish and bring forth fruit. Hence 
it is that the time when Ptolemy put the fmishing 

touches to his "Great Mathematical Syntax of Astron- 
omy" seems the most opportune in which to study 
the field of ancient physics. An impassable frontier 
separated this field into two regions in which different 
laws prevailed. From the moon's orbit to the sphere 
enclosing the world, extended the region of beings 
exempt from generation, change, and death, of per- 
fect, divine beings, and these were the star-sphere and 
the stars themselves. Inside the lunar orbit lay the 
region of generation and corruption, where the four 
elements and the mixed bodies generated by their 
mutual combinations were subject to perpetual 

The science of the stars was dominated by a prin- 
ciple formulated by Plato and the Pythagoreans, 
according to which all the phenomena presented to us 
by the heavenly bodies must be accounted for by 
combinations of circular and uniform motions. More- 
over, Plato declared that these circular motions were 
reducible to the rotation of solid globes all limited by 
spherical surfaces concentric with the World and the 
Earth, and some of these homocentric spheres carried 
fixed or wandering stars. Eudoxus of Cnidus, Cal- 
ippus, and Aristotle vied with one another in striving 
to advance this theory of homocentric spheres, its 
fundamental hypothesis being incorporated in Aris- 
totle's * * Physics ' * and ' ' Metaphysics . However, the 
astronomy of homocentric spheres could not explain 
all celestial phenomena, a considerable number of 
which showea that the wandering stars did not always 
remain at an equal distance from the Earth. Hera- 
ciides Ponticus in Plato's time, and Aristarchus of 
Samos about 280 b. c. endeavoured to account for all 
astronomical phenomena by a heliocentric system, 
which was an outline of the Copemican mechanics: 
but the arguments of physics and the precepts of 
theology proclaiming the Earth's immobility, readily 
obtained the ascendency over this doctrine which 
existed in a mere outlinel Then the labours of Apol- 
lonius Pergffius (at Alexandria, 205 b. c), of Hip- 
parchus (who made observation at Rhodes in 128 and 
127 B. c), and finally of Ptolemy (Claudius Ptol- 
emaeus of relusium) constituted a new astronomical 
system that claimed the Earth to be immovable in the 
centre of the universe; a system that seemed, as it 
were, to reach its completion when, between a. d. 142 
and 146, Ptolemy wrote a work called '^MeydXri 
fjuiOrifiaTuc^ a^vra^is r^t darpovofjUai^^ its Arabian title 
being transliterated by the Christians of the Middle 
Ages, who named it "Almagest". The astronomy of 
the "Almagest" e?q)lained all astronomical phe- 
nomena with a precision which for a long time seemed 
satisfactory, accounting for them by combinations of 
circular motions; but, of the circles described, some 
were eccentric to the World, whilst others were epi- 
cyclic circles, the centres of which described deferent 
circles concentric with or eccentric to the World; 
moreover, the motion on the deferent was no longer 
uniform, seemingso only when viewed from the centre 
of the equant. Briefly, in order to construct a kine- 
matical arrangement by means of which phenomena 
could be accurately represented, the astronomers 
whose work Ptolemy completed had to set at naught 
the properties ascribed to the celestial substance by 
Aristotle's "Physics", and between this "Physics 
and the astronomy of eccentrics and epicycles there 
ensued a violent struggle which lasted until the 
middle of the sixteenth century. 

In Ptolemy's time the physics of celestial motion 
was far more advanced than the physics of sublunary 
bodies, as, in this science of beings subject to genera- 
tion and corruption, only two chapters had reached 
any degree of perfection, namely, those on optics 
(called perspective) and statics. The law of reflec- 
tion was known as early as the time of Euclid, about 
320 B. c, and to this geometrician was attributed, al- 
though probably erroneously, a "Treatise on Mir- 




rors'^ in which the principles of catoptrics were cor- 
rectly set forth. Dioptrics, being more difficult, was 
developed less rapidly. Ptolemy already knew that 
the angle of refraction is not proportional to the angle 
of incidence, and in order to determine the ratio be- 
tween the two he undertook experiments the results 
of which were remarkably exact. 

Statics reached a fuller development than optics. 
The ''Mechanical Questions'' ascribed to Aristotle 
were a first attempt to organize that science, and they 
contained a kind of outline of the principle of virtual 
velocities, destined to justify the law of the equi- 
librium of the lever; besides, they embodied the happv 
idea of referring to the lever theory the theory of all 
simple machines. An elaboration, in which Euclid 
seems to have had some part, brought statics to the 
stage of development in which it was found by Ar- 
chimedes (about 287-212 b. c), who was to raise it 
to a still higher degree of perfection. It will here 
suffice to mention the works of genius in which the 
great S3rracusan treated the equilibrium oT the 
weights suspended from the two arms of a lever, the 
search for the centre of gravity, and the equilibrium 
of liquids and floating bodies. The treatises of Ar- 
chimedes were too scholarly to be widely read by the 
mechanicians who succeeded this geometrician; these 
men preferred easier and more practical writings as, 
for instance, those on the Unes of Aristotle's "Mechan- 
ical Questions". Various treatises by Heron of Alex- 
andria have preserved for us the type of these de- 
cadent works. 

II. Science and Early Christian Scholars. — 
Shortly after the death of Ptolemy,, Christian science 
took root at Alexandria with Origen (about 180-253), 
and a fragment of his "Commentaries on Genesis", 
preserved by Eusebius, shows us that the author was 
familiar with the latest astronomical discoveries, 
especially the precession of the equinoxes. However, 
the writings in which the Fathers of the Church com- 
ment upon the work of the six days of Creation, notably 
the commentaries of St. Basil and St. Ambrose, bor- 
row but little from Hellenic physics; in fact, their tone 
would seem to indicate distrust in the teachings of 
Greek science, this distrust being engendered by two 
prejudices: in the first place, astronomy was becoming 
more and more the slave of astrology, the superstitions 
of which the Church diligently combatted; in the 
seeond place, between the essential propositions of 
peripatetic physics and what we believe to be the 
teaching of Holy Writ, contradictions appeared; 
thus Genesis was thought to teach the presence of 
water above the heaven of the fixed stars (the firma- 
ment) and this was incompatible with the Aristotelean 
theory concerning the natural place of the elements. 
The ciebates raised by this question gave St. Augustine 
an opportunity to lay down wise exegetical rules, and 
he recommended Christians not to put forth lightly, 
as articles of faith, propositions contradicted by 
physical science based upon careful experiments. St. 
Isidore of Seville (d. 636), a bishop, considered it 
legitimate for Christians to desire to Know the teach- 
ings of profane science, and he laboured to satisfy 
this curiosity. His "Etymologies" and "De natura 
rerum" are merely compilations of fragments bor- 
rowed from all the pagan and Christian authors with 
whom he was acquainted. In the height of the Latin 
Middle Ages these works served as models for numer- 
ous encyclopsedias, of which the "De natura rerum" 
by Bede (about 672-735) and the "De universo" by 
Rabanus Maurus (776-856) were the best known. 

However, the sources from which the Christians of 
the West imbibed a knowledge of ancient physics 
became daily more numerous, and to Pliny the Elder's 
"Natural History", read by Bede, were added 
Chalcidius's commentary on Plato's "Timajus" and 
Martianus Capella's "De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mer- 
curii", these diflferent works mspiring the physics of 

John Scotus Eriugena. Prior to a. d. 1000 a new 
Platonic work b^ Macrobius, a commentary on the 
*'3oranium Scipionis", was in great favour in the 
schools. Influenced by the various treatises already 
mentioned, Guillaume of Conches (1080-1150 or 
1154) and the unknown author of "De mundi con- 
stitutione liber", which, by the way, has been falsely 
attributed to Bede, set forth a planetary theory 
m^ing Venus and Mercury satellites of the sun, but 
Eriugena went still further and made the sun also, 
the centre of the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Had he 
but extended this hypothesis to Saturn, he would have 
merited the title of precursor of Tycho Brahe. 

III.' A Glance at Arabian Physics. — ^The authors 
of whom we have heretofore spoken had only been 
acquainted with Greek science through the medium 
of Latin tradition, but the time came when it was to 
be much more completely revealed to the Christians 
of the West through tne medium of Mussulman 

There is no Arabian science. The wise men of 
Mohammedanism were always the more or less faith- 
ful disciples of the Greeks, but were themselves desti- 
tute of all originaUty. For instance, they compiled 
many abridgments of Ptolemy's ''Almagest", made 
numerous observations, and constructed a great many 
astronomical tables, but added nothing essential to 
the theories of astronomical motion; their only inno- 
vation in this respect, and, by the way. quite an un- 
fortunate one, was the doctrine of tne oscillatory 
motion of the equinoctial points, which the Middle 
Ages ascribed to ThAbit ibn Kdrrah (836-901), but 
which was probably the idea of Al-Zarkali, who lived 
much later and made observations between 1060 and 
1080. This motion was merely the adaptation of a 
mechanism conceived by Ptolemy for a tot^ly differ- 
ent purpose. 

In physics, Arabian scholars confined themselves 
to commentaries on the statements of Aristotle, their 
attitude being at times one of absolute servility. This 
intellectual servility to Peripatetic teaching reached 
its climax in Abul ion Roshd, whom Latin scholastics 
called Averroes (about 1120-98) and who said: Aris- 
totle "founded and completed logic, physics, and 
metaphysics . . . because none of those who have 
followed him up to our time, that is to say^ for four 
hundred years, have been able to add anything to his 
writings or to detect therein an error of any impor- 
tance ' . This unbounded respect for Aristotle's work 
impelled a great many Arabian philosophers to attack 
Ptolemy's ''Astronomy" in the name of Peripatetic 
physics. The conffict between the hypotheses of 
eccentrics and epicycles was inaugurated by Ibn 
B4dja, known to the scholastics as Avempace (d. 
1138), and Abu Bekr ibn el-Tofeil, called Abubacer 
by the scholastics (d. 1186), and was vigorously con- 
ducted by Averroes, the pTot6.g6 of Abubacer. Abu 
Ish&k ibn al-Bitrogi, known by the scholastics as 
Alpctragius, another disciple of Abubacer and a con- 
temporary of Averroes. advanced a theory on plan- 
etary motion wherein he wished to account for the 
phenomena peculiar to the wandering stars, by com- 
pounding rotations of homocentric spheres; his trea- 
tise, which was more neo-Platonic than Peripatetic, 
seemed to be a Greek book altered, or else a simple 
plagiarism. Less inflexible in his Peripateticism than 
AverroSs and Alpetragius, Moses ben Maimun, called 
Maimonides (1139-11^), accepted Ptolemy's astron- 
omy despite its incompatibility with Aristotelean 
physics, although he regarded Aristotle's sublunary 
physics as absolutely true. 

IV. Arabian Tradition and Latin Scholasti- 
cism. — It cannot be said exactly when the first trans- 
lations of Arabic writings began to be received by the 
Christians of the West, but it was certainly previously 
to the time of Gerbert (Sylvester II; about 930-1003). 
Gerbert used treatises translated from the Arabic, 




and containing instructions on the use of astronomical 
instruments, notably the astrolabe, to which instru- 
ment Hermann the Lame (1013-54) devoted part of 
his researches. In the beunning of the twelfth cen- 
tury the contributions of Mohammedan science and 
philosophy to Latin Christendom became more and 
more frequent and important. About 1120 or 1130 
Adelard of Bath translated the ''Elements" of Euclid; 
and various astronomical treatises; in 1141 Peter the 
Venerable, Abbot of Cluny, found two translators, 
Hermann the Second (or the Dalmatian) and Robert 
of Ratines, established in Spain; he engaged them 
to translate the Koran into Latin, and in 1143 these 
same translators made Christendom acquainted with 
Ptolemy's planisphere. Under the direction of 
Raimond (Archbishop of Toledo^ 1130; d. 1150), 
Domengo Gondisalvi (Gonsalvi; Gundissalinus), 
Archdeacon of S^ovia, began to collaborate with the 
converted Jew, John of Luna, erroneously called John 
of Seville "(Johannes Hispalensis). Wnile John of 
Luna applied himself to works in mathematics, he also 
assisted Gondisalvi in translating into Latin a part of 
Aristotle's physics, the "Pe CabIo" and the "Meta- 
physics'', besides treatises by Avicenna, Al-Gaz41i, 
Al-F&r&bi, and perhaps Salomon ibn Gebirol (Avice- 
bron). About 1134 John of Luna translated Al- 
Ferg&ni's treatise ' ' Astronomy ' ' , which was an abridge- 
ment of the "Almagest", thereby introducing Chris- 
tians to the Ptolemaic system, while at the same time 
his translations, made m collaboration with Gondi- 
salvi, familiarized the Latins with the physical and 
metaphysical doctrines of Aristotle. Indeed the in- 
fluence of Aristotle's "Physics" was already apparent 
in the writings of the most celebrated masters of the 
school of Chartres (from 1121 until before 1155), and 
of Gilbert de la Porr^e (1070-1154). 

The abridgement of Al-Ferg&ni's "Astronomy", 
translated by John of Luna, does not seem to have 
been the first work in which the Latins were enabled 
to read the exposition of Ptolemy's system; it was 
undoubtedly preceded by a more complete treatise, 
the "De Scientia stellarum" of Albategnius (Al- 
BattAni), latinized by Plato of Tivoli about 1120. 
However, the "Almagest" itself was still unknown. 
Moved by a desire to read and translate Ptolemy's 
immortal work, Gerard of Cremona (d. 1187) left Italy 
and went to Toledo, eventually making the transla- 
tion which he finished in 1175. Besides the "Alma- 
gest", Gerard rendered into Latin other works, of 
which we have a list comprising seventy-four different 
treatises. Some of these were writings of Greek 
ori^n, and included a large portion of the works of 
Anstotle, a treatise by Archimedes, Euclid's "Ele- 
ments" (completed by Hypsicles), and books by 
Hippocrates. Others were Arabic writings, such as the 
celebrated "Book of Three Brothers", composed by 
the Beni M(tea, "Optics" by Ibn Al-Haitam (the 
Alhazen of the Scholastics), "Astronomy" by Geber, 
and "De motu octavse sphserse" by Th&bit ibn 
Kiirrah. Moreover, in order to spread the study of 
Ptolemaic astronomy, Gerard composed at Toledo his 
"Theoricae planetanim", which during the Middle 
Ages became one of the classics of astronomical in- 
struction. 'Beginners who obtained their first cos- 
mographic information through the study of the 
"Sphsera", written about 1230 by Joannes de Sacro- 
boscOy could acquire a knowledge of eccentrics and 
epi^cles by reading the "TheoricsB planetanim" 
of uerard of Cremona. In fact, until the sixteenth 
century, most astronomical treatises assumed the 
form of commentaries, either on the "Sphsera", or 
the "Theoricffi planetanim". 

"Aristotle's philosophy", wrote Roger Bacon in 
1267, "reached a great development among the Latins 
when Michael Scot appeared about 1230, bringing 
with him certain parts of the mathematical and phys- 
ical treatises of Aristotle and his learned commen- 

tators". Among the Arabic writings made known to 
Christians by Michael Scot (before 1291; astrologer 
to Frederick II) were the treatises of Aristotle and 
the "Theory of Planets", which Alpetragius had com- 
ix)sed in accordance with the hypothesis of homo- 
centric spheres. The translation of this last work was 
completed in 1217. By propagating amons the Latins 
the commentaries on Averroes and on A^petragius's 
theory of the planets, as well as a knowledge of the 
treatises of Anstotle, Michael Scot developed in them 
an intellectual disposition which might be termed 
Averroism, and wnich consisted in a superstitious 
respect for the word of Aristotle and his commentator. 
There was a metaphysical Averroism which, because 

Erofessing the doctrine of the substantial unity of all 
uman intellects, was in open conflict with ChrfBitian 
orthodoxy; but there was likewise a physical Averro- 
ism which, in its blind confidence in Peripatetic 
physics, held as absolutely certain all that the latter 
tau^t on the subject of the celestial substance, re- 
jecting in particular the system of epicycles and eccen- 
trics in order to commend Alpetragius's astronomy of 
homocentric spheres. 

Scientific Averroism' found partisans even among 
those whose purity of faith constrained them to 
strugggle against metaphysical Averroism, and who 
were very often Peripatetics in so far as was possible 
without formally contradicting the teaching of the 
Church. For instance, William of Auvergne (d. 1249), 
who was the first to combat "Aristotle and his sec- 
tarians" on metaphysical grounds, was somewhat 
misled by Alpetragius's astronomy, which, moreover, 
he understood but imperfectly. Albertus Magnus 
(1193 or 1205-1280) followed to a great extent the 
doctrine of Ptolemy, although he was sometimes in- 
fluenced by the objections of Averroes or affected by 
Alpetragius's principles. Vincent of Beauvais in his 
"Speculum guadruplex", a vast encyclopsedic com- 
pilation published about 1250, seemed to attach great 
importance to the system of Alpetragius, borrowing 
the exposition of it from Albertus Magnus. Finally, 
even St. Thomas Aquinas gave evidence of being ex- 
tremely perplexed by the theory (1227-74) of eccen- 
trics and epicycles which justified celestial phenomena 
by contraoicting the principles of Peripatetic physics, 
and the theory of Alpetragius which honoured these 
principles but did not go so far as to represent their 
phenomena in detail. 

This hesitation, so marked in the Dominican school, 
was hardly less remarkable in the Franciscan. Robert 
Grosseteste or Greathead (1175-1253), whose in- 
fluence on Franciscan studies was so great, followed 
the Ptolemaic system in his astronomical writings, his 
physics being imbued with Alpetragius's ideas. St. 
&onaventure (1221-74) wavered between doctrines 
which he did not thoroughly understand, and Roger 
Bacon (1214-92) in several of his writings weighed 
with great care the arguments that could Be made to 
count for or against each of these two astronomical 
theories, without eventually making a choice. Bacon, 
however, was familiar with a method of figuration in 
the system of eccentrics and epicycles which Alhazen 
had derived from the Greeks; and in this figuration 
all the motions acknowledged by Ptolemy were traced 
back to the rotation of solid orbs accurately fitted one 
into the other. This representation, which refuted 
most of the objections raised by Averroes against 
Ptolemaic astronomy, contributed largely to prop- 
agate the knowledge of this astronomy, and it seems 
that the first of the Latins to adopt it and expatiate 
on its merits was the Franciscan Bernard of Verdun 
(end of thirteenth century), who had read Bacon's 
writings. In sublunary physics the authors whom 
we have just mentioned aid not show the hesitation 
that rendered astronomical doctrines so perplexing, 
but on almost all points adhered closely to Peripatetic 





V. The Science op Observation and Its Prog- 
ress — Astronomers — ^The Statics of Jordanus — 
Thierry op Freiberg — Pierre of Maricourt. — 
Averroism had rendered scientific progress impossible, 
but fortunately in Latin Christendom it was to meet 
with two powerful enemies: the unhampered curi- 
osity of human resjson, and the authority of the 
Churoh. Encouraged by the certainty resulting from 
experiments, astronomers rudely shook off the yoke 
which Peripatetic physics had imposed upon them. 
The School of Paris in particular was remarkable for 
its critical views and its freedom of attitude towards 
the argument of authority. In 1290 William of Saint- 
Cloud determined with wonderful accuracy the ob- 
liquity of the ecliptic and the time of the vernal 
equinox, and his observations led him to recognize the 
inaccuracies that marred the "Tables of Toledo", 
drawn up by Al-Zarkali. The theory of the pre- 
cession of the equinoxes, conceived by the astron- 
omers of Alfonso X of Castile, and the "Alphonsine 
Tables" set up in accordance with this theory, gave 
rise in the first half of the fourteenth century to the 
observations, calculations, and critical discussions of 
Parisian astronomers, especially of Jean des Lini^res 
and his pupil John of Saxonia or Connaught. 

At the end of the thirteenth century and the begin- 
ning of the fourteenth, sublunary physics owed great 
advancement to the simultaneous efforts of geome- 
tricians and experimenters — their method and dis- 
coveries being ciuly boasted of by Roger Bacon who, 
however, took no important part in their labours. 
Jordanus de Nemore, a talented mathematician 
who, not later than about the beginning of the thir- 
teenth century, wrote treatises on arithmetic and 
geometry, left a very short treatise on statics in which, 
side by side with erroneous propositions, we find the 
law of the eq[uilibrium of the straight lever very cor- 
rectly established with the aid of the principle of 
virtual displacements. The treatise, "De ponder- 
ibus", by Jordanus provoked research on the part of 
various commentators, and one of these, whose name 
is unknown and who must have written before the end 
of the thirteenth century, drew, from the same prin- 
ciple of virtual displacements, demonstrations, ad- 
mirable in exactness and elegance, of the law of the 
equilibrium of the bent lever, and of the apparent 
weight (gravitaa secundum aitum) of a body on an 
inclined plane. 

Alhazen's "Treatise on Perspective" was read thor- 
oughly by Roger Bacon and his contemporaries, John 
Peckham (1228-91), the English Franciscan, giving 
a summary of it. About 1270 Witelo (or Witek; the 
Thuringopolonu8)f composed an exhaustive ten-vol- 
ume treatise on optics, which remained a classic nntil 
the time of Kepler, who wrote a commentary on it. 

Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon, John Peckham, 
and Witelo were deeply interested in the theory of the 
rainbow, and. like the ancient meteorologists, they all 
took the rainbow to be the image of the sun reflected 
in a sort of a concave mirror formed by a cloud 
resolved into rain. In 1300 Thierry of Freiberg 
proved by means of carefully-conducted experiments 
in which he used glass balls filled with water, that the 
rays which render the bow visible have been reflected 
on the inside of the spherical drops of water, and he 
traced with great accuracy the course of the rays 
which produce the rainbows respectively. 

The system of Thierry of Freiberg, at least that 
part relating to the primary rainbow, was reproduced 
about 1360 by Themon, "Son of the Jew" (Themoju 
dm)f and, from his commentary on "Meteors", it 
passed on down to the days of the Renaissance when, 
having been somewhat distorted, it reappeared in 
the writings of Alessandro Piccolomini, Simon Porta, 
and Marco and Antonio dc Dominis, being thus propa- 
gated until the time of Descartes. 

The study of the magnet had also made great 

progress in the course of the thirteenth century; the 
permanent magnetization of iron, the properties of 
the magnetic poles, the direction of the Earth's ac- 
tion exerted on these poles or of their action on one 
another, are all founcl very accurately described in 
a treatise written in 1269 by Pierre of Maricourt 
(Petrus Peregrinus). Like the work of Thierry of 
Freiberg on the rainbow, the "Epistola de magnete" 
by Mancourt was a model of the art of logical se- 
quence between experiment and deduction. 

VI. The Articles of Paris (1277) — Possibility 
OF Vacuum. — The University of Paris was very un- 
easy because of the antagonism existing between 
Christian dogmas and certain Peripatetic doctrines, 
and on several occasions it combatted Aristotelean 
influence. In 1277 Etienne Tempier, Bishop of Paris, 
acting on the advice of the theologians of the Sor- 
bonne, condemned a great number of errors, some of 
which emanated from the astrology, and pthers from 
the philosophy of the Peripatetics. Among these 
errors considered dangerous to faith were several 
which might have impeded the progress of physical 
science, and hence it was that the theologians of Paris 
declared erroneous the opinion maintaining that God 
Himself could not give the entire universe a recti- 
linear motion, as the universe would then leave a 
vacuum behind it, and also declared false the notion 
that God could not create several worlds. These con- 
demnations destroyed certain essential foundations 
of Peripatetic physics; because, although, in Aris- 
totle's system, such propositions were ridiculously un- 
tenable, belief in Divine Omnipotence sanctioned them 
as possible, whilst waiting for science to confirm them 
as true. For instance, Aristotle's physics treated the 
existence of an empty space as a pure absurdity; 
in virtue of the "Articles of Paris" Richard of Mid- 
dletown (about 1280) and, after him, many masters 
at Paris and Oxford admitted that the laws of nature 
are certainly opposed to the production of empty 
space, but that the realization of suoh a space is not, 
in itself, contrary to reason; thus, without any ab- 
siu>dity, one could argue on vacuum and on motion in a 
vacuum. Next, in order that such arguments might 
be legitimatized, it was necessary to create that 
branch of mechanical science known as dynamics. 

VII. The Earth's Motion — Oresme. — ^The "Ar- 
ticles of Paris" were of about the same value in supr 
porting the question of the Earth's motion as m 
furthering the progress of dynamics by regarding 
vacuum as something conceivable. 

• Aristotle maintained that the first heaven (the 
firmament) moved with a uniform rotary motion, and 
that the Earth was absolutely stationary, and as these 
two propositions necessarily resulted from the first 
principles relative to 'time and place, it would have 
been absurd to deny them. However, by declaring 
that God could endow the World with a rectilinear 
motion, the theolo^ans of the Sorbonne acknowledged 
that these two Anstotelean propositions could not be 
imposed as a logical necessity and thenceforth, whilst 
continuing to admit that, as a fact, the Earth was im- 
movable and that the heavens moved with a rotary 
diurnal motion, Richard of Middletown and Duns 
Scotus (about 1275-1308) began to formulate hy- 
potheses to the effect that these bodies were animated 
by other motions, and the entire school of Paris 
adopted the same opinion. Soon, however, the Earth's / 
motion was taught in the School of Paris, not as a 
possibility, but as a reality. In fact, in the specific 
setting forth of certain information given by Anstotle 
and Simplicius, a principle was formulated which for 
three centuries was to play a great r61e in statics, viz. 
that every heavy body tends to unite its centre of 
gravity with the centre of the Earth. 

When writing his "Questions" on Aristotle's "De 
Caelo" in 1368, Albert of Helmstadt (or of Saxony) 
admitted this principle, which he applied to the entire 




mass of the terrestrial element. The centre of gravity 
of this mass is constantly inclined to place itself 
in the centre of the universe, but, within the 
terrestrial mass, the position of the centre of gravity 
is incessantly cnanging.. The principal cause of this 
variation is the erosion brought about by the streams 
and rivers that continually wear away the land sur- 
face, deepening its valleys and carrying off all loose 
matter to the bed of the sea, thereby producing a dis- 

f>lacement of weight which entails a ceaseless change 
n the position of the centre of gravity. Now, in or- 
rier to replace this centre of gravitv in the centre of 
the universe, the Earth moves without ceasing; and 
meanwhile a slow but perpetual exchange is being 
effected between the continents and^ the oceans. 
Albert of Saxony ventured so far as to think that these 
small and incessant motions of the Earth could ex- 
plain the phenomena of the precession of the equi- 
noxes. Tne same author declared that one of his 
masters, whose name he. did not disclose, announced 
himself in favour of the daily rotation of the Earth, 
inasmuch as he refuted the arguments that were bp- 
poaed to this motion. This anonymous master had a 
thoroughly convinced disciple in Nicole Oresme who, 
in 1377, being then Canon of Rouen and later Bishop 
of Lisieux, wrote a French commentary on Aris- 
totle's treatise '^De CsbIo'', maintaining with quite 
as much force as clearness that neither experiment nor 
argument could determine whether the aaily motion* 
belonged to the firmamep^ of the fixed stars or to the 
Earth. He also showed h*>w to interpret the difficul- 
ties encountered in ''the l^acred Scriptures wherein 
it is stated that the sun tu \s, etc. It might be sup- 
posed that here Holy Wri adapts itself to the com- 
mon mode of human speef as also in several places, 
for instance, where it is ten that God repented 
Himself, ana was angry and calmed Himself ana so on, 
all of wnich is, however, not to be taken in a strictly 
literal sense". Finally, Oresme offered several con- 
siderations favourable to the hypothesis of the 
Earth's daily motion. In order to refute one of the 
objections raised by the Peripatetics against this 
pomt, Oresme was led to explain how, in spite of this 
motion, heavy bodies seemed to fall in a vertical line; 
he admitted their real motion to be composed of a 
fall in a vertical line and a diurnal rotation identical 
with that which the}r would have if bound to the 
Earth. This is precisely the principle to which 
Galileo was afterwards to turn. 

VIII. Plurality op Worlds. — Aristotle main- 
tained the simultaneous existence of several worlds to 
be an absurdity, his principal argument being drawn 
from his theory of gravity, whence he concluded that 
two distinct worlds could not coexbt and be each sur- 
rounded by its elements; therefore it would be ridic- 
ulous to compare each of the planets to an earth 
similar to ours. In 1277 the theologians of Paris con- 
demned this doctrine as a denial of the creative oihnip- 
otence of God; Richard of Middletown and Henry of 
Ghent (who wrote about 1280), Guillaume Varon (who 
wrote a commentary on the "Sentences'' about 1300), 
and, towarils 1320, Jean de Bassols, William of Occam 
(d. after 1347), and Walter Burley (d. about 1343) did 
not hesitate to declare that God could create other 
worlds similar to ours. This doctrine, adopted by 
several Parisian masters, exacted that the theory of 

Savity and natural place developed bv Aristotle be 
oroughly changed; in fact, the following theory 
was substituted for it. If some part of the elements 
forming a world be detached from it and driven far 
away, its tendency will be to move towards the world 
to which it belongs and from which it was separated; 
the elements of each world are inclined so to arrange 
themselves that the heaviest will be in the centre and 
the lightest on the surface. This theory of gravity 
appeared in the writings of Jean Buridan of' B^thune, 
wno became rector of tne University of Paris in 1327, 

teaching at that institution until about 1360; and in 
1377 tms same theory was formallv proposed by 
Oresme. It was also destined to be adopted by 
Copemiciis and his first followers, and to be main- 
tained by GaUleo, William Gilbert, and Otto von 

IX. Dynamics — ^Theory op Impetus — Inertia — 
Celestial AND Sublunary Mechanics Identical. 
— If the School of Paris completely transformed the 
Peripatetic theory of gravity, it was equally respon- 
sible for the overthrow of Aristotelean dvnamics. 
Convinced that, in all motion, the mover should be 
directly contiguous to the body moved, Aristotle had 
proposed a strange theory of the motion of projectiles. 
He held that the projectile was moved by the fluid 
medium, whether air or water, through which it 
passed and this, by virtue of the vibration brought 
about in the fluid at the moment of throwing, and 
spread through it. In the sixth century of our era 
this explanation was strenuously opposed by the 
Christian Stoic, Joannes Philoponus, according to 
whom the projectile was moved, by a certain jx)wer 
communicated to it at the instant of throwing; how- 
ever, despite the objections raised by Philoponus, 
Aristotle s various commentators, particularly Aver- 
roes^ continued to attribute the motion of the pro- 
iectile to the disturbance of the* air, and Albertus 
Magnus, St. Thomas Aquinas, Roger Bacon, Gilles of 
Rome, and Walter Burley persevered in maintaining 
this error. By means of most spirited argumentation, 
William of Occam made known the complete absur- 
dity of the Peripatetic theory of the motion of projec- 
tiles. Going back to Philoponus's thesis, Buridan 
gave the name impetus to the virtue or power com- 
municated to the projectile by the hand or instrument 
tibrowing it; he declared that in any given bodjr in 
motion, this impetus was proportional to the velocity, 
and that, in different bodies in motion propelled by 
the same velocity, the quantities of impetus were pro- 
portional to the mass or quantity of matter denned 
as it was afterwards defined by Newton. 

In a projectile, impetus is gradually destroyed by 
the resistance ol air or other medium and is also 
destroyed by the natural gravity of the body in 
motion, which gravity is opposed to the impetus if 
the projectile be thrown upward; this struggle ex- 
plains the (Afferent peculiarities of the motion of 
projectiles. In a fallmg body, gravity comes to the 
assistance of impetus which it increases at every 
instant, hence the velocity of the fall is increasing 

With the assistance of these principles concerning 
impetus, Buridan accounts for the swinging of the 
pendulum. He likewise analyses the mechanism of 
impact and rebound and. in this connexion, puts forth 
very correct views on tne deformations and elastic 
reactions that arise in the contiguous parts of two 
bodies coming into collision. Nearly all this doctrine 
of impetus is transformed into a very correct mechan- 
ical theory if one is careful to substitute the expression 
vis viva for impetus. The dynamics expounded by 
Buridan were adopted in their entirety bv Albert of 
Saxonv, Oresme, Marsile of Inghem, and the entire 
Schodl of Paris. Albert of Saxony appended thereto 
the statement that the velocity of a falling body 
must be proportional either to the time elapsed from 
the beginning of the fall or to the distance traversed 
during this time. In a projectile, the impetus is grad- 
ually destroyed either by the resistance of the medium 
or by the contrary tendency of the gravity natural 
to the body. Where these causes of destruction do 
not exist, the impetus remains perpetually the same, 
as in the case of a millstone exactly centred and not 
rubbing on its axis; once set in motion it will turn in- 
definitely with the same swiftness. It was under 
this form that the law of inertia at first became evi- 
dent to Buridan and Albert of Saxony. 




The conditions manifested in' this hypothetic mill- 
stone are realized in the celestial orbs, as in these 
neither friction nor gravity impedes motion; hence 
it may be admitt-ed that each celestial orb moves in- 
definitely bv virtue of a suitable impetus communi- 
cated to it by God at the moment of creation. It is 
useless to imitate Aristotle and his commentators by 
attributing the motion of each orb to a presiding spirit. 
This was the opinion proposed by Buridan and culopted 
by Albert of Saxony; and whilst formulating a doctrine 
from which modem dynamics was to spring, these 
masters understood that the same dynamics governs 
both celestial and sublunary bodies. Such an idea 
was directly opposed to the essential distinction estab- 
lished by ancient phvsics between these two kinds of 
bodies. Moreover, following William of Occam, the 
masters of Paris rejected tms distinction; they ac- 
knowledged that the matter constituting celestial 
bodies was of the same nature as that constituting 
sublunarv bodies and that, if the former remained 
perpetually the same, it was not because they were, by 
nature, incapable of change and destruction, but sim- 
ply because the place in which they were contained 
no agent capable of corrupting them. A century 
elapsed between the condemnations pronounced by 
Etienne Tempier (1277) and the editing of the 
"Trait6 du Oel et/iu Monde" by Oresme (1377) and, 
within that time, all the essential principles of Aris- 
totle's phvsics were undermined, and the great con- 
trolling ideas of modem science formulated. This 
revolution was mainly the work of Oxford Franciscans 
like Richard of Middletown, Duns Scotus, and Wil- 
liam of Occam, and of masters in the School of Paris, 
heirs to the tradition inaugurated by these Francis- 
cans; among the Parisian masters Buridan, Albert of 
Saxony, and Oresme were in the foremost rank. 

X. Propagation of the Doctrines of the 
School of Paris in Germany and Italy — Purbach 


The great Western Schism involved the University of 
Paris in poUtico-religious quarrels of extreme violence; 
the misfortimes brought about by the conflict between 
the Armagnacs and Burgundians and by the Hundred 
Years' War, completed what these quarrels had begun, 
and the wonderful progress made by science during 
the fourteenth century m the University of Paris sud- 
denly ceased. However, the schism contributed to the 
diffusion of Parisian doctrines by driving out of Paris 
a large number of brilliant men who hadtaught there 
with marked success. In 1386'Marsile of Inghem 
(d. 1396), who had been one of the most gifted pro- 
fessors of theUniversity of Paris,became rector of the in- 
fant University of Heidelberg, where he introduced the 
dynamic theories of Buridan and Albert of Saxonv. 

About the sape time, another master, reputedly of 
Paris, Heinrich Heimbuch of Lan^ensteiiK or of Hesse, 
was chiefly instrumental in founding the University of 
Vienna and, besides his theological knowledge, brought 
thither the astronomical tradition of Jean des Lini^res 
and John of Saxony. This tradition was carefully 
preserved in Vienna, being magnificently developed 
there throughout the fifteenth century, and paving 
the way for Georg Purbach (1423-61) and his disciple 
Johann Muller of Konigsberg, sumamed Regiomon- 
tanus (1436-76). It was to the writing of theories 
calculated to make the Ptolemaic system known, to 
the designing and constructing of exact instruments, 
to the multiplying of observations, and the preparing 
of tables and almanacs (cphemerides), more accurate 
than those used by astronomers up to that time, that 
Purbach and Regiomontanus devoted their prodig- 
ious energy. By perfecting all the details of Ptolemy s 
theories, which they never called in question, they 
were most helpful in bringing to light the defects of 
these theories und in preparing the materials by means, 
of which Ck>pemicus was to build up his new astron- 

Averroism flourished in the Italian Universities of 
Padua and Bologna, which were noted for their ad- 
herence to Peripatetic doctrines. Still from the be- 
ginning of the fifteenth century the opinions of the 
School of Paris began to find their way into these insti- 
tutions, thanks to the teaching of Paolo Nicoletti of 
Venice (flourished about 1420). It was there de- 
veloped by his pupil Gactan of Tiene (d. 1465). 
These masters devoted special attention to propaga- 
ting the dynamics of impetus in Ualy . 

About the time that raola of Venice was teaching 
at Padua, Nicholas of Cusa came there to take his 
doctorate in law. Whether it was then that the 
latter became initiated in the physics of the School of 
Paris matters little, as in any event it was from Pari- 
sian phvsics' that he adopted those, doctrines that 
smacKed least of Peripateticism. He became thor- 
oughly conversant with the dynamics of impetus and, 
like Buridan and Albert of Saxonv, attributed the 
motion of the celestial spheres to the impetus which 
God had communicated to them in creating them, and 
which was perpetuated because, in these spheres, there 
was no element of destruction. He admitted that the 
Earth moved incessantly, and that its motion might 
be the cause of the precession of the equinoxes. In a 
note discovered long after his death, he went so far as 
to attribute to the Earth a daily rotation. He imag- 
ined that the sun, the moon, and the planets were so 
, many sy^ems, each of which contain^ an earth and 
elements analogous to our Earth and elements, and to 
account for the action of gravity in each of these sys- 
tems he followed closely the theory of gravity ad- 
vanced by Oresme. 

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) was perhaps more 
thoroughly convinced of the merits of the Parisian 
physics than anv other Italian master. A keen ob- 
server, and endowed with insatiable curiosity, he 
had studied a great number of works, amongst which 
we may mention the various treatises of the School of 
Jordanus, various books by Albert of Saxony, and in 
all likelihood the works of Nicholas of Ousa; then, 
profiting by the learning of these scholars, he formally 
enunciated or else simply intimated many new ideas. 
The statics of the School of Jordanus led him to dis- 
cover the law of the composition of concurrent forces 
stated as follows : the two component forces have equal 
moments as regards the direction of the resultant, and 
the resultant and one of the components have equal 
moments as regards the direction of the other com- 
ponent. The statics derived from the properties which 
^Ibert of Saxony attributed to the centre of gravity 
caused Vinci to recognize the law of the polygon of 
support and to determine the centre of gravity of a 
tetrahedron. He also presented the law of the equi- 
librium of two hquids of different density in commu- 
nicating tubes, and the principle of virtual displace- 
ments seems to have occasioned his acknowledgement 
of the hydrostatic law known as Pascal's. Vinci con- 
tinued to meditate on the properties of impetus, which 
he called impeto or forza^ and the propositions that he 
formulated on the subject of this power very often 
showed a fairly clear discernment of the law of the con- 
servation of energy. These propositions conducted 
him to remarkably correct and accurate conclusions 
concerning the impossibility of perpetual motion. Un- 
fortunately he misunderstood the pregnant explana- 
tion, afforded by the theory of impetus, regarding the 
acceleration of falling bodies, and like the Peri- 
patetics attributed this acceleration to the impulsion 
of the encompassing air. However, by way of com- 
pensation, he distinctly asserted that the velocity of a 
Dody that falls freely is proportional to the time occu- 

{)ied in the fall, and he understood in what way this 
aw extends to a fall on an inclined plane. When he 
wished to determine how the path traversed by a fall- 
ing body is connected with the time occupied in the 
faU, he was confronted by a difficulty which, in the 




seventeenth centuryi was likewise to baffle Baliani and 

Vinci was much enj^ossed in the analysis of the de- 
fonnations and elastic reactions which cause a body 
to rebound after it has struck another, and this doc- 
trine, formulated by Buridan, Albert of Saxony, and 
Marsile of Inghem he appUed in such a way as to 
draw from it the explanation of the flight of birds. 
This ^ght is an alternation of falls during which the 
bird compresses the air beneath it, and of rebounds 
due to the elastic force of this air. Until the great 
painter discovered this explanation, the question of the 
night of birds was always looked upon as a problem 
in statics, and was likened to the swimming of a fish 
in water. Vinci attached great importance to the 
views developed by Albert of Saxony in regard to 
the Earth's equilibrium. Like the Parisian master, 
he held that the centre of gravity within the ter- 
restriaJ mass is constantly changing under the in- 
fluence of erosion and that the Earth is continually 
moving so as to bring this centre of gravity to the 
centre of the World. These small, incessant motions 
eventually bring to the surface of the continents those 
portions of earth that once occupied the bed of the 
ocean and, to place this assertion of Albert of Saxony 
beyond the range of doubt, Vinci devoted himself to 
the study of fossils and to extremely cautious observa- 
tions which made him the creator of Stratigraphy. In 
many passages in his notes Vinci asserts, like Nicholas 
of Cusa. that the moon and the other wandering stars 
are worlds analogous to ours, that thev carry seas upon 
their surfaces, and are surrounded by air; and the 
development of this opinion led him to talk of the 
gravity binding to eacn of these stars the elements 
that belonged to it. On the subject of this gravity he 
professed a theory similar to Oresme's. Hence it 
would seem that, in almost every particular, Vinci 
was a faithful disciple of the great Parisian masters of 
the fourteenth century, of Buridan, Albert of Saxony, 
and Oresme. 

XI. Italian Averroibm and Its Tendencies to 
Routine — ^Attbmpts at Restoring the Astronomy 
OP HoMOCENTRic SPHERES. — ^Whilst, through the anti- 
Peripatetic influence of the School of Paris, Vinci 
reaped a rich harvest of discoveries, innumerable Ital- 
ians devoted themselves to the sterile worship of de- 
funct ideas with a servility that was truly astonishing. 
The Averroists did not wish to acknowledge as true 
anything out of conformity with the ideas of Aristotle 
as interpreted by Averrocs; with Pompanazzi (1462- 
1526), the Alexandrists, seeking their inspiration fur- 
ther back in the past, refused to understand Aristotle 
otherwise than he had been understood by Alexander 
of Aphrodisias; and the Humanists, solicitous only 
for purity of form, would not consent to use any tech- 
nics language whatever and rejected all ideas that 
were not sufficiently vaj^e to be attractive to orators 
and poets; thus Averroists, Alexandrists, and Human- 
ists proclaimed a truce to their vehement discussions 
so as to combine against the ''language of Paris", the 
"logic of Paris", and the "physics of Paris". It is 
difficult to conceive the absurdities to which these 
minds were led by their slavish surrender to routine. 
A great number of physicists, rejecting the Parisian 
theoiy of impetus, returned to the untenable dynamics 
of Anstotle, and maintained that the projectile was 
moved by the ambient air. In 1499 Nicold Vemias 
of Ghieti, an Averroist professor at Padua, taught that 
if a heavy body fell it was in consequence of the mo- 
tion of the air surrounding it. 

A servile adoration of Peripateticism prompted 
many so-called philosophers to reject the Ptolemaic 
system, the only one which, at that time, could satisfy 
the legitimate exigencies of astronomers, and to re- 
adopt the hypothesis of homocentric spheres. They 
held as null and void the innumerable observations 
that showed changes in the distance of each planet 

from the ^arth. Alessandro Achillini of Bologna 
(1463-1512), an uncompromiang Averroist and. a 
stronp opponent of the theory of impetus and Qf all 
Parisian aoctrines, inaugurated^ in his treatise "De 
orbibus" (1498), a stranjB;e reaction against Ptolemaic 
astronomy; Agostino Nuo (1473-1538) laboured for 
the same end in a work that has not come down to us; 
Girol^mo Fracastorio (1483^1553) gave us, in 1535, 
his book " De homocentricis", and Gianbattista Amico 
(1536), and Giovanni Antonio Delfino (1559) pub- 
lished small works in an endeavour to restore the 
system of homocentric spheres. 

XII. The Copernican Revolxttion. — Although 
directed by tendencies diametrically opposed to the 
true scientific spirit, the efforts made by Averroists to 
restore the astronomy of homocentric spheres were 
perhaps a stimulus to the progress of science, inas- 
much as they accustomed physicists to the thought 
that the Ptolemaic system was not the only astro- 
nomical doctrine possible, or even the best that could 
be desired. Thus, in their own way, the Averroists 
paved the way for the Copernican revolution. The 
movements forecasting this revolution were noticeable 
in the middle of the fourteenth century in the writings 
of Nicholas of Cusa, and in the beginning of the fif- 
teenth century in the notes of Vinci, both of these 
eminent scientists being well versed in Parisian phys- 

Celio Calca^nini proposed, in his turn, to explain 
the daily motion of the stars by attributing to the 
Earth a rotation from West to East, complete in one 
sidereal day. His dissertation, "Quod ccelum stet, 
terra vero moveatur", although seeming to have been 
written about 1530, was not publish^ until 1544, 
when it appeared in a posthumous edition of the 
author's works. Calcagmni declared that the Earth, 
originally in equilibrium in the centre of the universe, 
received a first impulse which imparted to it a rotary 
motion, and this motion, to which nothing was op- 
posed, was indefinitely preserved by virtue of the 
principle set forth by Bundan and accepted by Albert 
of Saxony and Nicholas of Cusa. According to Cal- 
cagnini the daily rotation of the Earth was accom- 
panied by an oscillation which explained the move- 
ment 6{ the precession of the equinoxes. Another 
oscillation set the waters of the sea in motion and 
deteriAined the ebb and flow of the tides. This last 
hypothesis was to be maintained by Andrea Cesalpino 
(1519-1603) in his "Qu»stiones peripatetic®" (1569), 
and to inspire Galileo, who, unfortunately, was to seek 
in the phenomena of the tides his favourite proof of 
the Earth's rotation. 

The "De revolutionibus orbium ccelestium libri 
sex" were printed in 1543, a few months after the 
death of Copernicus (1473-1543), but the principles 
of the astronomic system proposed by this man of 
genius had been published as early as 1539 in the 
"Narratio prima" of his disciple, Joachim Rhseticus 
(1514-76). Copernicus adhered to the ancient astro- 
nomical hypotheses which claimed that the World 
was sphencal and limited, and that all celestial 
motions were decomposable into circular and uniform 
motions; but he held that the firmament of fixed stars 
was immovable, as also the sun, which was placed in 
the centre of this firmament. To the Earth he attrib- 
uted three motions: a circular motion by which the 
centre of the B^rth described with uniform velocity 
a circle situated in the plane of the ecliptic and 
eccentric to the sun; a daily rotation on an axis in- 
clined towards the ecliptic, and finally, a rotation 
of this axis around an axis normal to the ecliptic 
and passing through the centre of the Earth. The 
time occiH)ied by this last rotation was a little longer 
than that required for the circular motion of the 
centre of the Earth which produced the phenomenon 
of the precession of the equinoxes. To the five 
planets Copernicus ascribed motions analogpus tA 




those with which the Earth was provided, and he 
maintained that the moon moved m a circle around 
the Earth. 

Of the Copernican hypotheses, the newest was that 
^ according to which the Eeuth moved in a circle around 
the Sim. From the days of Aristarchus of Samos 
and Seleucus no one had adopted this view. Me- 
dieval astronomers had all rejected it, because they 
supposed that the stars were much too close to the 
Earth and the sun, and that an annual circular 
motion of the Earth might give the stars a perceptible 
parallax. Still, on the other hand, we have seen that 
various authors had proposed to attribute to the 
Earth one or the other of the two motions which 
Copernicus added to the annual motion. To defend 
the hypothesis of the daily motion of the Earth against 
the objections formulated by ^ Peripatetic physics, 
Copermcus invoked exactly the same reasons as 
Oresme, and ip order to explain how each planet 
retains the various parts of its elements, he adopted 
the theory of gravity proposed by the eminent mas- 
ter. Copernicus showed himseu the adherent of 
Parisian physics even in the following opinion, enun- 
ciated accidently : the acceleration of the fall of heavv 
bodies is explained by the continual increase which 
impetus receives from gravity. 


THE Sixteenth Century. — Copernicus and his 
disciple Rheeticus very probably r^arded the motions 
whicn their theory ascribed to the Earth and the 
planets, the sun^s rest and that of the firmament of 
fixed staro, as the real motions or real rest of these 
bodies, llie '^De revolutionibiis orbium caelestium 
libri sex'' appeared with an anonymous preface 
which inspired an entirely different idea. This pref- 
ace was the work of the Lutheran theologian Osian- 
der (1498-1552), who therein expressed the opinion 
that the hypotheses proposed by philosophers in 
general, and by Copernicus in particular, were in no 
wise calculated to acquaint us with the reality of 
things: ^'Neque enim necesse est eas hypotheses esse 
veras, imo, ne verisimiles quidem, sea sufficit hoc 
unum si calculum observationibus con^entem 
exhibeanf . Osiander's view of astronomical hy- 
potheses was not new. Even in the days of Grecian 
antiquity a number of thinkers had Inamtained that 
the sole object of these hypotheses was to ''save 
appearances'', ffi&^eiv r& ^aii^/icra; and in the Middle 
Ages, as well as in antiquity, this method continued 
to be that of philosophers who wished to make use 
of Ptolemaic astronomy whibt at the same time up- 
holding the Peripatetic physics absolutely incom- 
patible with this astronomy. Osiander's doctrine 
was therefore readily received, first of all by astron- 
omers who, without believing the Earth's motion 
to be a reality, accepted and admired the kinetic 
combinations conceived by Copernicus, as these 
combinations provided them with better means than 
could be offered by the Ptolemaic system for figuring 
out the motion of the moon and the phenomena of 
the precession of the equinoxes. 

One of the astronomers who most distinctly as- 
sumed this attitude in regard to Ptolemy's system 
was Erasmus Reinhold (1511-53), who, although not 
admitting the Earth's motion, professed a great 
admiration for the system of Copernicus and u^ it 
in computing new astronomical tables, the ''Prutenicse 
tabulae" (1551), which were largely instrumental in 
introducing to astronomers the kinetic combinations 
originated by Copernicus. The "Prutenic® tabulse" 
were especially employed by the commission which 
in 1582 effected the Gregorian reform of the calendar. 
Whilst not believing in the Earth's motion, the mem- 
bers of this commission did not hesitate to use tables 
founded on a theory of the precession of the equi- 
noxes and attributing a certain motion to the earth. 

However, the freedom permitting astronomers to 

use all hypotheses Qualified to account for phenomena 
was soon restricted by the exigencies of Peripatetic 

Ehilosophers and Prptestant theologians. Osiander 
ad written his celebrated preface to Copemicus's 
book with a view to warding off the attacks of theo- 
logians, but in this he did not succeed. Martin 
Luther, in his "Tischrede", was the first to express 
indignation at the impiety of those who admitted the 
hypothesis of solar rest. Melanchthon, although 
acknowledging the purely astronomical advantiiges 
of the Copernican system, strongly combatted the 
hypothesis of the Earth's motion (1549), not only 
with the aid of arguments furnished by Peripatetic 
physics but likewise, and chiefly, with the assistance 
of numerous texts taken from Holy Writ. Kaspar 
Peucer (1525-1602), Melanchthon's son-in-law, whilst 
endeavouring to have his theory of the planets har- 
monize with the progress which the Copernican system 
had made in this regard, nevertheless reject^ the 
Copernican hypotheses as absurd (1571). 

It then came to be exacted of astronomical h3rpoth- 
eses that not only, as Osiander had desired, the result 
of their calculations be conformable to facts, but also 
that they be not refuted "either in the name of the 
principles of physics or in the name of the authority 
of the Sacred Scriptures". This criterion was explic- 
itly formulated in 1578 by a Lutheran, the Danish 
astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), and it was 
precisely by virtue of these two requirements that 
the doctrines of Galileo were to be condemned by the 
Inquisition in 1616 and 1633. Eager not to admit 
any hypothesis that would conflict with Aristotelean 
physics or be contrary to the letter of the Sacred 
Scriptures, and yet most desirous to retain all the 
astronomical advantages of the Copernican system, 
Tycho Brahe proposed a new system which virtually 
consisted in leaving the Earth motionless and in 
moving the other heavenly bodies in such a way that 
their displacement with regard to the Earth might 
remain the same as in the system of Copernicus. 
Moreover, althou^ posing as the defender of Aris- 
totelean physics, Tycho Brahe dealt it a disastrous 
blow. In 1572 a star, until then unknown, appeared 
in the constellation of Cassiopeia, and in showing 
accurate observations that the new astral body was 
really a fixed star, Tycho Brahe proved conclusively 
that the celestial world was not, as Aristotle would 
have had us believe, formed of a substance exempt 
from generation and destruction. 

The Church had not remained indifferent to the 
hypothesis of the Earth's motion until the time of 
iVcl^o BrahCj as it was amongst her members that 
this hypothesis had found its first defenders^ counting, 
adherents even in the extremely orthodox University 
of Paris. At the time of defending this hypothesis, 
Oresme was Canon of Rouen, and immediately after 
he was promoted to the Bishopric of Lisieux; Nicholas 
of Cusa was Bishop of Brixen and cardinal, and was 
entrusted with important negotiations by Eugenius 
IV, Nicholas V, and Pius II; Calcagnini was protho- 
notary Apostolic; Copernicus was Canon of Thorn, 
and it was Cardinal Schomberg who ui]ged him to 
publish his work, the dedication of which was ac- 
cepted by Paul III. Besides, Oresme ba^ made 
clear how to interpret the Scriptural passages claim^ 
to be opposed to the Copernican system^ and in 1584 
Didacus a Stunica of Salamanca found m Holy Writ 
texts which could be invoked with just as much 
certainty in favour of the Earth's motion. However, 
in 1595 the Protestant senate of the University of 
Tubingen compelled Kepler to retract the chapter 
in his ''Mysterium cosmographicum ", in which he 
had endeavoured to make the Copernican system 
agree with Scripture. 

Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), a Jesuit, and one 
of the influential members of the commission that 
reformed the Gregorian Calendar, seemed to be the 


first Catholic astronomer to adopt the double test In 1559 a posthumous work by Delfino gave a de- 
imposed upon astronomical hypotheses by Tycho scription of the phenomena of the tides, identical with 
Brahe, and to decide (1581) that the suppositions that deduced from the mechanism conceived by 
of Copernicus were to be rejected, as opposed both to Grisogone. The doctrine of the Dalmatian physician 
Peripatetic physics and to Scripture; on the other was reproduced by Paolo Gallucci in 1588, and by 
hand, at the end of his life and under the influence Annibale Raimondo in 1589: and in 1600 Claude 
of Galileo's discoveries. Clavius appeared to have Ihu^t, who had plagiarized Delfino's treatise, pub- 
assumed a far more favourable attitude towards lished in France tne description of the tides given in 
Copemican doctrines. The enemies of Aristotelean that work. 

philosophy gladly adopted the system of Copernicus, XV. Statics in the Sixteenth Century — 

considering its hvpotheses as so manv propositions Stevinits. — ^When writing on statics Cardano drew 

physically true, this being the case with Fierre de La upon two sources, the writings of Archimedes and 

K£un6e, called Petrus Ramus (1502-72), and espe- the treatises of the School of Jordanus; besides, he 

cially with Giordano Bruno (about 1550^1600). The probably plagiarized the notes left by Vinci, and it 

physics developed by Bruno, m which he incorporated was perhaps from this source that he took the theo- 

the Copemican hypothesis, proceeded from Nicole, rem: a system endowed with weight is in equilibrium 

Oresme, and Nicholas of Cusa; but chiefly from the when the centre of gravity of this system is the lowest 

ph3r8ics taught in the University of Paris in the four- possible. 

teenth centuiy. The infinite extent of the universe Nicolo Tartaglia (about 1500-57), Cardano's an- 

and the plurality of worlds were admitted as possible tagonist, shamelessly purloined a supposedly for- 

by many theologians at the end of the thirteenth gotten treatise by one of Jordanus's commentators, 

century, and the theory of the slow motion which Ferrari. Cardano^s faithful disciple, harshly rebuked 

gradually cause? the central portions of the Earth Tartaglia for the theft, which nevertheless had the 

to work to the surface had been taught by Albert merit of re-establishing the vogue of certain discov- 

of Saxony before it attracted the attention of Vinci, eries of the thirteenth century, especially the law of 

The solution of Peripatetic arguments against the the equilibrium of a body supported by an inclined 

Earth's motion and the theory of gravity called forth plane. By another and no less barefaced plagiarism, 

by the comparison of the planets witii the Earth Tartaglia published under his own name a translation 

would appear to have been borrowed by Bruno from of Ar^imedes's ''Treatise on floating bodies'' made 

Oresme. The aposta^^and heresies for which Bruno by William of Moerbeke at the end of the thirteenth 

was condemned in 1600 had nothing to do with the century. This publication, dishonest though it was, 

physical doctrines he had espoused, which included helped to give prominence to the* study of Arch- 

m particular Copemican astronomy. In fact it imedes's mechanical labours, which study exerted 

does not seem that, in the sixteenth century, the the greatest influence over the progress of science at 

Church manifested the slightest anxiety concerning the end of the sixteenth century, the blending of 

the system of Copernicus. Archimedean mathematics with Parisian physics, 

XIV. Theory of the Tides. — It is undoubtedly to generatmg the movement that terminated in Gatileo's 
the s^eat voyages that shed additional lustre on the work. The translation and explanation of ;the works 
close of the fifteenth century that we must attribute of Archimedes enlisted the attention of geometricians 
the importance assumed in the sixteenth century such as Francesco Maurolycus of Messina (1494- 
by the problem of the tides, and the gr6at progress 1575) and FedericoCommandino of Urbino( 1509-75), 
made at that time towards the solution of this prob- and these two authors, continuing the work of the 
lem. The correlation existing between the phenome- great Syracusan, determined the position of the 
non of high and low tide and the course of the moon centre of gravity of various solids; in addition Com- 
was known even in ancient times. Posidonius accu- mandin translated and explained Pappus's mathe- 
rately described it; the Arabian astronomers were matical ''Collection", and tne fragment of Mech^Ji- 
also famihar with it, and the explanation ^ven of it ics" by Heron of Alexandria appended thereto, 
in the ninth century by Albumazar in his ''Intro- Admiration for these monuments of ancient science 
ductorium magnum ad Astronomiam" remained a inspired a number of Italians with a profound con- 
classic throughout the Middle Ages. The observation tempt for medieval statics. The fecundity of the prin- 
of tidal phenomena very naturafly led to the supposi- ciple of virtual displacements, so happily employed 
tion that the moon attracted the waters of the ocean by the School of Jordanus, was ignored; and, de- 
and, in the thirteenth century, William of Auvergne prived of the laws discovered by this school and 
compared this attraction to that of the magnet for of the additions made to them by Vinci,, the treatises 
iron. However, the mere attraction of the moon did on statics written by over-enthusiastic admirers of 
not suffice to account for the alternation of spring 'the Archimedean method were notably deficient, 
and neap tides, which phenomenon clearly indicated Among the authors of these treatises Guidobaldo 
a certain intervention of the sun. In his "Questions dal Monte (1545-1607) and Giovanni Battista 
sur les livres des M^tdores", which appeared during Benedetti (1530-90) deserve special mention, 
the latter half of the fourteenth centuiy, Themon, Of the mathematicians who, in statics, claimed to 
"Son of the Jew", introduced in a vague sort of way follow exclusively the rigorous methods of Archimedes 
the idea of superposing two tides, the one due to the and the Greek geometricians, the most illustrious 
sun and the other to the moon. was Simon Stevinus of Bruges (1548-1620). Ti^ugh 

In 1528 this idea was very clearly endorsed by him the statics of solid bodies recovered all that had 

Federico Grisogone of Zara, a Dalmatian who taught been guned by the School of Jordanus and Vinci, and 

medicine at Padua. Grisogone declared that, under lost by the contempt of such men as Guidobaldo del 

the action of the moon exclusively^ the sea would Monte and Benedetti. The law of the equilibrium 

assume an ovoid shape, its major axis being directed of the lever, one of the fundamental propositions of 

towards the centre of the moon; that the action of which Stevinus made use, was established by him with 

the sun would also give it an ovoid shape, less elon- the aid of an ingenious demonstration which Galileo 

gated than the first, its major axis bemg directed was also to employ, and which is found in a small 

towards the centre of the sun; and that the variation anonymous work of the thirteenth century. In order 

of sea level, at aU times and in all places, was obtained to confirm another essential principle of his theory, 

by adding the elevation or depression produced by the law of the equilibrium of a body on an inclinea 

the solar tide to the elevation or depresraon produced plane, Stevinus resorted to the impossibility of per- 

by the lunar tide. In 1557 Girolamo Cardano petual motion, which had been affirmed with great 

accepted and briefly explained Griso^one's theory, precision by Vinci and Cardano. Stevinus's chief 




§loiy lay in his discoveries in hydrostatics; and the 
etermining of the extent and point of application 
of the pressure on the slanting inner side of a vessel 
by the liquid contained therein was in itself sufficient 
to entitle this geometrician from Bruges to a foremost 

{>lace among the creators of the theory of the equi- 
ibrium of fluids. Benedetti was on the point of 
enunciating the principle known as Pascal's Law, and 
an insi^ficant addition permitted Mersenne to 
infer this principle and the idea of the hydraulic 
press from what the Italian geometrician had written. 
Benedetti had justified his propositions by using as 
an axiom the law of the equilibrium of liquids in 
communicating vessels, and prior to this time Vinci 
had followed the same logical proceeding. 

XVI. Dynamics in the Sektbenth Century. — 
The geometricians who, in spite of the stereotyped 
methods of Averroism and the banter of Humanism, 
continued to cultivate the Parisian dynamics of 
impetus, were rewarded by splendid discoveries. 
Dissipating the doubt in which Albert of Saxonv had 
remained enveloped, Vinci had declared the velocity 
acquired by a falling body to be proportional to the 
time occupied by the fall, but he did not know how 
to determine the law connecting the time consumed 
in fidling with the space passed over by the falling 
body. Nevertheless to find this law it would have 
sufficed to invoke the following proposition: in a 
uniformly varied motion, the space traversed by the 
moving body is eq^sA to that which it would traverse 
in a uniform motion whose duration would be that 
of the preceding motion, and whose velocity would 
be the same as that wnich affected the preceding 
motion at the mean instant of its duration. This 
proposition was known to Oresme, who had demon- 
strated it exactly as it was to be demonstrated later 
by Galileo; it was enunciated and discussed at the 
close of the fourteenth century by all the logicians 
who, in the University of Oxford, composed the school 
of William of Hejrtesbury, Chancellor of Oxford in 
1375; it was subsequently examined or invoked in the 
fifteenth century by all the Italians who became the 
commentators of these logicians; and finally, the 
masters of the University of Paris, contemporaries 
of Vinci, taught and demonstrated it as Oresme had 

This law which Vinci was not able to determine 
was published in 1545 by a Spanish Dominican, 
Dommgo Soto (14M^1560), an alumnus of the Uni- 
versity of Paris, and professor of theology at Alcald 
de Henares, and afterwards at Salamanca. He for- 
mulated these two laws thus: 

The velocity of a falling body increases propor- 
tionally to the time of the fall. 

The space traversed in a uniformly varied motion 
is the same as in a uniform motion occupving the* 
same time, its velocity being the mean velocity of 
the former. 

In addition Soto declared that the motion of a 
body thrown vertically upward is uniformly retarded. 
It should be mentioned that all these propositions 
were formulated by the celebrated Dominican as if 
in relation 'to truths generally admitted by the mas- 
ters among whom he fived. 

The Parisian theory, maintaining that the accel- 
erated fall of bodies was due to the effect of a continual 
increase of impetus caused by gravity, was admitted 
^ Julius CsBsar Scaliger (1484-1558), Benedetti, and 
Uabriel Vasouez (1551-1604), the celebrated Jesuit 
theologian. The first of these authors presented this 
theory in such a way that uniform acceleration of 
motion seem^ naturally to follow from it. 

Soto, Tartaglia, and Cardano made strenuous 
efforts, after the manner of Vinci, to explain the 
motion of projectiles by appealing to the conflict 
between impetus and gravity, but their attempts 
were frustrated by a Peripatetic error which several 

Parisian masters had long before rejected. They 
believed that the motion of the projectile was acceler- 
ated from the start, and attributed this initial acceler- 
ation to an impulse communicated by the vibrating 
air. Indeed, throughout the sixteenth century, the 
Italian Averroists continued to attribute to the am- 
bient air the very transportation of the projectile. 
Tartaglia empirically discovered that a piece of 
artillerv attained its greatest range when pointed at 
an angle of forty-five degrees to the horizon. Bruno 
insisted upon Oresme's explanation of the fact that 
a body appears to fall in a vertical line in spite of the 
Earth's motion; to obtain the trajectory of this 
body it is necessary to combine the action of its 
weight with the impetus which the Earth has im- 
parted to it. It was as follows that Benedetti set 
forth the law followed by such an impetus. A body 
whirled in a circle and suddenly left to itself will 
move in a straight line tangent to the circle at the 
very point where the body happened to be at the 
moment of its release. For this achievement Bene- 
detti deserves to be ranked among the most valuable 
contributors to the discovery of the law of inertia. 
In 1553 Benedetti advanced the following argument: 
in air, or any fluid whatever, ten ec^ual stones fall 
with the same velocity as one of their number; and 
if all were combined they would still fall with the 
same velocity; therefore, in a fluid two stones, one 
of which is ten times heavier than the other, fall with 
the same velocity. Benedetti lauded the extreme 
novelty of this argument with which, in reality, 
many scholastics had been familiar, but which they 
had all claimed was not conclusive, oecause the resis- 
tance which the air offered to the heavier stone 
could certainly not be ten times that which it opposed 
to the lighter one. Achillini was one of those who 
clearly maintained this principle. That it might 
lead to a correct conclusion, Benedetti's argument 
had to be restricted to the motion of bodies in a 
vacuum, and this is what was done by Galileo. 

XVII. Galileo's Work.— Galileo GaUlei (1564- 
1642) had been in youth a staunch Peripatetic, but 
was later converted to the Copemican system, and 
devoted most of his efforts to its defence. The tri- 
umph of the system of Copernicus could only be 
secured by the perfecting of mechanics, and espe- 
cially by solving the problem presented by the tail 
of bodies, when the earth was supposed to be in 
motion. It was towards this solution that many 
of Galileo's researches were directed, and to bring 
his labours to a successful issue he had to adopt cer- 
tain principles of Parisian dynamics. Unfortunately, 
instead of using them all, he left it to others to ex- 
haust their fecundity. 

Galilean statics was a compromise between the 
incorrect method inaugurated in Aristotle's ''Mechan- 
ical Questions" and the correct method of virtual 
displacements successfully applied by the School of 
Jordanus. Imbued with ideas that were still intensely 
Peripatetic, it introduced the consideration of a 
certain impeto or momento, proportional to the 
velocity of the moving body and not unlike the 
impetus of the Parisians. Galilean hydrostatics 
also showed an imperfect form of the principle of 
virtual displacements, which seemed to have been 
suggested to the great Pisan by the effectual re- 
searches made on the theory of running water by his 
friend Benedetto Castelli, the Benedictine (1577-1644) . 
At first GaUIeo asserted that the velocity of a falling 
body increased proportionally to the space traversed, 
and afterwards, by an ingenious demonstration, he 
proved the utter absurdity of such a law. He then 
taught that the motion of a freely falling body was 
uniformly accelerated; in favour of this law^ he con- 
tented himself with appealing to its simplicity with- 
out considering the continual increase of impetus 
under the influence of gravity. Gravity creates, in 




eaual periods, a new and uniform impetus which, 
added to that already acquired, causes the total 
impetus to increase in arithmetical progression 
according to the time occupied in the fall; hence the 
velocity of the falling bod^. This argmnent towards 
which all Parisian tradition had been tending and 
which; in the last place, had been broached by Sca- 
liger, leads to our modem law: a constant force 

{)roduces uniformly accelerated motion. In Gali- 
eo's work there is no trace either of the argument 
or of the conclusion deduced therefrom; however, 
the argument itself was carefully developed by 
Galileo^ friend, Giambattista Baliani (1582-1666). 
From the very definition of velocity, Baliani en- 
deavoured to deduce the law according to which the 
space traversed by a falling body is increased pro- 

Eortionally to the time occupied in the fall. Here 
e was confronted by a difficulty that had also baffled 
Vinci; however, he eventually anticipated its solu- 
tion, which was cdven, after similar hesitation, by 
another of Galileo s disciples, Pierre Gassendi (1592- 
1655). Galileo had reached the law connecting the 
time occupied in the fall with the space traversed by 
a falling body, by using a demonstration that became 
celebrated as the 'demonstration of the triangle ''. 
It was textually that given by Oresme in the four- 
teenth century and, as we have seen, Soto had thought 
of using Oresme's proposition in the study of the 
accelerated fall of bodies. Galileo extended the laws 
of freely falling bodies to a fall down an inclined plane 
and subjected to the test of experiment the law of the 
motion of a weight on an inclined plane. 

A body which, without friction or resistance of any 
kind, would describe the circumference of a circle 
concentric with the Earth would retain an invariable 
impeto or momentOy as gravity would in no wise tend 
to increase or destroy this impeto: this principle, 
which belonged to the dynamics of Bundan ana 
Albert of Saxony, was acknowledged by Galileo. 
On a small surface, a sphere concentric with the 
Earth is apparently merged into a horizontal plane; 
a body thrown upon a horizontal plane and free from 
all friction woula therefore assume a motion appar- 
ently rectilinear and uniform. It is only under this 
restricted and erroneous form that Galileo recognized 
the law of inertia and. in this, he was the faithful 
disciple of the School oi Paris. 

If a heavy body moved by an impeto that would 
make it describe a circle concentric with the Earth 
is, moreover, free to fall, the impeto of uniform rota- 
tion and gravity are component forces. Over a 
small extent the motion produced by thb impeto 
may be assumed to be rectilinear, horizontal, and 
uniform; hence the approximate law may be enun- 
ciated as follows: a neavv body, to wmch a hori- 
zontal initial velocity has been imparted at the very 
moment that it is abandoned to the action of gravity, 
assumes a motion which is sensibly the combination ot 
a uniform horizontal motion with the vertical motion 
that it would assume without initial velocity. Galileo 
then demonstrated that the trajectory of this heavy 
bodv is a parabola with vertical axis. This theory 
of the motion of projectiles rests upon principles in 
no wise conformable to an exact knowledge of the 
law of inertia and which are, at bottom, identical 
with those invoked by Oresme when he wished to 
explain how, despite the Earth's rotation, a body 
seems to fall vertically. The argument employed by 
Galileo did not permit him to state how a projectile 
moves when its initial velocity is not horizontal. 

Evangelista Torricelli (1608-47), a disciple of 
Gastelli and of Galileo, extended the latter's method 
to the case of a projectile whose initial velocitv had 
a direction other than horizontal, and proved, that 
the trajectory remained a parabola witn a vertical 
axis. On the other hand Gassendi showed that in 
this problem of the motion of projectiles, the real 

law of inertia which had just been formulated by 
Descartes should be substituted for the principles 
admitted by the Parisian dynamics of the fpurteenth 

Mention should be made of Galileo's observations 
on the duration of the oscillation of the pendulum, 
as these observations opened up to dynamics a new 
field. Galiled's progress in dynamics served as a 
defence of the Copemican system and the discoveries 
which, with the aid of the telescope, he was able to 
make in the heavens contributed to the same end. 
The spots on the sun's surface and the mountains, 
similar to those uix)n the Earth, that hid from view 
certain portions of the lunar disc, gave ample proof 
of the fact that the celestial bodies were not, as Aris- 
totelean physics had maintained, formed of an in- 
corruptible substance unlike sublunary elements; 
moreover, the r6Ie of satellite which, in this helio- 
centric astronomy, the moon played in regard to the 
Earth was carried out in relation to Jupiter by the 
two "Medioean planets", which Galileo had been the 
first to discover. Not satisfied with having defeated 
the ar^ments opposed to the Copemican system by 
adducing these excellent reasons, Galileo was eager 
to establish a positive proof in favour of this system. 
Inspired perhaps by Calcagnini. he believed that the 
phenomenon of the tides would furnish him the de- 
sired proof and he consequently rejected every expla- 
nation of ebb and flow founded on the attraction of 
the sun and the moon, in order to attribute the motion 
of the seas to the centrifugal force produced by ter- 
restrial rotation. Such an explanation would con- 
nect the period of high tide with the sidereal instead 
of the limar day, thus contradicting the most ordi- 
nary and ancient observations. This remark alone 
ought to have held Galileo back and prevented him 
from pibducing an argument better calculated to 
overthrow the doctrine of the Earth's rotation than 
to establish and confirm it. 

Oti two occasions, in 1616 and 1633, the Inquisi- 
tion condemned what Galileo had written in favour 
of the system of Copernicus. The hypothesis of the 
Earth's motion was declared faUa in Philoaovhia et 
ad minus erronea in fide; the hypothesis of tne sun 
being stationary was adjudged falsa in Philosophia 
et formaliter hoeretica. Adopting the doctrine formu- 
lated by Tycho Brahe in 1578, the Holy Office forbade 
the use of all astronomical hypotheses that did not 
agree both with the principles of Aristotelean physics, 
and with the letter of the Sacred Scriptures (see 
Gaulei, Galileo). 

XVIII. Initial Attempts in Celestial Mecban- 
ics — Gilbert — Kepler. — Copernicus had endeav- 
oured to describe accurately the motion of each of the 
celesti^ bodies, and Galileo had striven to show that 
the views of Copernicus were correct; but neither 
Copernicus nor Galileo had attempted to extend to 
the stars, what they knew concerning the dynamics 
of sublimary motions, or to determine thereby the 
forces that sustain celestial motions. They were 
satisfied with holding that the daily rotation of the 
Earth is perpetuated by virtue of an impetus given 
once for all; that ther various parts of an element 
belonging to a star tend towards the centre of this 
star by reason of a gravitv peculiar to each of the 
celestial bodies through which the body is enabled 
to preserve its entireness. Thus, in celestial mechan- 
ics, these two great scientists contributed scarcely 
an3rthing to what had already been taught by 
Buridan, Oresme, and Nicholas of Cusa. About 
Galileo's time we notice the first attempts to consti- 
tute celestial mechanics, that is to say, to explain 
the motion of the stars by the aid of forces analogous 
to those the effects of which we feel upon earth; the 
most important of these initial attempts were made 
by William Gilbert (1540-160.S), and Johann Kepler 


To Gilbert we are indebted for an exhaustive trea- of the three admirable laws that have immortalized 
tise on magnetism, in .which he systematically incor- his name: and, by teaching that the planets de- 
porated ,what was known in medieval times of elec- scribed ellipses instead of circles, he pnxluoed in 
trical and magnetic phenomena, without adding astronomy a revolution greater oy far than that 
thereto anything very essential; he also gave the caused by Ck>pemicus; he destroyed the last time- 
result of ms own valuable experiments. It was in honoured principle of ancient physics, according 
this treatise that he began to expotmd his '' Magnetic to which all celestial motions were reducible to cir- 
Philosophy^', that is to say his celestial mechanics, cular motion. 

but the work in which he fully developed it was not XIX. ''Controversies concerning Geostatics. — 

published until 1651, lon^ after his death. Like The "magnetic'' philosophy adopted and developed 

Oresme and Copernicus, Gilbert maintfuned that in by Gilbert was not only rejected by Kepler out 

each star there was a particular gravity through badly abused in a dispute over the principles of 

which the material parts belonging to this star, and statics. A number of the Parisian Scholastics 

these only, tended to rejoin the star when they had of the fourteenth century, and Albert of Saxony in 

been separated from it. He compared this gravity, particular, had accepted the principle that in every 

peculiar to each star, to the action by which a piece body there is a fixea, determmed point which tenda 

of iron flies towards the magnet whose nature it to join the centre of the World, this point being 

shares. This opinion, held by so many of Gilbert^s identical with the centre of f^avity as considercMl by 

predecessors and adopted by a great number of his Archimedes. From this principle various authors, 

imitators, led Francis Bacon astray. Bacon was the notably Vinci, deduced corollaries that retained a 

enthusiastic herald of the experimental method place m statics. The Copemican revolution had 

which, however, he never practised and of which he modified this principle but little, having simply 

had an utterlv false conception. According to Gil- substituted, for the centre of the universe, a particular 

bert, the Earth, sun, and the stars were animated, and point in each star, towards which point tended the 

the animating principle of each communicated to centre of gravity of each mass belonging to this star, 

the body the motion of perpetual rotation. From a Copernicus, Galileo, and Gilbert admitted the prin- 

distance, the sun exerted an action perpendicular ciple thus modified, but Kepler rejected it. In 1635 

to the radius vector which goes from the centre of Jean de Beaugrand deduced from this principle a 

the sun to a planet, and this action caused the planet paradoxical theory on the gravity of bodies, and par- 

''to revolve around the sun just as a horse turns the ticularlyonthevariationintheweightof a body whose 

horse-mill to which it is yoked. distance from the centre of the universe changes. 

Kepler himself admitted that m his first attempts Opinions similar to those proposed by Beaugrandf in 

along the line of celestial mechanics he was tmder the his geostatics were held in Itoly by Castelli, and in 

influence of Nicholas of Cusa and Gilbert. Inspired France by Pierre Fermat (1608-^). Fermat's 

by the former of these authors, he attributed the doctrine was discussed and refuted by Etienne 

Earth's rotation on its axis to an impetus communi- Pas<^ (1588-1651) and Gilles Persone de Roberval 

cated by the Creator at the beginning of time; but. (1602-75), and the admirable controversy between 

under the influence of Gilbert's theory, he declared theseauthorsandFermatcontributed in great measure 

that this impetus ended by being transformed into to the clear exposition of a certain number of ideas 

a soul or an animating principle. In Kepler's earliest employed in statics, amongst them, that of the centre 

system, as in Gilbert s, the distant sun was sidd to of gravity. 

exercise over each planet a power perpendicular to It was this controversy which led Descartes to 

the radius vector, wnich power produced the circular revive the question of virtual displacements in pre- 

motion of the planet. However, Kepler had the cisely the same iomx as that adopted by the School 

happy thought of submitting a universal attraction of Jordanus, in order that the essential propositions . 

for the magnetic attraction that Gilbert had con- of statics might be given a stable foundation. On 

sidered peculiar to each star. He assumed that the other hand, Torricelli based all his arguments 

every material mass tended towards every other concerning the laws of equilibrium on the axiom 

materia] mass, no matter to what celestial body each (quoted aoK)ve, viz. : a system endowed with weight 

one of them belonged; that a portion of matter placed is in equilibrium when the centre of gravity oi all the 

between two stars would tend towards the larger bodies forming it is ^e lowest possible. Cardano and 

and nearer one, although it might never have belonged perhaps Vinci had derived this proposition from the 

to it; that, at the moment of high tide, the waters doctrine of Albert of Saxony, but Torricelli was care- 

of the sea rose towards the moon, not because they ful to use it onl3r under circumstances in which all 

. had any special affinity for this humid star, but by verticals are considered parallel to one another and, 

virtue of the general tendency that draws all material in this way. he severed all connexion between the 

masses towaras one another. axiom that ne admitted and the doubtful hypotheses 

In the course of numerous attempts to explain of Parisian physics or magnetic philosophy. Thence- 
the motion of the stars, Kepler was led to complicate forth the principles of statics were formulated with 
hb first celestial mechanics. He assumed that all accuracy, John Wallis (1616-1703), Pierre Varignon 
celestial bodies were plunged into an ethereal fluid, (1654-1722), and Jean Bernoulli (1667-1748) having 
that the rotation of the sun engendered a vortex with- merely to complete and develop the information pro- 
in this fluid the reactions ef which interposed to vided by Stevinus, Roberval, Descartes, and Tor- 
deflect 6ach planet from the circular path. He also ricelli. 

thought that a certain jx)wer, similar to that which XX. Debcartes'b Work. — ^We have just stated 

directs the magnetic needle, preserved invariable what part Descartes took in the building of statics 

in space the direction of the axis around which the by bnnging forward the method of virtual displace- 

rotation of each planet is effected. The unstable ments, but his active interest in the building up of 

and complicated system of celestial mechanics dsmamics was still more important. He clearly for- 

taught by Kepler sprang from very deficient dyuam- mulated the law of inertia as observed by Benedetti: 

ics which, on many ix)int8, was more akin to that every moving body is inclined, if nothing prevent it, 

of the Peripatetics than to that of the Parisians, to continue its motion in a straight line and with 

However, these many vague h3rpotheses exerted an constant velocity; a bodv cannot move in a circle 

incontestable influence on the attempts of scientists unless it be drawn towardis the centre, by centripetal 

from Kepler to Newton to determine the forces that movement in opposition to the centrifugal force by 

move the stars. If, indeed, Kepler prepared the way which this body tends to fly awajr from the centre, 

for Newton's work, it was mamly by the discovery Because of the similarity of the views held by Des^ 


cartes and Benedetti concerning this law^ we may If the special physical truths demonstrated or 
conclude that Descartes's discovery was influenced anticipated bv Descartes were easily traceable to the 
by that of Benedetti, especially as nenedetti's works philosophy of the fourteenth century, the principles 
were known to Marin Mersenne (1588r-1648), the on which the great geometrician wished to base 
faithful friend and correspondent of Descartes, these truths were absolutely incompatible with this 
Descartes connected the following truth with the philosophy. In fact, denying that in reality there 
law of inertia: a weight constant in size and direction existed anything qualitative^ Descartes insisted that 
causes a uniformly accelerated motion. Besides, we matter be reduced to extension and to the attributes, 
have seen how, with the aid of Descartes's principles, of wluch extension seemed to him susceptible, namely, 
Gassendi was able to rectify what Galileo had taught numerical proportions and motion; and it was by 
concerning falling bodies and the motion of projec- combinations of different figures and motions that 
tiles. all the effects of physics could be explained according 
In statics a heavy body can very often be replaced to his liking. Therefore the power by virtue of which 
by a material point placed at its centre of gravity; a body tends to preserve the direction and velocity 
but in dynamics the question arises whether the of its motion is not a quality distinct from motion, 
motion of a body be treated as if this body were such as the impetus recognized by the scholastics; 
entirely concentrated in one of these points, and also it is nothing else than the motion itself, as was taught 
wUch point this is? This question relative to the by William of Occam at the beginning of the four- 
existence and finding of a centre of impulsion had teenth century. A body in motion and isolated would 
already engrossed the attention of Vinci and. after always retain the same quantity of motion, but there 
him, of Bernardino Baldi (1553-1617). Baldi as- is no isolated body in a vacuum, because matter being 
serted that, in a body undergoing a motion of trans- identical with extension, vacuum is inconceivable, 
lation, the centre of impulsion does not differ from the as is also compressibility. The only conceivable 
centre of gravity. Now, is there a centre of impulsion motions are those which can be produced in the midst 
and, if so, where is it to be found in a body under- of incompressible matter, that is to say, vortical 
^ing a motion other than that of translation, for motions confined within their own bulk, 
mstance, by a rotation around an axis? In other In these motions bodies drive one another from the 
words, is there a simple pendulum that moves in the place they have occupied and, in such a transmission 
same way as a given compound pendulum? Inspired, of motion, the quantity of motion of each of these 
no doubt, by reading Baldi, Mersenne laid this prob- bodies varies: however, the entire quantity of motion 
lem before Roberval and Descartes, both of whom of all the homes that impinge on one another remains 
made great efforts to solve it but became unfriendly constant, as God always maintains the same sum 
to each other because of the difference in their respeo- total of motion in the world. This transmission of 
tive propositions. Of the two, Descartes came nearer motion by impact is tlie only action that bodies can 
to the truth, but the dynamic principles that he used exert over one another and in Cartesian, as well as 
were not sufficiently accurate to justify his opinion in Aristotelean physics, a body cannot put another 
in a convincing manner; the glory was reserved to in motion unless it touch it, immediate action at a 
Christian Huygens. distance being beyond conception. 

The Jesuits, who at the College of La Fl^che had There are various species of matter, differing from 
been the preceptors of Mersenne and Descartes, did one another only in the size and shape of the contig- 
not teach Peripatetic physics in its stereotyped uous particles of which they are formed. The space 
integrity, but rarisian physics: the treatise that that extends between the different heavenly bodies 
guided the instruction imparted at this institution is filled with a certain subtile matter, the very fine 
being represented by the ''Commentaries" on Aris- particles of which easily penetrate the interstices 
totle, published by the Jesuits of Coimbra at the close left between the coarser constituents of other bodies, 
of the seventeenth century. Hence it can be under- The properties of subtile matter pUgr an important 
stood why the dynamics of Descartes had many part in idl Carteaan cosmology. The vortices in 
points in common with the d3mamics of Buridan and which subtile matter moves, ana the pressure gener- 
the Parisians. Indeed, so' close were the relations ated by these vortical motions, serve to explain all 
between Parisian and Cartesian physics that certain celestial phenomena. Leibniz was right in supposing 
professors at La Fl^he, such as Etienne NoSl (I58I- that for this part of his work Descartes had drawn 
1660)j became Cartesians. Other Jesuits attempted largely upon ICepler. Descartes idso strove to ex- 
to build up a sort of a combination of Galilean and plam, witn the aid of the figures and motions of sub- 
Cartesian mechanics with the mechanics taugh by tile and other matter, the different effects observable 
Parisian Scholasticism, and foremost among these Sn physics, particularly the properties of the magnet 
men must be mentioned Honors Fabri (1606-88), a and of light. Li^t is identical with the pressure 
friend of Mersenne. which subtile matter exerts over bodies and, as sub- 
In every moving body Descartes maintained the tile matter is incompressible, light is instantly trans- 
existence of a certain power to continue its motion mitted to any distance, however great, 
in the same direction and with the same velocity and The suppositions by t^e aid of which Descartes 
this power, which he called the quantity of motion, attemptea to reduce all physical phenomena to com- 
he measured by estimating the product of the mass binations of fibres ana motions had scarcely any 
of the moving body by the velocity that impels it. part in the discoveries that he made in physics; 
The affinity is close between the rdle which Descartes therefore the identification of light with the pressure 
attributed to this quantity of motion, and that which exerted by subtile matter plays no part in the inven- 
Buridan ascribed to impetus. Fabri was fully aware tion of the new truths which Descartes taught in 
of this analogy and the momentum that he discussed optics. Foremost amongst these truths is the law 
was at once the impetus of the Parisians, and Des- of the refraction of light passing from one medium to 
cartes's quantity of motion. In statics he identified another, although the question still remains whether 
this momentum with what Galileo called momento or Descartes discovered this law himself, or whether, as 
imveto, and this identification was certainly conform- Huygens accused him of doing, he borrowed it from 
able to the Pisan's idea. Fabri's synthesis was well Will3)rord Snellius (1591-1626), without any men- 
adi^ted to make this truth clear, that modem dynam- tion of the real author. By this law Descartes gave 
ics, the foundations of which were laid by Descartes the theory of refraction throu^ a prism, which per- 
and Galileo, proceeded almost directly from the mitted him to measure the indices or refraction; 
djmamics taught during the fourteenth century in moreover, he greatly perfected the study of lenses, 
the Univenrity of Paris. and finally completed uie explanation of the rainbow, 




no progress havingbeen made along this line from the 
year 1300, when Thierry of Freiberg had given his 
treatise on it. However, the reason whjr the rays 
emerging from the drops of water are variously col- 
oured was no better known by Descartes than by 
Aristotle; it remained for Newton to make the dis- 

XaI. Progress op Experimental Physics.— 
Even in Descartes's work the discoveries in physics 
were almost independent of Cartesianism. The 
knowledge of natural truths continued to advance 
without the influence of this system and, at times, 
even in opposition to dt, althou^ those to whom this 
progress was due were often Cartesians. This ad- 
vancement was largely the result of a more frequent 
and skilful use of the experimental method. The art 
of making logically connected experiments and of 
deducing their consequences is indeed very ancient; 
in a way the works produced by this art were no more 
perfect than the researches of Pierre of Maricourt on 
the magnet or Thierry of Freiberg on the rainbow. 
However, if the art remained the same, its technic 
continued to improve; more skilled workmen and 
more powerful processes furnishing physicists with 
more intricate and better made instruments, and thus 
rendering possible more delicate experiments. The 
rather imperfect tests made by Galileo and Mersenne 
in endeavouring to determine the specific weight of 
air mark the beginning of the development of the 
experimental method^ which was at once vigorously 
pushed forward by discussions in regard to vacuum. 

In Peripatetic phvsics the possibihty of an empty 
space was a logical contraoiction; but, after the 
condemnation pronounced at Paris in 1277 by Tem- 
pier, the existence of a vacuum ceased to be consid- 
ered absurd. It was simply taught as a fact that 
the powers of nature are so constructed as to oppose 
the production of an empty space. Of the various 
conjectures proposed concerning the forces which 
|)revent the appearance of a vacuum, the most sen- 
sible and^ it would seem, the most generally received 
among sixteenth-century Parisians, was tne follow- 
ing: contig;uous bodies adhere to one another, and 
this adhesion is- maintained by forces resembling 
those by which a piece of iron adheres to the magnet 
which it touches. In naming this force horror vacuij 
there was no intention of considering the bodies as 
animate beings. A heavy piece of iron detaches 
itself from the magnet that should hold it up, its 
weight having conquered the force by which the 
magnet retained it; in the same way, the weight of 
too heavy a body can prevent the horror vacui from 
raising this body. This very logical corollary of the 
hypothesis we have just mentioned was formulated 
by Galileo, who saw therein the explanation of a fact 
well-known to the cistern makers of^his time; namely, 
that a suction-pump could not raise water higher 
than thirty-two feet. This corollary entailed the 
possibility of producing an empty space, a fact known 
to Torricelli who, in 1644, maae the celebrated experi- 
ment with mercury that was destined to immortalize 
his name. However, at the same time, he anticipated 
a new explanation of this experiment; the mercury 
is ^pported in the tube not by the horror vacui that 
does not exist, but by the pressure which the heavy 
air exerts on tne exterior surface of the basin. 

Torricelli's experiment quickly attracted the atten- 
tion of physicists. In France, thanks to Mersenne, 
it called forth on his part, and on that of those who 
had dealings with him, many experiments in which 
Roberval and Pascal (1623-62) vied with each other 
in ingenuity, and in order to have the resources of 
technic more easily at his disposal, Pascal made his 
startling experiments in a glass factory at Rouen. 
Among the numerous inquirers interested in Torri- 
celli's experiment some accepted the explanation 
oflFered by the "column of air", and advanced by the 

great Italian geometrician himself; whereas others, 
such as Roberval, held to the ancient hypothesis of 
an attraction analogous to magnetic action. At 
length, ^ith a view to settling the difference, an 
experiment was made which consisted in measuring 
at what height the mercury remained suspended in 
Torricelli's tube; observing it first of all at the. foot 
of a mountain and then at its summit. The idea of 
this experiment seemed to have suggested itself to 
several physicists, notably MereenneTDescartes, and 
Pascal and. through the instrumentality of the last 
named and the courtesy of P^rier, his brother-in- 
law, it was made between the base and summit of 
Puy;de-D6me, 19 Sept., 1648. The "Traits de V 
6quilibre de liqueurs et de la pesanteur de la masse 
de Fair", which Pascal subsequently composed, is 
justly cited as a model of the art of logically connected 
experiments with deductions. Between atomists 
and Cartesians there were many discussions as to 
whether the upper part of Torricelli *s tube was really 
empty or filled with subtile matter; but these dis- 
cussions bore little fruit. However, fortunately for 
physics, the experimental method so accurately fol- 
lowed by Torricelli, Pascal, arid their rivals continued, 
to progress. 

Otto von Guericke (1602-86) seems to have pre- 
ceded Torricelli in the production of an empty space, 
since, between 1632 and 1638, he appears to nave 
constructed his first pneumatic machine, with the aid 
of which instrument he made in 1654 tne celebrated • 
Magdeburg experiments, published in 1657 by his 
friend Caspar Schoot, S.J. (1608-60). Informed by 
Schoot of Guericke's researches, Robert Boyle 
(1627-91) perfected the pneumatic machine and, 
assisted by Richard Townley, his pupil, pursued ttie 
experiments that made known the law of the com- 
pressibility of perfect gases. In France these experi- 
ments were taken up and followed by Manotte 
(1620-84). The use of the dilatation of a fluid for 
showing the changes of temperature was already 
known to Galileo, but it is uncertain whether the 
thermoscope was invented by Galileo or by some one 
of the numerous physicists to whom the priority is 
attributed, among these being Santorio, cailed Sanc- 
torius (1660-1636), Fra Paolo Sarpi (1552-1623), 
Cornells van Drebbel (1572-1634), and Robert Fludd 
(1574-1637). Although the various thermoscope^ 
for air or liquid used in the very beginning admitted 
of only arbitrary graduation, they nevsrtheless served 
to inoicate the constancy of the temperature or the 
direction of its variations, and consequently contrib- 
uted to the discovery of a number of the laws of physics. 
Hence this apparatus was used in the Accademia del 
Cimento, opened at Florence 19 June, 1657, and 
devoted to the study of en)erimental physics. To 
the members of this academy we are especially 
indebted for the demonstration of the constancy of 
the point of fusion of ice and of the absorption of 
heat accompanying this fusion. Observations of 
this kind, made by means of the thermoscope, created 
an ardent desire for the transformation of this appar 
ratus into a thermometer, by the aid of a definite 
graduation so arranged that everjrwhere instruments 
could be made which would be comparable with one 
another. This problem, one of the most important 
in physics, was not solved until 1702 when GuiUaume 
Amontons (1663-1705) worked it out in the inost , 
remarkable manner. Amontons took as a starting- 
point these two laws, discovered or verified by him* 
the boiling point of water under atmospheric pressure 
is constant. The pressures sustained by any two 
masses of air, heated in the same way in any two con- 
stant volumes, have a relation independent of the 
temperature. These two laws enabled Amontons 
to use the air thermometer under constant volume 
and to graduate it in such a way that it gave what we 
t^whiy call abHoluto temperature. Of all the defini- 


tions of the degree of temperature given since Amon- theory of impact seemed like the first chapter of 

tons's tune, he, at the first stroke, found the most rational physics. This theory had already enlisted 

perfect. Equipped with instruments capable of- the attention of Galileo, Marcus Marci (1639), and 

measuring pressure and registering temperature, Descartes when, in 1668, the Royal Society of Lon- 

experimental physics could not but make rapid don proposed it as the subject of a com^tition and, 

progress, this being still further augmented by reason of the three important memoirs submitted to the 

of the interest i^own by the learned societies that had criticism of this society by John Wallis, Christopher 

been recently founded. The 'Accademia del Cimento Wren (1632-1723), and Huygens, the last is the only 

was discontinued in 1667, but the Royal Society of one that we can consider. In his treatise Huvgens 

London had begun its sessions in 1663, and the adopted the following principle: if a material body, 

Acad6mie des Sciences at Paris was founded or subject merely to the action of gravity, starts from a 

rather organized by Colbert in 1666. These different certedn position, with initial velocity equal to zero, 

academies immediately became the enthusiastic the centre of gravity of this body ciin at no time rise 

centres of scientific research in regard to natural higher than it was at the outset of the motion. Hu^r- 

phenomena. pens justified this principle by observing that, if 

XXII. Undulatobt Theory of Light. — It was it were false, perpetual motion would be possible, 
to the Academic des Sciences of Paris that, in 1678, To find the origin of this axiom it would be necessary 
Christian Huygens (162^-95) presented his "Treatise to go back to "De Subtilitate" by Cardano, who had 
on li^t". According to the Cartesian sjrstem, light probably drawn it from the notes of Vinci; the propo- 
was instantly transmitted to any distance through sition on which Torricelli had based his statics was 
the mecUum of incompressible subtile matter. Des- a corollary from this postulate. By maintaining the 
cartes did not hesitate to assure Fermat that his accuracy of this postulate, even in the case where 
entire philosophy would give way as soon as it should parts of the system clash; by combining it with the 
be demonstrated that light is propagated with a lim- law of the accelerated fall of bodies, taken from Gali- 
ited velocity. In 1675 Ole RSmer (1644-1710), the leo's works, and with another postulate on the relsr 
Danish astronomer, announced to the Acad6mie des tivity of motion, Huygens arrived at the law of the 
Sciences the extent of the considerable but finite impact of hard bodies. He showed that the quantity 
velocity with which light traverses the space that the vaiue of which remains constant in spite of this 
separates the planets from one another, the study of impact is not, as Descartes declared j the total 
the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites having brought quantity of motion, but that which Leibmz called the 
him to this conclusion. Descartes's optical theory quantity of vis viva (living force). 

was destroyed, and Huygens undertook to build up a The axiom that had so happily sei^^ed Huygens in 

new theory ot light. He was constantly guided by the study of the impact of bodies he now extended to a 

the supposition that, in the midst of compressible body oscillating around a horizontal axis and his 

ether, substituted for incompressible subtile matter, "Horologium oscillatorium", which appeared in 

light is propagated by waves exactly similar to those 1673, solved in the most elegant and complete manner 

which transnut sound through a gaseous medium, the problem of the centres of oscillation previously 

This comparison led him to an explanation, which handled by Descartes and Roberval. Tnat Huy- 

is still the standard one, of the laws of reflection and gens's axiom was the subversion of Cartesian dynamics 

refraction. In this explanation the index of the refrac- was shown by Leibniz in 1686. If, like Descartes, 

tion of light passing from one medium to another we measure the efficiency of a force by the work that 

equals the ratio of the velocity of propagation in the it does, and if, iporeover, we admit Huygens's axiom 

firet medium to the velocity of propagation in the and the law of falling bodies, we find that this effi- 

second. In 1850 this fundamental law was confirmed ciency is not measured by the increase in the quantity 

by Foucault's experiments. of motion of the moving body, but by the increase in 

However, Huygens did not stop here. In 1669 half the product of the mass of the moving body and 

Erasmus Berthel^n. known as Bartholinus (1625- the square of its velocity. It was this product that 

98), discovered the double refraction of Iceland spar. Leibniz called vis viva. Huygens's ^'Horologium 

By a generalization, as ingenious as it was danng, oscillatorium'' not only gave the solution of the 

of the theory he had given for non-crystallized media, problem of the centre of oscillation but likewise a 

Huygens succeeded in tracing the form of the surface statement of the laws which^ in circular motion, 

of a luminous wave inside of a crystal such as spar or govern the magnitude of centrifugal force, and thus 

quartz, and in defining the apparently complex laws it was that the eminent physicist prepared the way 

of the double refraction of light in the interior of for Newton, the lawgiver of dynamics, 
these crystals. At the same time, he called attention XXIV. Newton^ Work. — Most of the great 

to the phenomena of polarization which accompany dynamical truths had been discovered between the 

this double refraction; he was, however, unable to time of Galileo and Descartes, and that of Huygens 

draw from his optical theory the explanation of these and Leibniz. The science of dynamics requir^ a 

effects. The comparison between light and sound Euclid who would organize it as geometry had been 

^caused Malebranche (1638-1715) to make some very organized, and this Euclid appeared in the person of 

effective conjectures in 1699. He assumed that light Isaac Newton (1642-1727) who, in his " Philosophi® 

is a vibratory motion analogous to that produced by naturalis principia mathematical^ published in 1687, 

sound; the greater or less amplitude of this motion, succeeded in deducing the entire science of motion 

as the case may be, generates a greater or less inten- from three postulates: inertia; the independence of 

fflty but, whilst in^ sound each period corresponds to the effects of previously acquired forces and motions; 

a particular note, in light it corresponds to a particu- and the equauty of action and reaction. Had New- 

lar colour. Through this analogy Malebranche ton's "Principia" contained nothing more than this 

arrived at the idea of monochromatic light, which co-ordination of dynamics into a logicad system, they 

Newton was to deduce from admirably conducted would nevertheless have been one of the most im- 

experiments; moreover, he established between simple portant works ever written; but, in addition, they 

colour and the period of the vibration of light, the gave the grandest possible application of this dynam- 

oonnexion that was to be preserved in the optics ics in utilizing it for the establishment of celestial 

of Young and Fresnel. mechanics. In fact, Newton succeeded in showing 

XXIII. Developments op Dynamics. — Both Car- that the laws of bodies falling to the surface of the 
tesians and atomists maintained that impact was the earth, theiaws that preside over the motion of planets 
only process by which bodies could put one another around the sun, and of satellites around the planets 
in motion; hence, to Cartesians and atomists, the which they accompany, finally, the laws that govern 




the form of the Earth and of the other stars, as also 
the high and low tides of the sea, are but so many 
corollaries from this unique hypothesis: two bodies, 
whatever their origin or nature, exert over each other 
an attraction proportional to the product of their 
masses and in mverse ratio to the square of the dis- 
tance that separates them. 

The dommating principle of ancient physics 
declared the essential distmction between the laws 
that directed the motions of the stars — ^beings exempt 
from generation, change, and death — and the laws 
presiding over tne motions of sublunary bodies sub- 
ject to generation and corruption. From the birth 
of Christian physics and especially from the end of 
the thirteenth century, physicists had been endeav- 
ouring to destroy the authority of this principle and 
to render the celestial and sublimaiy worlds subject 
to the same laws, the doctrine of universal gravitation 
bein^ thex)utcome of this prolonged effort. In pro- 
portion as the time approached, when Newton was to 
produce his system, attempts at cosmology were 
multiplied, so many forerunners, as it were, of this 
discovery. When m 1672 Guericke again took up 
Kepler's celestial mechanics, he made out one cor- 
rection therein, which unfortunately caused the dis- 
appearance of the only proposition by which this 
work led up to Newton's discoveries. Kepler had 
maintained that two material masses of any kind 
attract each other, but, in imitation of Copernicus, 
Gilbert, and Galileo, Guericke limited this mutual 
attraction to parts of the same star, so that, far from 
being attracted by the Earth, portions of the moon 
would be repelled by the Earth if placed upon its 
surface. But, in 1644, imder the pseudonym of 
Aristarchus of Samos, Roberval published a system 
of celestial mechanics, in which the attraction was 
perhaps mutual between two masses of no matter 
what kind; in which, at all events, the Earth and 
Jupiter attracted their satellites with a power iden- 
tical with the gravity with which they endow their 
own fragments. In 1665, on the pretence of explain- 
ing the motions of Jupiter's satellites, Giovanni 
Auonso Borelli (1608-79) tried to advance a theory 
which simultaneously comprised the motions of the 
planets aroimd the sun and of the satellites around ' 
the planets. He was the first of modem scientists 
(Plutarch havinf^ preceded him) to hold the opinion 
that the attraction which causes a planet to tend 
towards the sim and a satellite to tend towards the 
star which it accompanies, is in equilibrium with the 
centrifugal force produced by the circular motion 
of the planet or satellite in question. In 1674 Robert 
Hooke (1635-1702) formulated the same idea with 
^eat precision. Having already supposed the attrac- 
tion of two masses to vary inversely as the square 
of their distance, he was in possession of the funda- 
mental hypotheses of the theory of universal gravi- 
tation, which hypotheses were held by Wren about 
the same time. However, neither of these scientists 
was able to deduce therefrom celestial mechanics, 
as both were still unacquainted with the laws of 
centrifugal force, published just at this time by 
Huygens. In 1684 Edmund Halley (1656-1742) 
strove to combine Huygens's theories with Hooke's 
hypotheses, but, before his work was finished, Nowton 

E resented his "Principia" to the Royal Society, 
aving ior twenty years silently pursued his medita- 
tions on the system of the world. Halley, who could 
not forestall Newton, had the glory of broadening 
the domain of universal gravitation by making it 
include comets (1705). 

Not satisfied with creating celestial mechanics, 
Newton also contributed largely to the progress of 
optics. From ancient times the colouring of the 
spectrum, produced by the passage of white light 
tnrough a glass prism, had elicited the wonder of 
observers and appealed to the acumen of physicists 

without, however, being satisfactorily explained. 
Finally, a complete explanation was given by Newton 
who, m creatm^ a theory of colours, accomplished 
what all the philosophers from Aristotle down had 
laboured in vain to achieve. The theory advanced 
by the English physicist agreed witi^ tliat proposed 
by Malebranche at the same time. However, Male- 
branche's theory was n6thing more than a hypothesis 
suggested by the analogy between light and sound, 
whereas Newton's explanation was drawn from experi- 
ments, as simple as they were ingenious, its exposition 
by the author being one of the most beautiful ex- 
amples of experimental induction. Unfortunately 
Newton disregarded this anidogy between soimd and 
li^ht that had furnished Huygens and Malebranche 
with such fruitful discoveries. Newton's opinion 
was to the effect that lia^t is formed of inmiitely 
small projectiles thrown off with extreme velocity by 
incandescent bodies. The particles of the medium 
in which these projectiles move exert over them an 
attraction similar to universal attraction; however, 
this new attraction doea not vary inversely as the 
square of the distance but according to another 
function of the distance, and in such a way that it 
exercises a very great power between a material 

S article and a luminous corpuscle that are contiguous, 
[evertheless this attraction becomes altogether 
insensible as soon as the two masses between which 
it operates are separated from each other by a per- 
ceptible interval. 

This action exerted by the particles of a medium 
on the luminous corpuscles pervading them changes 
the velocity with which these bodies move and the 
direction which they follow at the moment of passing 
from one medium to another; hence the phenomenon 
of refraction. The index of refraction is the ratio 
of the velocity of light in the medium which it enters, 
to the velocity it had in the medium which it leaves. 
Now, as the index of refraction so understood was 

Precisely the reverse of that attributed to it by 
[uygens's theory, in 1850 Foucault submitted both 
to the test of experiment, with the result that New- 
ton's theory of emission was condemned. Newton 
expluned Uie experimental laws that govern the 
colouring of thin lamina, such as soap bubbles, and 
succeed^ in compelling t^ese colours, by suitable 
forms of these thm laminse, to assume the regular 
order known as '^ Newton's Kings". To explain this 

Ehenomenon he conceived that luminous projectiles 
ave a form that may, at the surface of contact of 
two media, either pass easily or be easily reflected, 
according to the maimer of their presentation at the 
moment of passage; a rotary motion causes them to 
pass alternately by ''fits of easy transmission or of 
easy reflection". 

Newton thought that he had accounted for the 
principal optical phenomena by supposing that, 
besides this universal attraction, there existed an 
attraction, sensible only at a very short distance, 
exerted by the particles of bodies on luminous cor- 
puscles, and naturally he came to believe that these 
two kinds of attraction would suffice to explain all 
physic^ phenomena. Action extending to a con- 
siderable distance, such as electric and magnetic 
action, must follow laws analogous to those which 
govern universal gravity; on the other hand, the 
effects of capillarity and cohesion, chemical decom- 
position ana reaction must depend on molecular 
attraction extending only to extremely small dis- 
tances and similar to that exerted over luminous 
corpuscles. This comprehensive hypothesis proposed 
by Newton in a "question" placed at the end of the 
second edition of his "Optics" (1717) gave a sort of 
outline of the programme which ei^teenth-centuiy 
physics was to attempt to carry out. 

aXV. Progress of General and Celestial 
Mechanics in the Eighteenth Century. — ^This 


programme made three demands*, first, that {^neral effective these two treatises are, they do not bv any 

mecnanics and celestial mechanics advance in the means include all the discoveries in general and 

way indicated by Newton; secondly, that electric celestial mechanics for which we are indebted to their 

and magnetic phenomena be explained by a theory authors. To do Lagrange even meagre justice his 

analogous to that of universal gravitation; thirdly, able researches should be placed on a par with his 

that molecular attraction furnish the detailed expla- ''M^anioue analytique''; and our idea of Laplace's 

nations of the various changes investigated by physics work would be very incomplete were we to omit the 

and chemistry. grand cosmo^onic hypothesis with which, in 1796, 

Many followed in the path outlined by Newton, he crowned his ^'Exposition du syst^me du monde". 

and tried to extend the domain of general and celestial In developing this hypothesis the illustrious geometri- 

mechanics, but there were three who seem to have cian was unaware that in 1755 Kant had expressed 

surpassed all the others: Alexis-Claude Clairaut similar suppositions which were marred by serious 

(1713-65), Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (1717- errors in dynamic theories. 

83), and Leonhard Euler (1707-83). The progn^ XXVI. Estabushment op the Theory op Elbc- 

which, thanks to these three able men, was made in tricitt and Magnetism. — For a long time the study 

general mechanics; may be summed up as follows: of electric action was merely superficial and, in the 

In 1743, by his pnnciple of the equilibrium of chan- beginning of the eighteenth century, it was still 

nels, which was easily connected with the principle in the condition in which Thales of Miletus had left 

of virtual displacements, Clairaut obtained the gen- it, remaining far from the point to which the study 

eral equations of the equiUbrium of liquids. In the of magnetic attraction and repulsion had been carried 

same year d' Alembert formulated a rule whereby all in the time of Pierre of Maricourt. When, in 1733 and 

problems of motion were reduced to problems of 1734, Charles-Francois de Cistemay du Fay distin- 

equilibrium and, in 1744, applied this rule to the guished two kinds oi electricity, resinous and vitreous, 

equation of hydrostatics given by Clairaut and arrived and when he proved that bodies charged with the same 

at the equations of hydrodynamics. Euler trans- kind of electricity repel one another, Whereas those 

formed these equations and, in his studies on the charged with different kinds attract one another, 

motion of liquidB, was enabled to obtain results no electrical science was brought up to the level that 

less important than those which he had obtained by magnetic science had long before attained, and 

analysing the motion of solids. Clairaut extended the thenceforth these two sciences, united by the closest 

consequences of universal attraction in all directions, analogy, progressed side by side. They advanced 

and, in 1743, the equations of hydrostatics that he rapidly as, in the eighteenth century, the study of 

had established enabled him to perfect the theory of electrical phenomena became a popular craze. Physi- 

the figure of the earth. In 1752 he published his cists Were not the only ones devoted to it; men of the 

theory of lunar inequalities, which he had at first world crowded the salons where popularizers of the 

despaired of accountmg for bv Newton's principles, science, such as the Abb6 Nollet (1700-70), enlbted 

The methods that he devised for the study of the as votaries dandified marquesses knd sprightly 

perturbations which the planets produce on the path marchionesses. Numberless experimentalists applied 

of a star permitted him, in 1758, to announce with themselves to multiplying observations on electncity 

accuracy the time of the return of Halley's Comet, and ma^etism, but we sh^l restrict ourselves to 

The confirmation of this prediction in which Cluraut . mentionmg Benjamin Franklin (1706-90) who, by his 

had received assistance from Lalande (1732-1807) logically-conducted researches, contributed more 

and Mme. Lepaute, both able mathematicians, than any other man to the formation of the theories 

g laced beyond doubt the applicability of Newton's of electricity and magnetism. The researches of 

ypotheses to comets. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) deserve to be placed 

Great as were Clairaut's achievements in perfecting in the same rank as Franklin's, though they were 

the system of universal attraction, they were not as but little known before his death, 

important as those of d'Alembert. Newton could By means of Franklin's experiments and his own, 

not deduce from his suppositions a satisfactoiy ^pinus (Franz Ulrich Theodor Hoch, 1724-1802) 

theory of the precession of the equinoxes, and this was the first to attempt to solve the problem suggested 

failure marred the harmony of the doctrine of uni- by Newton and, by the hypothesis of attractive and 

versal gravitation. In 1749 d'Alembert deduced repellent forces, to explam the distribution of elec- 

from the hy]x>thesis of gravitation the explanation tncity and magnetism over the bodies which they 

of the precession of the equinoxes and of the nutation affect. His researches could not be pushed very far, 

of the earth's axis; and soon afterwards Euler, as it was still unknown that these forces depend upon 

drawing upon the admirable resources of his mathe- the distance at which they are exerted. Moreover, 

matical genius, made still further improvements on ^pinus succeeded in drawing still closer the connexion 

d'Alembert's discovery. Clairaut, d'Alembert, atid already established between the sciences of electricity 

Euler were the most brilliant stars in an entire con- and magnetism, by showing the polarization of each 

stellation of mechanical theorists and astronomers, of the elements of the insulating plate which separates 

and to this group there succeeded another, in which the two collecting plates of the condenser. The 

shone two men of surpassing intellectuality, Joseph- experiment he made in this line in 1759 was destined 

Louis Lagrange (1736-1813) and Pierre-Simon to suggest to Coulomb the experiment of the broken 

Laplace (1749-1827). Laplace was said to have magnets and the theory of magnetic polarization, 

been bom to complete celestial mechanics, if, indeed, which is the foimdation of the study of magnets; 

it w;ere in the nature of a science to admit of com- and was also to be the starting-point of an entire 

pletton; and quite as much could be said of Lagrange branch of electrical science, namely the study of 

with regard to general mechanics. In 1787 Lagrange dielectric bodies, which study was developed in the 

published the nrst edition of his ''M6canique analy- nineteenth century by Michael Faraday and James 

tioue"; the second, which was greatly enlarged, was Clerk-Maxwell. 

puolished after the author's death. Laplace^s **M6- Their analogy to the fertile law of universal gravi- 
canique celeste" was published from 1799 to 1805, tation undoubtedly led physicists to suppose that 
and both of these works give an account of the greater electrical and magnetic forces vary inversely as the 
part of the mechanical conquests made in the course square of the distance that separates the acting ele- 
of the eighteenth century, with the assistaiice of the ments; but, so far, this opinion had not been con- 
principles that Newton had assigned to general firmed by experiment. However, in 1780 it received 
mechanics and the laws that he had imposed upon this confirmation from Char]e.s-Augiistin de (Coulomb 
universal gravitation. However exhaustive and with the aid of the torsion balance. By the use of 


this balance and the proof plane, he was enabled to "M^moire sur la thtorie mathdmatique des ph^ 

make detailed experiments on the subject of the dis- nomdnes ^lectro-dynamiaues uniquement d6duite de 

tribution of electricity over conductive bodies, no Texp^rience", a work tnat can stand the test of 

such tests having been previously made. Although comparison with the '* Philosophise naturalis princi- 

Coulomb's experiments placed beyond doubt the pia mathematical and not be found wanting, 

elementary laws of electricity and magnetism, it still Not wishing to carry the history of electncity and 

remained to be established by mathematical analysis magnetism beyond this date, we shall content our- 

how electricity was distributed over the surface of selves with making another comparison between the 

conductive bodies of given shape, and how a piece two works we have just mentioned. As Newton's 

of soft iron was magnetized under given circum- treatise brought about numerous discoveries on the 

stances. The solution of these problems was attempted part of his successors, Ampere's memoir gave the 

by Coulomb and also in 1787 by Haliy (q. v.), but initial impetus to researches which have greatly 

neither of these two savants pushed his tests very far. broadened the field of electro-dynamics and electro- 

The establishment of princi]3les which would permit ma^etism. Michael Faraday (1791-1867), an ex- 

of an analysis of the distribution of electricity on con- penmentalist whose activity, skill, and good fortune 

ductors, and of magnetism on soft iron, required the have perhaps never been equalled, e^abli^ed in 

genius of Simon-Denis Poisson (1781-1840). 1831 tne experimental laws of electro-dynamic and 

In 1812 Poisson showed how the investigation of electro-magnetic induction, and, between 1845 and 

the distribution of electricity in equilibrium on con- 1847, Franz Ernst Neumann (1798-1895) and Wil- 

ductors belonged to the domain of analysis, and he helm Weber (1804-^91), by closely following Ampere's 

gave a complete solution of this problem in the case method of studying electro-dynamic force, finally 

of two conductive spheres influencing each other, established the mathematical theory of these phe- 

whether placed at given distances or in contact, nomena of induction. Michael Faraday was opposed 

Coulomb's experiments in connexion with contiguous to Newtonian doctrines, and highly disapproved the 

spheres established the truth of Poisson's theory, theory of action at a distance; in fact, when he 

In 1824 Poisson established on the subject of hollow applied himself to analysing the polarization of 

conductors limited either interiorly or exteriorly by a insulated media, which he called dielectrics, he hoped 

spherical cavity, theorems which, in 1828, were ex- to eliminate the hypothesis of such action. Meantime 

tended by George Green (1793-1841) to all kinds of by extending to dielectric bodies the formulae that 

hollow conductors and which Faraday was subse- Poisson, Ampere, and Neumann had established for 

quedtly to confirm through experimentation. Be- magnets and conductive bodies, James Clerk-Maxwell 

tween 1813 and 1824 Poisson took up the study of (1831-79) was enabled to create a new branch of 

magnetic forces and magnetization by impulsion electro-dynamics, and thereby bring to light the 

ana, in spite of a few inaccuracies which the future long-sought link connecting the sciences of electricity 

was to correct, the formuke which he established and optics. This wonderful discovery was not one 

remain at the basis of all the research of which mag- of the least important conquests of the method defined 

netism has meanwhile been the object. Thanks to* and practised Tby Newton. 

Poisson's memoirs, the theory of the forces exercised AX VII. Molecular Attraction. — While uni- 

in inverse ratio to the square of the distance, by versal atttaction, which varies proportionally as the 

annexing the domain of static electricity and mag- product of the masses and inversely as the square of 

netism, markedlv enlarged the field which at first the distance, was being establish^ throughout the 

included only celestial mechanics. The study of the science of astronomy, and while, thanks to the study 

action of the electric current was to open up to this of other forces also varying inversely as the square 

theory a new and fertile territory. of the distance, electricity and inagnetism were being 

The discoveries of Aloisio Galvani (1737-98) and organized, other parts of physics received no less 

Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) enriched physics with light from another Newtonian hypothesis, namely, 

the voltuc battery. It would be impossible to enu- the supposition that, between two material particles, 

merate, even briefly, the researches occasioned by this there is an attraction distinct from universal attrac- 

discovery. All physicbts have compared the con- tion and extremely powerful, while the two particles 

ductor, the seat of a current, to a space in which a are contiguous, but ceasing to be appreciable as soon 

fluid circulates. In his works on hydrodynamics as the two masses which it acts upon are separated 

Euler had established general formulae which apply by a sensible distance. '^ Among the phenomena to be 

to the motion of all fluids and, imitating Euler s explained by such attractions, Newton had already 

method. Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) signalized the effect of capillarity in connexion with 

began tne study of the circulation of heat— -then con- which Francis Hauksbee (d. 1705) had made inter- 

sidered a fluid and called caloric — within conductive esting experiments. In 1718 James Jurin (1684- 

bodies. The mathematical laws to which he had 1750) tried to follow Newton's idea but without any 

recourse once more showed the extreme importance marked success, and it was Clairaut who, in 1743, 

of the mathematical methods inaugurated by La- showed how hydrostatic methods permitted the 

grange and Laplace in the study of universal attrac- application of this idea to the explanation of capillary 

tion, and at the same time extended by Poisson to the pnenomena. Unfortunately his able reasoning led to 

study of electrostatics. In order to treat mathe- no important result, as he had ascribed too great a 

matically of the circulation of electric fluid in the value to the extent of molecular action, 

interior of conductive bodies, it sufficed to take up Chemical action also was one of the actions which 

Fourier's analysis almost textually, substituting the Newton made subject to molecular attraction, and 

word electricity for the word heat, this being done in John Keill (1671-1721), John Freind (1675-1728), » 

1827 by Georg Simon Ohm (1789-1854). and Pierre-Joseph Macquer (1718-84) believed in the 

Meanwhile on 21 July, 1820, Hans Christian Oer- fruitfuliiess of this Newtonian opinion. The hypothe- 
sted (1777-1851) had discovered the action of the sis of molecular attraction proved a great annoyance 
electric current on the magnetic needle. To this dis- to a man whose scientific mediocrity had not pre- 
covery Andr6-Marie Ampere (1775-1836) added that vented him from acquiring great influence, we mean 
of the action exerted over each other by two conduc- Georges-Ijouis-Leclerc de Buffon (1707-88). Inca- 
tors carrying electric currents and, to the study of pable of .understanding that an attraction could be 
electrondynamic and electro-magnetic forces, he other than inversely proportional to the square of the 
applied a method similar to that used by Newton distance, Buffon entered into a discussion of the sub- 
when studying universal attraction. In 1826 Ampere ject with Clairaut, and fondly imagined that he had 
gave the complete theory of all these forces in his triumphed over the modest learning of his opponent. 




Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, S.J. (1711-87), pub- 
lished a detailed exposition of the views attacked by 
BufTon and defended by Clairaut, and, inspired alike 
by the opinions of Newton and Leibniz, he conceived 
a cosmology in which the universe is composed solely 
of materisdpoints, these being attracted to each other 
in pairs. When these points are separated by a 
sensible distance, their attraction is reduced to mere 
universal attraction, whereas when they are in very 
close proximity it assumes a dominant importance. 
Boscovich's cosmology provided phjrsical theory 
with a programme which the geometricians of the 
eighteenth century, and of a great portion of Uie 
nineteenth, laboured assiduously to carry out. 

The efforts of Johann Andreas von Segner (1704- 
77), and subsequently of Thomaa Young (1773-1829). 
a^ain drew attention to capillary phenomena, ana 
with the assistance of the hypothesis of molecular 
attraction, as also of Clairaut's method, Laplace 
advanced in 1806 and 1807 an admirable theory, 
which Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) improved 
in 1829. Being a thoroughly-convinced partisan of 
Boscovich's cosmolo^cal doctrine, Laplace com- 
municated his convictions to numerous geometricians, 
who surrendered to the ascendency of £j8 genius; we 
shsdl only mention Claude-Louis-Marie Navier (1785- 
1836), Poisson, and Augustm Cauchy (1789-1857). 
In developing the consequences of the hypothesis of 
molecular attraction Navier, Poisson, and Cauchy 
succeeded in building up the theory of the equilibrium 
and small motions of elastic bodies, one of the finest 
and most fruitful theories of modern' physics. The 
discredit into which the progress of present-day 
thermodynamics has brought Boscovich's cosmology 
has, however, affected scarcely anything of what 
Laplace, Gauss, Navier, Poisson, Cauchy, and man^ 
others have deduced from the principles of this 
cosmology. The theories which they established 
have always been readily justified with the assistance 
of new methods, the way of bringing about this justi- 
fication having been indicated by Cauchy himself 
and George Green. After Macquer, manjr chemists 
used the nypothesis of molecular attraction in an 
attempt to disentangle the laws of reaction which 
they studied,^nd among these scientists we may men- 
tion Torbem Bergman (1735-1784), and above all 
Claude-Louis Berthollet (1784-1822). When the 
latter published his ^'Statique chimique'' in 1803, he 
believed that the Science ot chemical equilibria, sub- 
ject at last to Newton's method, had found its true 
direction; however, it was not to enter upon this 
direction until much later on, when it would be guided 
by precepts altogether different and which were to 
be formulated by thermodynamics. 

XXVIII. Revival op the Undulatort Theory 
OF Light. — ^The emission theory of light not only 
led Newton to conceive the hypothesis of molecular 
attraction, but seemed to provide this hypothesis 
with an opportunity for further success by permitting 
Laplace to find, in the emission system, tne laws m 
the double refraction of Iceland spar, which laws 
Huygens had discovered by the use of the undulatory 
theory. In this way Newton's optics appeared to 
rob Huygens's optics of the one advantage m which it 
glorified. However, at the very moment that La- 
place's discovery seemed to ensure the triumph of the 
emission system, the undulatory theory carried off 
new and dazzling victories, won mainly through the 
efforts of Thomas Young and Augustin-Jean Fresnel 
(1788-1827). Between 1801 and 1803 Youn^ made 
the memorable discoveries which provoked this revi- 
val of undulatory optics. The comparison of the ether 
that vibrates in a ray of light to the air that vibrates 
in a resonant tube led him to explain the alternately 
light and dark fringes that show in a place illumined 
by two equal beams slightly inclined to each other. 
Tbie principle of interference, thus justified, allowed 
XIL— 5 

him to connect with the undulatory theory the expla- 
nation of the colours of thin laminae that Newton nad 
demanded of the ''fits of easy transmission and easy 
reflection'' of the particles of li^ht. 

In 1815 Fresnel, who combined this principle of 
interference with the methods devised by Huygens, 
took up the theory of the phenomena of diffraction 
which had been discovered by Francesco Maria Gri- 
maldi, S.J. (1618-63), and had remained a mystery to 
opticians. Fresnel's attempts at explaining these 
phenomena led him to draw up in 1818 a memoir 
which in a marked degree revealed the essential char- 
acter of his genius, namely, a strange power of divina- 
tion exercise! independently of all rules of deductive 
reasoning. Despite the insularity of his procedure, 
Fresnel made known very complicated formuke, the 
most minute details of which were verified by experi- 
ment, and long afterwards justified according to the 
logical method of mathematicians. Never did ph3rsi- 
cist conquer more important and more unthought-of 
truths, and yet never was there employed a method 
more capable of leading the common mmd into error. 
Up to this time the vibrations of ether in a ray of 
light had been supposed to be longitudinal, as it is in 
the air of a resonant tube, but in 1808 Etienne-Louis 
Malus (1775-1812) discovered the polarization of 
light when reflected on glass, and, m 1817, when 
studying this phenomenon. Young was led to suppose 
that luminous vibrations are perpendicular to. the 
ray which transmits them. Fresnel, who had con- 
ceived the same idea^ completed an experiment (1816) 
in collaboration with Arago (1786^1853), which 
proved the view that luminous vibrations are trans- 
verse to the direction of propagation. 

The hypothesis of transverse vibrations was. for 
Fresnel, the key to all the secrets of optics, and from 
the day that he adopted it he made cuscoveries with 
rareat rapidity. Among these discoveries were: (a) 
The complete theory of the phenomena of polarization 
accompanying the reflection or refraction of light on 
the surface of contact of two isotropic media. The 
peculiarities which accompany totai reflection gave 
Fresnel an opportunity to display in a most striking 
manner his strange power of oivination and thus 
throw out a veritable challenge to logic. This divi- 
nation was no less efficient in the second discovery, 
(b). In studying double refraction, Huygens limited 
himself to determining the direction of luminous rays 
in the interior of crystals now called uniaxial^ without, 
however, being able to account for the polarization ot 
t^ese rays; but with the lud of the wave-surf ace^ 
Fresnel succeeded in cpving the most elegant form to 
the law of the refraction of rays in biaxial crystals, 
and in formulating rules by which rays polarize in the 
interior of all crystals, umaxial as well as biaxial. 

Although all these wonderful theories destroyed 
the theory of emission, the hypothesis of molecular 
attraction was far from losing ground. In fact Fresnel 
tiiought he could find in the elasticity of the ether, 
which transmits luminous vibrations, the explanation 
of all the optical laws that he had verified by experi- 
ment, and he sousht the explanation of this elasticity 
and its laws in the attraction which he believed to 
exist between the contiguous particles of this fluid. 
Being too little of a mathematician and too little of a 
mechanician to go very far in the analysis of such a 
problem, he left its solution to his successors. To 
this task, so clearly defined by Fresnel, Cauchy de- 
voted the most powerful efforts of his genius as an 
algebraist and, thanks to this pupil of Laplace, the 
Newtonian physics of molecular attraction became an 
active factor in the propagation of the theory of 
undulatory optics. Fresners discoveries did not 
please all Newtonians as much as they did Cauchy. 
Arago could never admit that luminous vibrations 
were transverse, notwithstanding that he had collab- 
orated with Fresnel in making thQ experiment by 




whi^h this point wafl verified, and Jean-Baptbte Hiot 
(1774-1862), whose experimental researches were 
numerous and skilful, and who had furnished recent 
optics with very valuable matter, remained strongly 
attached to the system of emission by which he 
endeavoured to explain all the phenomena that Fres- 
nel had discovered and explained by the undulatory 
s]^8tem. Moreover, Biot would not acknowledge 
himself defeated, or regard the system of emission as 
condemned until Foucault (1819-^) proved that light 
is propagated much more quickly in air than in water. 

XXEv. Theories op Heat. — ^The idea of the 
(quantity of heat and the invention of the calorimeter 
intendea for measuring the amount of heat emitted or 
absorbed by a body under given circumstances are 
due to Joseph Black (1728-99) and Adair Crawford 
(1749-95), who, by joining calorimetry with ther- 
mometry, veritably created the science of heat, which 
science remained unborn as long, as the only thing 
done was the comparison of temperatures. Like 
Descartes, Newton held that heat consbted in a very 
lively agitation of the smallest parts of which bodies 
are composed. By showing that a certain quantity 
of heat is furnished to ice which melts, without how- 
ever raising the temperature of the ice, that this heat 
remains in a ^'latent state" in the wat^ resulting 
from the melting and that it again becomes manifest 
when the water returns to ice, the experiments of 
Black and Crawford led physicists to change their 
opinion concerning the nature of heat. In it they 
beheld a certain fluid which combines with other 
matter when heat passes into the latent state, and 
separates from it when heat is liberated again, and, 
in the new nomenclature that perpetuated the rev- 
olution brought about by Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier 
(1743-94), this imponderable fluid was assigned a 
place among simple bodies and named caloric. 

Air becomes heated when it is compressed, and 
cools again when rarefied under the receiver of the 
pneumatic machine. Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728- 
77), Horace de Saussure (1740-79), and John Dalton 
(1766-1844) recognized the importance of this already 
old experiment, but it is to Laplace that we are 
indebted for a complete explanation of this phenome- 
non. The experiment proved to Laplace mat, at a 
given temperature, a mass of air contains a quantity 
of caloric proportional to its volume. If we aomit the 
acciu'acy of tne law of compressibilitv enunciated by 
Boyle and Mariotte, this quantity of heat combinea 
vnm a given mass of air, also of given temperature, 
is proportional to the volume of this air. In 1803 
Laplace formulated these propositions in a short note 
inserted in BerthoUet's "Statique chimique". In 
order to verify the consequences which Laplace 
deduced therefrom concerning the expansion of gases, 
Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) began re- 
searches on this subject, and in 1807 on the variations 
of temperature produced when a gas contained in a 
receiver enters another receiver previously empty. 

Laplace's views entail an evident corollary; to 
raise to a certain number of degrees the temperature 
of a ^as of a fixed volume^ the communication of less 
heat IS required than if this gas were expanded under 
an invariable pressure. Hence a gas ^mits of two 
distinct kinds of specific heat which depend on 
whether it is heated at constant voliune or under 
constant pressure; the specific heat being greater 
in the latter case than in tne former. Through these 
remarks the study of the specific heat of gases was 
signalized as one of the most important in which 
experimenters could engage. The Institute made this 
study the subject of a competition which called forth 
two notable memoirs, one by Delaroche and B^rard 
on the measurement of the specific heats of various 
gases under constant pressure; and the other by 
Desormes and Clement, published in 1812, (» the de- 
termination of the increase of heat due to a given com- 

pression in a given mass of air. The experiments 
of Desormes and Clement enabled Laplace to deduce, 
in the case of air, the ratio of specific lieat under con- 
stant pressure to specific heat under constant volume, 
and hence to test the ideas he had formed on the 
propagation of sound.- 

In applying to air the law of compressibility dis- 
coverea by Bovle, Newton had attempted to calculate 
the velocity of the propagation of sound in this fluid, 
and the formula which he had established gave values 
very inferior to those furnished by experimental 
determination. Lagrange had alreadv shown that, 
by modifying Boyle^ law of compressibility, this dis- 
agreement could be overcome: however, the modifi- 
cation was to be justified not by what Lagrange said 
but by what Laplace discovered. When sound is 
propagated in air by alternate condensations and 
rarefactions, the temperature at each point instead 
of remaining unchanged, as Boyle's law supposed, 
is alternately raised and lowered about a mean value. 
Hence velocity of sound was no longer expressed by 
the formula Newton had proposed; this expression 
had to be multiplied by the square root of the ratio 
of specific heat under constant pressure to specific 
heat imder constant volume. Laplace had this 
thou^t in mind in 1803 (Berthollet, '^Statique 
chimique'') ; its consequences being developed in 1807 
by Poisson, his disciple. In 1816 Laplace published 
his new formula; fresh experiments by Desormes and 
Clement, and analogous e3n)eriments by Gay-Lussac 
and Welter gave him tolerably exact vsJues of the re- 
lation of the specific heats of gases. Henceforth the 
great geometrician could compare the result given by 
His formula with that furnished by the direct deter- 
mination of the velocity of sound, the latter, in metres 
per second, being represented by the number 340-889, 
and the former by the number 337*715. This agree- 
ment seemed a very strong confirmation of the hypoth- 
esis of caloric and the theory of molecular action, to 
both of which it was attributable. It would appear 
that Laplace had a right to say: ''The phenomena of 
the expansion of heat and vibration of gases lead back 
to the attractive and repellent forces sensible only at 
imperceptible distances. In my theory on capillary 
action, I have traced to similar forces^ the ^ects of 
capillarity. All terrestrial phenomena* depend upon 
this species of force, just as celestial phenomena 
depend upon universal gravitation, and the study of 
these forces now seems to me the principal object 
of mathematical philosophy'' (written in 1823). 

In 1824 a new truth was formulated from which was 
to be developed a doctrine which was to overturn, 
to a great extent, natural philosophy as conceived by 
Newton And Boscovich and carriea out by Laplace 
and his (usciples. However, Sadi Camot(1796-1832), 
the author of this new truth, still assumed the cor- 
rectness of the theory of caloric. He proposed 
to extend to heat-engines the principle of the impossi- 
bihty of perpetual motion recognized for engines of 
unchfm^ng temperature, and was led to the following 
conclusion: In order that a certain quantity of caloric 
may produce work of the kind that human industry 
requires, this caloric must pass from a hot to a cold 
body; when the quantity of caloric is given, as well 
as tne temperatures to which these two bodies are 
raised, the useful work produced admits of a superior 
limit independent of the nature of the substances 
which transinit the caloric and of the device by means 
of which the transmission is efi'ected. The moment 
that Camot formulated this fertile truth, the founda- 
tions of the theory of caloric were shaken. However, 
in the hypothesis of caloric, how could the ^neration 
of heat by friction be explained? Two bodies rubbed 
together were found to be just as rich in caloric as 
they had been; therefore, whence came the caloric 
evolved by friction? 

As early as 1783 Lavoisier and Laplace were much 


troubled by the problem, which also arrested the at- JuUie, depuis la RenaUaanct dea Lettrt* junqu'tk h Jin du X Vlf 

tention of physicists; as in 1798 when Benjamin ^ •^tJ''^\Z^^l2^'i^P ^/"muii: Jf^i^l'^L^^ii^Z 

Thompson, i^unt Kumiord (176*-l5l4). made ac- Pascau (Euvtm, ed. Bbunschvico and Boumoux- (3 vols.. 

curate experiments on the heat evolved by friction, Paris, 1008): Rousb Ball, An EB»ay on Newton*» Frindpia 

and, in 1799, when similar experiments were made by (London ^^d New^ Yorit. 1893) ; Mhnoiret but VEUctrodyna^ 

Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829). In 1803, beside p^ynmu, II-III (Paris, 1885-7); Sub Ainb, HUt. duGahaniHme 

4he notes m which Laplace . announced some of the el amuyae de» diffiren$ ouvragts publiU 9wr eelte dieowtertA, depuit 

greatest conquests of the doctrine of caloric, Bei^ V7jf^^oV^V^'^ "^ ^*^" ^f T.^^' ^"!J^' »» x (i802)--an 

ru^il^4> :..!.:«<< Q4»«;^.,A^u;»«;^..A>> »«^r«. «.« »»^..^« ^r XIII (1803); Thirion, Pascal, Vhorreur du nde et la presaton 

thollet, m his Statique Chunique , gave an account of almotphSrigue in Revue des Quest, scien., 3rd series: XII (1907). 

Rumfords experiments, trying m vam to reconcile 384; xili (1908), 149; XV (1909). 149;Thdrot. RediereheM 

them with the prevaihng opinion. Now these ex- ^^^' '^'' H ^^J^n'i^^'^iS^%rK'it^a^^^^ 

.^•:»«^n«^o «,k;^k »rA«» ;,>»^««.^«f ;u1a ™.;*u *u« u^.^^^u senes, Pans). XVIII (1868), 389 XIX (1869), 42; III, 284, 345 

penmentS, which were incompatible with the hypoth- XX (1809), 14; Todhuntbb, a Hi^. of Malhematieal Theories 

esis that heat is a fluid contained m a quantity in of AUmclion and the Figure of the Earth from time of Nevoion to 

each body, recalled to mind the supposition of '*^ ^'^^.'^^^ J? y^^* ^"*i?°v^®.P^: T^^ 

rww.»«.#^ J.^^ xr<,«r4-^,^ «,>k;»k »1«:.v«»^ wJL* ♦« K« - son, ^ //w<. fl/<A< Theory o/Ff<Mact/w (2 vols., Cambndije, 1880- 

Descartes and Newton, which claimed heat to be a 93); Vknturi. CommeT^tari aopra la Storica e U Teorie detV 

very lively agitation of the small particles of bodies. OUica (Bologna, 1814); Verdbt, introduction aux (Euvres d'Aw 

It was in favour of this view that Rumford and Davy ?*"'»» ^'•"^' J Jf^?™* ^S^Zl^lo^^'t « V*"'*' ^if *?5S^^i?' 

£^^11.. J^^i^..^ «u^»..»vi...w, ^' li^re V. d. ElektrtcttOt, 2nd ed. (3 vols., Brunswick, 1893-5); 

tmaUy declared themselves. Wohlwill, D, Entdeekung d. BeharrungsgeseUes in Zeilsehrift f. 

In the last years of his life Camot consigned to Vdlkerpsychohgie u. Sprachwissenschafl (Beriin), XIV (1883) 

paper a few notes which remained unpublished until 365; XV (i^), 70. 337; Idem. Galilei u. seinKampf /. d. 

187«. In these notes he rejected the theory of ca- ^^>p«^«»'»«^ ^'^ (Hamburg and Leipsig. 1909). 
loric as inconsistent with Rumford's experiments. Pierre Duhem. 

"Heat", he added, "is therefore the result of motion. 

It is q[uite plain that it can be produced by the con- PhjBiocratB (0jiJ<rtf, nature, ^poTcir, rule), a school 

sumption of motive power and that it can produce of writers on political and economic subjects that 

this power. Wherever there is destruction of^motive flourished in France in the second half of the eigh- 

power there is, at the same time, production of heat teenth century, and attacked the monopolies, exclu- 

m a quantity exactly proportionid to the quantity sive corporations, vexatious taxes, and various other 

of motive power destroyed; and inversely, wherever abuses which had grown up under the mercantile sys- 

there is destruction of heat, there is production of tem. Statesmen of the mercantile school in France 

motive power''. and elsewhere had adopted a system of tutelage which 

In 1842 Robert Mayer (1814-78) found the princi- often gave an artificial growth to industry but which 

pie of the equivalence between heat and work, and pressed, hardly upon agriculture. The physiocrats 

showed that once the difference in two specific heats proposed to advance the interests of agnculture by 

of a gas is known, it is possible to calculate the me- adopting a system of economic freedom. Laissez 

chanical value of heat. This value differed little faire et uiissez passer was their watchword. Franyois 

from that found by -Camot. Mayer's pleasing work Quesnay (1694-1774), physician to Mme de Ponrrpa- 

exerted scarcely any more influence on the progress of dour and Louis XV, founded the school (1758). The 

the theory of heat than did Camot's unpublished term "physiocracy** was probably used by Ques- 

notes. However, in 1843 James Prescott Joule nay to convey the idea that the new system provides 

(1818-89) was the next to discover the principle of the for the reign of the natural law. Quesnay and his 

equivalence between heat and work, and conducted disciples were called iconomistes by their contempo- 

several of the experiments which Carnot in his notes raries; the term physiocralea was not used until the 

had requested to have made. Joule's work com- beginning of the nineteenth century, 
municated to the new theory a frcah impetus. In rolUioal Philosophy. — In metaphysics Quesnay was 

1849 William Thomson, afterwards Loni Kelvin a follower of Descartes and borrowed from him the 

(1824-1907), indicated the necessity of reconciling mathematical method used in his '^ Tableau Econ- 

Camot's principle with the thenceforth incon- omique". He accepted a modified form of the natural 

testable principle of the mechanical equivalent of rights theor^c which pervades eighteenth-century lit- 

heat; and in 1850 Rudolf Clausius (1822-88) accom- erature and gave it an optimistic interpretation. He 

plished the task; thus the science of thermodynamics emphasizes the distinction between the natural order 

was founded. When in 1847 Hermann von Helmholtz {ordre nalurel) and the positive order (ordre posilif). 

published his small work entitled ** Ueber die Erhal- The first is founded upon the laws of nature which are 

tung der Kraft", he showed that the principle of the the creation of God and which can be discovered by 

mechanical equivalent of heat not only established reason. The second is man-made; when its laws 

a bond between mechanics and tlie theory of heat, coincide with those of the natural order the world 

but also Unked the studies of chemical reaction, will be at its best. He objected to the natural rights 

electricity, and magnetism, and in this way physics philosophers of his day that they concerned themselves 

was confronted with the carrying-out of an entirely only with the nositive order to the neglect of the 

new programme, whose results are at present too natural. He held that primitive man upon entering 

incomplete to be judged even by scientists. society does not give up any of his natural rights, 

AutAOii, La doUrina della marea nrW antichitd daesica et thus taking issue with RoUSSeau's theory of the SOcial 

jfl^^'m™* ^^Ks.^r!2.ii?^K'\^i^"^i'^'^i^ ,^ contract. From his optimistic doctrines concerning 

Ltncet (It)me, lllOo); Cavebni. !:>.jria del metoJo npertmentale xli r a\. a tji-jj l-ja* 

in Italii (Florence, 1891-8); Duu :m. Lea theories de la chaieur the laws Of the natural Order he deduces his doctnue 

in Rerue des Deux Mondes (1895), CXXIX, 869; CXXX, of latssez faire. Economic evils arise from the monop- 

iSm ^!^ Jt^lL dl*u^Li^('t'.J!*TJ2^^o^^!^^. T?!?2' olies and restrictions of the positive order; statesmen 

IDEM, l/ss ong*nes ae la HUUique {2 vols., rans, lOJo-o); Idem, l ij • a t. • xi_ 'a* j -xi ^l 

Etudes sur Uonard de Vinei, ceux qn'ii a tut ct ceux qui Vont^u should aim to harmonize the positive order With the 

(2 vols., Paria, 1906^); Idem, La thiorir ph'jnique, son objet natural by abolishing these excrescences. The state 

S«5 sTSTLi^i^Shie '¥1^ XliJirpi^^JlTJusi «^«Hld withdraw its support, from the attempts of 

(P»ria. 1008); DtJaajira, Kritische Gesch, d. allg, Mechanik (2nd special interests to bolster up industry artificially. In 

•d., Leipnc, 1877); Hslleb, Qesch, d. Phynk v. AHHoteies bis the language of the physiocrats, **He governs best 

laii^rSS i^ AarX"-l/i^;liJ.>"u:=^';3;;^ 'TJ'o governs least-. Although ,Jtimately their prin- 

Mtisnus (16 vols., Berlin, 1893-1904); Jouquet, Lectures de ciples proved favourable to the Revolution, Quesnay 

Mieanique, La Mieanique enseignie par lea auteura oriqinanx and his disoiples Were in favOUr of an absolute mon- 

1? J^ik ^*^iJ2?!^l* ^fm' R' :i*?'**^fe'i^''• ,^^'^'^'"»*' archy subject only to the laws of the ** natural order '*. 

Atitortscn i*. krUxseh dargeatelU (Leipzig, 1872); L\mswitx, rr«i -j j*^Li'A iji_ • a i 

Oeseh. d. Atomistik vom Mittelalter bis Newton (2 vols.. H im'jurg Ihey considered that it would be easier to persuade 

%Dd Leipsig, 1890); Libki, //t«t. des Sciences maihimatiiuea en a prince than a nation and that the triumph of their 


principles would be sooner secured by the sovereign which the importance of agriculture is recognized and 

power of a single man. the doctrine of produit net developed. The elder 

Economic Doctrine. — Quesnay divides the citizens Mirabeau was Quesnay's first disciple. His "Phi- 

of a nation into three classes: the productive, which losophie rurale" (1763) gained disciples. Dupont 

cultivates the soil and pays a rent to the landed pro- de Nemours, who later exerted considerable influence 

prietors, the proprietors (Turgot's claase disponible). in the Constituent Assembly in the discussions on tax- 

who receive the rent or net product (produit net) of ation, wrote several works in defence of the system; 

agriculture, and the barren (classe 8tMe), which com- Other important writers were Baudeau^ Mercier de la 

prises those engaged in other occupations than that Riviere, and Letrosne. The most emment of Ques- 

of agriculture, and produces no surplus. For example, nay's disciples was Turgot, who, as Intendant of 

in a country producing five billions of agricultural Limoges and afterwards as minister of finance under 

wealth annually, two billions will go to the proprie- Louis XVI, attempted to apply some of the physio> 

tors as rent. With this the proprietors will buy one cratic principles practically (Reflexions sur la^forma- 

billion's worth of agricultural products and one bil- lion et la distribution des richesses, 1766). Outside 

lion'sworthof the manuf acturea products of the barren of France the school had not many disciples. The 

class. The productive class also will buy one billion's best known are the Swiss Iselin and the German 

worth of the products of the barren class. The barren Schlettwein. The latter was engaged by the Margrave 

class will spend the two billions which it receives in Karl Friedrich of Baden, a friend of Mirabeau, to 

buying one billion's worth of agricultural products introduce the single tax in three villages of Baden, 

upon which to subsist and one billion's worth of raw The experiment, made under unfavourable conditions, 

material to work up into its finished product. Thus was soon abandoned. In Italy the physiocratic school 

the barren class receive two billions and spend two had few followers. In England, on account of the 

billions. The value of their product equals the cost advanced position of trade and industry, it had none, 
of their subsistence plus the cost of the raw material. Criticism. — The principal service of tne physiocrats 

Thus industry and commerce are barren. Agricul- to modem political economy was not the discovery of 

ture is productive, since it supports those who are any one of their doctrines, but their attempt to for- 

engaged in it and produces in addition a surplus. The mulate a science of society out of materials already at 

national welfare depends upon having this surplus hand. It was from this system as a base that Adam 

production as large as possible. In <other woros, a Smith set out to give a new impetus to the study of 

nation will prosper not in proportion as it succeeds economic phenomena. Another important contnbu- 

in getting forei^ money in return for its manufac- tion consisted in calling attention to the weaknesses 

tures, but in proportion to the amount of its net prod- of the mercantile system. Laisaez Jaire was a good 

uct. The mercantilists, therefore, made' a mistake doctrine for the eighteenth century because there was 

in encouraging manufactures and commerce at the need of a reaction, but it was a mistake to set it up 

expense of agriculture. The true policy is to encourage as a universal principle applicable under all condi- 

agriculture. Statesmen of the mercantile school tions. The chief weakness in the physiocratic teach- 

thought it desirable to have cheap food so that the ing lay in its theory of value. While agriculture brings 

home industries could compete with the foreign and forth the raw material of production, commerce and 

thus the nation might secure a favourable balance of manufactures are equally productive of wealth. In a 

trade which would bring money into the country, sense^ the physiocrats recognized this, but they held 

The physiocrats rejected the balance of trade argu- that m producing this wealth the manufacturing and 

ment and held that dear food was desirable because commercial classes use up an equivalent amount of 

this meant the prosperity of agriculture and the swell- value. This is a gratuitous assumption, but even if 

ing of the net product. Quesnay even held that under true' the same thing could be said of the so-called 

some circumstances it might be desirable to levy a proauctive class. Moreover, if wages were governed 

duty on imported agricultural products or to grant by the "iron law" both in agriculture and in manu- 

an export bounty in order to keep up prices. Holding factures and commerce, as the physiocrats assume, the 

that the incomes received by the productive and sterile " net product " would be made up of wealth created by 

classes were just sufficient for their support, the phys- the commercial and manufacturing classes as well as 

iocrats believed that any tax levied upon the members by the agricultural class. The theory of the imp&t 

of either of these classes must be shifted until it finally unique or single tax rested upon the assumption that 

fell upon the net product belonging to the proprietors, all incomes, except those of the proprietors, were at 

In the interest of economy of administration, there- the existence minimum. Since this is not true, it is 

fore, they urged that a single tax be levied upon rent, also not true that all taxes levied upon the other classes 

This was their celebrated impdt unique. The proposal will ultimately be paid by the proprietors, 
was somewhat similar to the more recent demands of Hiaos, The PhysiocnUa (London, 1897) ; Onckcn, (Euvret 

Henry George for a single tax. The physiocrats f «»««»«»ffi^ «rf Mt/o«opA*«w«« d« Fr. Qi*^ 

iTx i. X 4. A 1 J J '2. K'/j""^*"*-" Idem in Handicdrterbuch d. SkuUttPUsentcha/len, 8. v. Quetnay; 

sought to protect the landed propnetors, while Oeorge Habbach, D. allg. philotophinchen Grundlagen d. von F. Que»nay 

wished to expropriate them. u. A, Smiik begrUndeten politiscKen Oekonomie (Leipgig, 1890). 

The School. — Most of the ideas of the phy^ocratic p. |n.,Tx 

school are found in earlier writings. The expression r rank u uara. 

laissez faire is said to have been used by a French 

merchant, Legendre, in answering a question ad- Phy8iologU8» an early Christian work of a popular 

dressed by Colbert to a gathering of merchants con- theological type, describing animals real or fabulous 

ceming the needs of industry. T^e idea is developed and giving each an allegoncal interpretation. Thus 

in the writings of Bois-Guillebert (1712) and the policy the story is told of the lion whose cubs are bom dead 

was advocated by the Marquis d'Argenson in 1735. and receive life when the old lion breathes upon them, 

Goumay, a contemporary of Quesnay, seems to have and of the phoenix which bums itself to death and 

originated the extended expression laissez faire et riseson the third day from the ashes; both are taken 

laissez passer. This formula called for freedom of as t3rpe8 of Christ. The unicorn also which only per- 

intemal commerce and manufacture. Some critics mits itself to be captured in the lap of a pure virgin 

hold that Goumay is equally entitled with Ouesnay is a type of the Incarnation; the pelican that sheds 

to be called the founder of the physiocratic school q^ its own blood in order to sprinkle therewith its dead 

account of the currency which he gave to the doctrine young, so that they may live again, is a type of the 

of freedom of trade. Other sources are Hume's criti- salvation of mankind by the death of Christ on the 

cism of the balance of trade theory, and Cantillon, Cross. Some allegories set forth the deceptive entice- 

"Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en G6n6ral", in ments of the Devil and his defeat by Christ; others 




present qualities as examples to be imitated or avoided, 
llie book, originally written in Greek at Alexandria, 
perhaps for purposes of instruction, appefu^ prob- 
ably in the second century, though some place its date 
at the end of the third or in the fourth century. In 
later centuries it was ascribed to various celebrated 
Fathers, especially St. Epiphanius, St. Basil, and St. 
Peter or Alexandria. Origen, however, had cited it 
under the title *' Physiologus", while Clement of Alex- 
andria and perhaps even Justin Martyr seem to have 
known it. The assertion that the ' method of the 
'* Physiologus" presupposes the allegorical exegesis 
developed by Origen is not correct; the so-called 
"Letter of Barnabas" offers, before Origen, a suffi- 
cient model, not only for the general character of the 
"Physiologus" but also for many of its details. It 
can hardly be asserted that the later recensions, in 
which the Greek text has been preserved, present even 
in the best and oldest manuscripts a perfectly reUable 
transcription of the original, especially as this was an 
anonymous and popular treatise. "Physiologus" is 
not the original title; it was given to the book because 
the author introduces his stories from natural history 
with the phrase: "the physiologus says", that is, the 
naturalist says, the natural philosophers, the author- 
ities for natural history say. About 400 the "Physi- 
ologus" was translatea into Latin; in the fifth cen- 
tury into ^tUopic [edited by Hommel with a German 
translation (Leipzig, 1877), revised German transla- 
tion in "Komanische Forschungen", V, 13-36]; into 
Armenian [edited by Pitra in "Spicilegium Soles- 
mense". III, 374-90; French translation by Cahier 
in " Nouveaux Melanges d'arch^ologie, d'histoire et de 
litt^rature" (Paris, 1874)1; into Syrian [edited by 
Tychsen, "Physiologus Syrus" (Rostock, 1795), a 
later Syrian and an Arabic version edited by Land in 
"AnecdotaSyriaca", IV (Leyden, 1875)]. Numerous 
Quotations and references to the "Physiologus" in 
tne Greek and the Latin Fathers show that it was one 
of the most generally known works of Christian antiq- 
uity. Various translations and revisions were cur- 
rent in the Middle Ages. The earliest translation into 
Latin was followed by various recensions, among 
them the "Dicta Johannis Chrysostomi de naturis 
bestiarum", edited by Heider in "Archiv ftir Kunde 
osterreichischer Geschichtsquellen" (II, 550 sqq., 
1850). A metrical Latin "Physiologus" was written 
in the eleventh century by a certain Theobaldus, and 
printed by Morris in "An Old English Miscellany" 
(1872), 201 sqq.; it also appears among the works of 
Hildebertus Cenomanensis in P. L., CLaXI, 1217-24. 
To these should be added the literature of the "Bes- 
tiaries " (q. v.), in which the material of "Physiologus " 
was used; the "Tractatus de bestiis et alius rebus", 
attributed to Hugo of St. Victor; and the "Speculum 
naturale" of Vincent of Beauvais. 

Translations and adaptations from the Latin intro- 
duced the "Physiologus into almost all the languages 
of Western Europe. An eleventh-century German 
translation was printed by Mullenhoff and Scherer in 
"Denkm&ler deutscher Poesie und Prosa" (No. 
LXXXI); a later translation (twelfth century) has 
been edited by Lauchert in "Geschichte des Physi- 
ologus" (pp. 280-99); and a rhymed version appears 
in Karaian, "Deutsche Sprachdenkmale des XII. 
Jahrhunderts" (pp. 73-106), both based on the Latin 
text known as * ' Dicta Chrysostomi ' ' . Fragments of a 
ninth-century Anglo-Saxon "Physiologus , metrical 
in form, still exist; they are printed by Thorpe in 
"Codex Exoniensis" (pp. 355-67), and by Grein in 
"BibHothek der angelsachischen Poesie" (I, 233-8). 
About the middle of the thirteenth century there ap- 
peared an English metrical "Bestiary", an adaptation 
of the Latin " Physiologus Theobaldi " ; this has been 
edited by Wright and Halliwell in "Reliquiae anti- 
quffi" (I, 20^27), also by Morris in "An Old English 
Miscellany" (1-25). Icelandic literature includes a 

"Physiologus" belonging to the early part of the 
thirteenth century, edited by Dahlerup (Copenhagen, 
1889). In the twelfth and thirteenth century there 
appeared the "Bestiaires" of Phihppe de Thaim, a 
metrical Old-French version, edited by Thomaq 
Wright in "Popular Treatises on Science Written 
during the Middle Ages" (74-131), and by Walberg 
(Lund and Paris, 1900); that by uuillaume, clerk of 
Normandy, called "Bestiaire divin", and edited by 
Cahier in his "Melanges d'arch^logie" (II-IV), also 
edited by Hippeau (Caen, 1852), and by Reinsch 
(Leipzig, 1890); the "Bestiaire" of Gervaise, edited 
by PaulMeyer in "Romania" (I, 420-42); the "Bes- 
tiaire" in prose of Pierre le Picard, edited by Cahier 
in "Melanges" (II-IV). A singular adaptation is 
found in the old Waldensian literature, ana has been 
edited by Alfons Mayer in "Romanische Forschun- 
gen" (V, 392 sqqO- As to the Italian bestiaries, a 
Tosco-Venetian **JBestiarius" has been edited (Gold- 
staub and Wendriner, "£in tosco-venezianischer Bes- 
tiarius", Halle, 1892). Extracts from the "Physiol- 
ogus" in Provencal have been edited by Bartsch, 
"ProvenzalischesLesebuch" (162-66). The "Physi- 
ologus" survived in the Uteratures of Eastern Europe 
in books on animals written in Middle Greek, among 
the Slavs to whom it came from the Byzantines, and 
in a Roumanian translation from a Slavic original 
(edited by Gaster with an Italian translation in 
" Archivio glottologico italiano", X, 273-304). Medi- 
eval poetical literature is full of allusions to the 
"Physiologus", and it also exerted great influence on 
the symbolism of medieval ecclesiastical art; symbols 
like those of the phcenix and the pelican are still 
well-known and popular. 

Lauchert, Geteh. a. PAysioIogtMCStraabur^, 1880), supplemented 
in Romaniseht Forschungen, V, 3-12, and in ZeUachnft fOr kath' 
olische Theoloffie, XXXIII (1909). 177-79; Kkppleb. D. miUel^ 
alterliehe Phyaiologtu in Arehiv fUr chri^ Kunst, IX (1891), n. 2-4, 
pp. 14-10. 23-4. 32-6; Michael, Geseh. d. detOsehen Volkes, III 



Freiburg, 1903). 413-17 ; Pitra in Spicilegium Soleamenttt 
11 (Paris, 1855), 338-73; Karnejev. D. Phynologusd. Moskauer 
Rynodalhibliothek in BytantiniscKe ZeUachrift, III (1894), 26-63; 
Peters, D. griechische Physiologu* u. »eine orxnUaliaehen Uther^ 
teitungen (Berlin, 1898); the Latin text has been edited by 
Cahier and Martin, Milangea d'arcfUologie, d'hiat. et de litt.^ 
II-IV (Paris, 1851-66); Goldbtaetb, D. Physiclogua u. seine 
Weiierbildung heaondert in d. lateinischen u. byzantini»ehen Lit, 
in Philologua, suppIemenUry vol. VIII (1901). 337-404; Krum- 
bacher, Gesch. d, byzantintschen Lit. (2nd ed., Munich, 1897), 
874-77; Strztgowski, D. Bilderkrei* d. griechiachen Physiologua 

in Byxantiniacke* Archiv, II (Leipzig, 1899); Leitschuh, Geach, 
d. karolingiachen Malerei (Berlin, 1894), 405 aq. ; Schuid, 
Christ. Symbole aiu alter u. neuer Zeit (2nd ed., Freiberg, 1909); 
Drbves, D. Jagd d. Einhoma in Stimmen aua Marta-Laach, 
XLIII (1892), 60-76. 

Fbiedrich Lauchert. 

Piac6ZUBa» Diocese of (Placentinensis), in Emi- 
ha, central Italy. The city is situated on the right of 
the Po, near its junction with the Trebbia. in an im- 
portant strategic position. Agriculture is the chief in- 
dustry. The cathedral is of the ninth century; it was 
remodelled by Santa da Sambuceto and others (1122- 
1223) in beautiful Lomb^d style. The campanile, 
over 216 feet high, is surmounted by an angel, in brass*, 
the cupola is a more recent part of the edifice; there 
are frescoes by Guercino and by Morazzone, Ludovico 
Caracci, Procaccino, and others. Its Cappella del 
Crocifisso has an arch with statues of Nero and of 
Vespasian; the Cappella di S. Corrado has an admi- 
rable Madonna by Zitto di Tagliasacchi, and contained 
once a picture of St. Ck>nrad by Lanfranco, but it was 
taken to France. Among the churches is S. Antonio 
(fourth century), many times restored j until 877 it 
was the cathedral; in 1183 the prelimmaries of the 
Peace of (Constance were concluded in this church; 
here also are paintings by Procaccino, Mulinaretto, 
Novoloni etc.; the sacristy contains a triptych with 
the gesta of S. Antonio. In the pastor's residence of S. 
Andrea there is an ancient mosaic. S. Bartolommeo, 
formerly a church of the Jesuits, contains besides its 
beautiful paintings two crucifixes, one very ancient. 

beautiful oolunuia, but tun h^rn dnfipircd by inmo- 
0uou« reetonUiofw; it omtaiiut a Pirts by Brtaardo 
Caat«Ui, > kfadooiu by Fraona, and the tomb cf the 

UkrvMtni io Canali (1320), fomrthr ei thr. Tannlan. 
and later of the Dofninkma, 
by iti! reetorUiona; it contains atatuea ot Pfoa 
beot^ri XI.UM-UMiibof the Seoiti family and of the 
physrun Guli^liiwi da .Saliceto. H. Sarino (903) waa 
rH(t/iml srvpraJ timra and entirely tranrfonned in the 
eigtitM'nUi •ralur^; ronoeriy thne na a monastery 
anaexoi to il ; in lU mxnt icatoratioas, paintitig* of 
the fourteenth century were diacorered, aod also pil- 
Un and other Meulptures of the original oonatnietiotL 
. ■• wefl •• nuaairfl, > crucifix earved io wood, aod 
Other objerta. Oulnde the city the DKNUWtery ot the 
PiiMJiii III BenedirtinFs, S. Sisto, foimded in 874 by 
Queen AwlberKa. i> a Tcritable nitctuaij of art; the 
lammw Sutine Ma- 
donna by Kaphad, 
was fiisi here, but 

Hanta Maria in 
Canipagna containa 
a very ancient statue 
in njaible of Our 
Lady, four atatuea 
in wood by Hermann 

painlinznby Procae- 
eino. Pordenone, 
G uerdno, and others. 

The Palazzo Du- 
eale, a work irf Vi- 
icniila (\S.Vi>. has 
Minn- 1 SOO Nerved as a 
foarru-kfl. The Pa- 
lazzo AnKuiMHola da 
flrazzano contains 
fine painting. The 
Palazzo Braodini haa 
a gallery otyaintiit^ 
by Corregpo, Rem, Guercino, Andres del Sarto, and 
MuriUo. The Palazzo Lsndicontainspaintinssby Van 
I>yek. ThePalazzoPalaBtreliihasalibraryoTworkson 
tM hiiitory of Fiacenia. Cardinal Alberoni eetablinhed 
in this town a famous college. Ita church haspaintings 
byPaoloVeronese,GuidoReni,au'lother8. llienazsa 
de Cavalli ha« e<|ueRtrian statues of Aleaeandro and 
of Kanuceio I, Kameee, by Mocchi da Montevarchi. 

Plncentia, with Cremona, was founded in 218 d. c, 
to hold in cheek the Gaulu after their defeat near 
Claatidium, The Via Emilia terminated there. 
Keipio, defeated near the Trebbio, retreated to this 
Uiwu. In 20ti it was besieged in vain by Ilaadrubal 
and burned by the GauU in 200. There Emperor 
(nhu defeated Vitelliiu (69) and then Aurelian was 
di^eated by the Alamanni (271); there also Emperor 
Orestea was decapitated (467). The Lombards took 
poaaesHion of it, at the beginning (rf their invasion, and 
thereafter it remained in their power. From the ninth 
century the temporal power was in the hands of the 
liiHhops, until the twelfth century, when the town be- 
came a commune, governed by consuls, and later 
(IISS), by a podeeUi. In the wars between the Lom- 
bard cities and with the emperors, I^aeenaa was an 
ally of Milan, on account of its hatred of Cremona and 
uf Pavia; wherefore it was Guelph and a party to both 
of the Lombard leazuee. Twice, Uberto Palai-icino 
made himaelf lord of the city (1254 and 1261), but the 
fr«e commune waitre-cstabbshed. Froml290 to 1313, 
Alberto Scotti was lord of Piacenxa ; his rule had many 
hiterruptions, as in 1308, by Guido dells Torre of 
Milan, in 1312, by Henry VII. The latter'i vicar, 

eipelM by the ponlifica] 

b^ate Beilraado del Pooetlo (1322-35). In 1338 
riaoenaa came again xut&t Ibe niie of the dukea of 
Milan; between 1404 and 1418 tbey were eompdlcd to 
retake the city on Tarious oecMkna. In 1447 there 
«■• a new atlcfiqit to ii mlalirwli iiuJepeiKlait gov* 
enunent. The fortnnes of war gave Fiaeenxa to the 
H(dy Ser in 1512; in 1545 it was onited to-tfae new 
Duchy of Paraw. After tlw aiziamiiialiiai of Pier 
Luigi Fanwae, which oceurred at naemza (1547), the 
city was occupied by the troops cf the imperial gov- 
emtsr of Milan and was not mtond to the I>och; of 
Parma for ten yemn. In 1746 the Aostrians obtained 
a great vietoty thoe over the French and Spai&arda, 
and in 1799 the Ruwans and Austmu defeated the 
Ftenefa. SmpiAeoii made Lebrun Duke of nacaua. 
St. Antonius, who is sud to have belonged to the 
Theban Legion, suffoed mar^rdam at Piaceiua, in the 
■eeood or third centuiy. The first known bialxqi is 
St. Victor, preeent at 
the Council of Sar- 
diea (343); St. Sa- 
vinus, present at 
Aquileia (3S1), waa 
probably the Savinus 
to iriiom St. Am- 
brose wrote sevnal 
lettcis. Other biah- 
(^M were St. Mau- 
rus, St. Flavianua, 
Whether the emperor 
of this name intended 
to become Kshopof 

tain; be wan not its 
bishop, having been 
kiUed soon after his 
abdication. Joannes 
was acontempwary 
of St. Gn^ory the 
Great; Thomae (737) 

with King Luit- 
was honoured with a metiical cfntanh; Guido (904), a 
man of arms rather than of the Church; Boso (940) 
freed himself from thejuiiadictionof the metropolitan 
See of Ravenna (re-established by Gregoiy V), aod be- 
came the antipopeJohnXVl;t^etn)(l03I)wasexikdto 
Germany by Conrad n;Dioniaio waad^oeedin 1076 
by Gregory VII; St. BoaiM> (1088), who bad beok 
Bishop of Sutri and agreataupporto-of GregoirVII, 
waa killed in 1089; during the incumboicy of Aldo 
(1096), Emilia waa temporarily taken from the juris- 
diction ot Ravenna; Anluino (1118) founded the new 
cathedral; Ugo (1155), a nephew of Anacletua II, was 
driven from his diocese by the schismatics; under Ai- 
diuone (1102) and Grumerio (1199) grave oonten- 
tiona he^ua between the clerey and the consuls, and 
Grumerio was driven from the diocese; Ortaodo da 
Cremona, O.P., was mortally wounded by a Catha- 
riat while preaching (1233); P. Alberto Pandom 
(1243), an AuKustinian; Pietro FUargo (1386) became 
Pope Alewicter V; Pietro Maineri (1388) wax for- 
merly the phyncian of Galeaiio II; Braoda Castig- 
Uone (1404) was a professor of law at Pavio, and took 

S-t in the conciliabulum of Pisa aod in the Council of 
oatance, and became a cardinal; Alessio da Sin^no 
(1412) waa a famoua preacher; Fabriiio Marhani 
(1476) was veiT lealoua for the reform of morals in the 
clergy and ia the people; Cardinal Scaramuaia Trivul- 
«io (1519); Ctttalano Trivulzio (1525); Cardinal Gio- 
vanni Bernardino Scotti (1559) waa a very learned 
Tbeatine; the Bl, Paolo Burali (1570), a Theatine, be- 
came a cardinal; Cardinal ¥lIippo Se«a (1578); Alea- 
eandro Sc^pi (1627) was obliged to leave the duchf 




for having excommunicated the duke, Odoardo; 
Alessandrp Pisani's election (1766) was on6 of the 
causes of dissension with the Holy See; Stefano Fallot 
de Beaumont (1807) was present at the national 
council of Paris (1810). Bl. Ck>rrado (d. at Noto in 
1351) was from Piacenza. The councils of Piacenza 
were those of 1076 (concerning the schismatics against 
Gregory VII), 1090 (Urban II acainst the concubi- 
nage of the clergy, and in favour of the crusade), 1132 
(Innocent II against Answletus II). There were ten 
synods under Bishop Marliani (147^1508). 

In 1582 the dioceSe was ihade a suffragan of Bo- 
logna; it is now immediately dependent upon the 
Holy See.. It has 350 parishes, with 310,000 inhabi- 
tants* 1 1 religious houses for men, and 29 for women, 5 
educational establishments for male students, and 18 
for girls, 1 dailv paper, and 1 monthly periodical. The 
diocese has a house of missionaries for emigrants es- 
tablished by the late bishop, Mgr Scalabrini. 

Cappelletti, L€ Chiese d* Italia, XV; Campi, Hisloriaecelenaa- 
tica di Piacenza; PoaaiAU, Memorie storiche di Fiaeenta (12 vols., 
1757-66); Giarblu, StoHa d% Piacenza (2 vols., 1880); Mura- 
TORi, Rerum iuUicarum Ser., XX; Malchiooi (and others), La 
r^fia hazHica di S. Savino in Piacenza (Piacensa, 1903). See also 

U. Benigni. 

University op Piacenza. — Piacenza was the first 
Italian city to apply for a Bull erecting its town- 
schools . into a studium generate, which Bull was 
granted b>r Innocent IV in 1248, and conferred all the 
usual privileges of other studia genercdia; by it the 
power of giving degrees was vested in the Bishop of 
Piacenza. But no practical work was done here until 
1398, when Gian (jialeazzo Visconti, Duke of Mdlan 
and Pavia, refounded the university in his capacity 
of Vicar of the Empire. The University of Pavia was 
« suppressed, as he did not wish to have a university in 
eitlier of his capitals. Gian Galeazzo liberally en- 
dowed Piacenza, organizing a university of jurists as 
well as a university of arts and medicine, each with an 
independent rector. Between 1398 and 1402 seventy- 
two salaried professors are recorded as having lectured, 
including not only the usual professors of theology, 
law, medicine, philosophy, and grammar, but also the 
new chairs of astrology, rnetoric, Dante, and Seneca. 
But this endeavour to establish a large university in a 
small town which had no natural influx of students 
was doomed to failure, and little or no work was done 
after Gian Galeazzo's death in 1402. In 1412 Pavia 
had its university restored, and the subjects of the 
duchy were forbidden to study elsewhere. Piacenza 
then obtained an unenviable notoriety as a market for 
cheap degrees. This traffic was still flourishing in 
1471, though no lectures had been given for sixty 
years. A college of law and a college of arts and 
medicine, however, maintained a shadowy existence 
for many years later. Among the famous teachers at 
Piacenza may be named the jurist Placentinus, 
founder of the law-school at Montpellier (d. there, 
1192); and Baldus (b. 1327), the most famous jurist 
ofhis day (Muratori, "Rer. It. SS.", XX, 939). 

Campi, Hiet. Univer». delle ease ecd. come eeculari di Piacenza, II 
(Piaoenxa. 1651), 187 sq.; Rashdall, Univ. of Bwrope in the Mid- 
dU Agee, II. pt. I (Oxford. 1895). 35. 

C. F. Wemtbs Brown. 

Pianciani, Giambattista, scientist, b. at Spoleto, 
27 Oct.. 1784; d. at Rome, 23 March, 1862. He en- 
tered the Society of Jesus on 2 June, 1805; after 
having received the ordinary Jesuit training he was 
sent to various cities in the Papal States to teach math- 
ematics and physics and finally was appointed pro- 
fessor in the Roman College, where he lectured and 
wrote on scientific subjects for twenty-four years. He 
was an active member of the Accademia d' Arcadia, his 
academical pseudonjrm being "Polite Megaride", of 
the Accademia de* Lincei, and of other scientific soci- 
eties. His scientific labours were abruptly brought to 
an end by the Revolution of 1848; he succeeded, how- 

ever, in making his escape from Rome and having 
come to America he taught dogmatic theology during 
the scholastic year 184^50 at the Jesuit theolo^ate 
then connected with Georgetown College, Washmg- 
ton, D. C. When peace was restored in Rome he re- 
turned thither and from 1851 till his death was en- 
gaged chiefly-in administrative duties and in teaching 
phUosophy both in the Roman College and in the 
Collegio Filosofico of the Universitv of Rome, of which 
latter college he was president during the last iwo 
years of his life. Besides numerous articles on scien- 
tific subjects, especially on electricity and magnetism, 
and on philosophico-religious subjects, he publishea 
the following works: "Istituzioni fisico-cnemiche'' 
(4 vols., Rome. 1833-4); "Elementi di fisico-chi- 
mica" (2 vols., Naples, 1840-41); '^nl^istoriam crea- 
tionismosaicamcommentarius'' (Naples, 1851), which 
he wrote whilst at Georgetown and of which there is 
a German translation by Schdttl (Ratisbon, 1853); 
'^Saggi filoeofici" (Rome, 1855); ''Nuovi saggi filo- 
soficr' (Rome, 1856); "Cosmogonia naturale com- 
parata col Geneei'^ (Rome, 1862). 

SoiOfSBVOGCL, BibL /., VI (Bnisaeb. 1895). 

Edward C. Phillips. 

Pian6 Carpine, Giovanni da, b. at Pian di Carpine 
(now called della Magione), near Perugia, Umbria, 
1182; d. probably in 1252. Having entered the Fran- 
ciscan Order he was a companion of Csesar of Spires, 
the leader of the second mission of the Franciscans to 
Germany in 122 1 . He took a leading part in f oimding 
various new establishments of the order, and was sev- 
eral times provincial in Saxonjr and once in Spain. 
In 1245 Innocent IV^ in comphance with the resolu- 
tions passed at the nrst council of Lyons, entrusted 
Carpine with an embassy to the princes and people of 
Mongolia or Tatary with a view to checking the mva- 
sions of these formidable hordes and eventually effects 
ing their conversion. Carpine set out early in 1246: 
among his companions were Brothers Stephen of 
Bohemia and Benedict of Poland, who were to act as 
interpreters. They were hospitably entertained bv 
Duke Vasilico in Russia, where they read the pope a 
letters to the assembled schismatic bishops, leaving 
them favourably disposed towards reunion. They 
reached Kanieff , a town on the Tatar frontier, early in 
Februaiy.^ The Tatar officials referred them to 
Corenza, commander of the advance guards, who in 
his turn directed them to Batu. Khan of Kipcnak etc., 
then encamped on the banks ot the Volga. Batu com- 
missioned two soldiers to escort the papal envoys to 
Kar&korumj the residence of the Great Khan. They 
reached their destination in the middle of July after a 
journey of indescribable hardships. The death of the 
Great Khan Okkodai made it necessary to defer nego- 
tiations till the end of August when Kuyuk, his suc- 
cessor, ascended the throne. After much delay Ku3ruk 
finally demanded a written statement of the pope's 
propositions. His letter in reply is still preserved. 
Its tone is dignified and not unfnendly, but indepen- 
dent and arrogant. In it he says in substance : '' If you 
desire peace, come before me I We see no reason why 
we should embrace the Christian religion. We have 
chastised the Christian nations because th&/ disob^ed 
the commandments of God and Jenghiz Khan. The 
power of God is manifestly with us." The superscrip- 
tion reads: "Kuyuk, by the power of God, Khan and 
Emperor of all men — ^tothe Great Pope!" Carpine 

Procured a translation of the letter in Arabic and Latin, 
►n their homewsurd journey the envoys halted at the 
former stations, arriving at Kieff (Russia) in June, 1247. 
They were enthusiasticallv received everywhere, espe- 
cially by the Dukes Visilico and Daniel, his brother. 
Carpine's proposals for reunion had been accepted in 
the meantime, and special envoys wel^ to accompany 
him to the papal Court. From a political and religious 
aspect the mission to Tatary proved successful only 




In a remote aense^ but the ambasBadora brought with 
them invaluable mf ormation rerauxling the countries 
and peoples of the Far East. Carpine's written ac- 
count, the first of its kind and remarkable for its 
accuracy, was exhaustively drawn upon by such 
writers as Cantii and Hue (''Travels in Tataiv, 
Thibet and China", 2 vols., 1852). It has been pub- 
lished by d'Azevac: "Jean de Plan de Carpin. Rela- 
tion des Mongols ou Tartares" in "Recueil ae voy- 
ages'', IV (Paris, 1839), and later by Kulb: "Ge- 
schichte der Missionsreisen nach der Mongolei", I 
(Ratisbon, 1860), 1-129. Salimbene, who met Car- 
pine in France, found him "a pleasant man^ of lively 
wit, eloquent, well-instructed, and skilful in many 
things''. Innocent IV bestowed upon him every 
mark of esteem and affection. Having been sent as 
papal legate to St. Louis, King of fiance, Carpine was 
shortly afterwards named Archbishop of Antivari in 

Chronica Fr. Jordani dd Jano in Analerla Franeiscana (Qua- 
raeehi, 1885—), I. 8-18; II. 71; III. 266; Waodimo. SerxpUtre* 
(Rome, 1906), 8. v.; Sbabalca, Suvplemtntum (Rome, 1806), 
a. v.; DA CiVBUA, Storia univeraaU dme miMtione france»cane, I 
(Rome, 1857). 324. aqq.; IV (Rome, 1860). 186; Eubeu Gesch. 
der oberdeutsehen Minoritenprocinx (WQnburg. 1886). 4. 6. 9. 20, 
206; Idbm, Die Bisehdfe atu dem Minoritenorden in tUm, Quarial- 
$dirifi, IV, 207, n. 9; Voiot in Abhandlunoen der philolog.-hislor. 
Klaeee der kUnigl. 9dch». GeeelUch. d, Wiueneeh., V (Leipiic. 1870), 
465 aqq.: Hcc. Chrietianitv in China, Tatary and Thibet, 1, 
(tr., New York, 1897), t; da MAUaNAKO, The L{feofSt. Franeia of 
Aeaiei and a Skeleh of the Franeieoan Order (tr.. New York, 1887). 
444 aqq.; Viatob in Bivdee franeieeainea, V (1901). 505 aqq.. 600 
■gq.; Qolubovich, BiUioUoa bio-bib, dwa Terra Santa, I 
(Quaraeehi, 1906), 190 aqq. Schlaobb, MonooUn/akrten der 
Frantiekaner in Aua alien Zonen {Bilder au» den Mieeionen der 
Franxiakaner in Verg. «. Gegenw.), II, 1-43. 

Thomas Plassicakn. 

Piatto eardinalixiO; an allowance granted by the 
pope to cardinals residmg in curia or otherwise em- 
ployed in the service of the Church, to enable them to 
maintain their dignity with decorum. It was not 
given to cardinals supported in Rome by their sover- 
eign, nor is it accepted by cardinals of noble family. 
The entire allowance was not always |pranted. If the 
cardinsd had other revenues, he received enou^ to 
make up the amoimt of the aJlowance. This desinia- 
tion piatto was first used in the conclave of 1458. Paul 
II fixed the sum at 109 gold florins a month for cardi- 
nals whose revenues were not more than 4000 florins. 
This sum was called ** the poor cardinal's plate ". Leo 
XI intended to proAnde otherwise for the needful 
revenues. Paul V raised the piatto to 1500 scudi a 
vear, for cardinals whose ecclesiastical revenues were 
less than 60(X) scudi. Then the custom was introduced 
of giving 60(X) 8cudi annually to cardinals without ec- 
clesiastical revenues. This sum was reduced in 1726 
to 4000 9cudif as determined in 1464 and 1484, the 
amoimt allowed to-day, the cardinals renouncing 
their ecclesiastical benefices. For some distinguished 
cardinals the amount was larger. The piatto cardinali" 
zio is reckoned to-dav at 4000 Roman <cudt (about 
$4000) . It is reduced, according to the other revenues 
of the cardinal. 

MoBONi, Ditionario, LII, 274 aqq. 

U. Benigni. 

Piauhy (de Piauht), Diocese of (Piahunensis), 
suffragan of the Archdiocese of Belem do Para, in the 
State of Piauhy, north-eastern Brazil. The state is 
bounded on the north by the Atlantic, west by 
Maranhao, south by Bahia, east by Pemambuco and 
Oara. It ti^es its name from the river Piauhy. 
Its area is 116,218 sq. miles, and it has a coast line of 
ten miles. Piauhy is one of the poorest of the Brazil- 
ian states. \ It has a small trade in cotton and cattle. 
Frequent periods of drought, followed by famine and 
typhus, add to the diaadvantages of its unhealthful 
climate. Except in mountainous districts, vegetation 
is scanty; even the agricultural products — sugar- 
cane, coffee, tobacco — barely support the population. 

Therezina is the capital and Pamahyba the chief port. 
Emigration is makmg heavy drains on the population, 
and attempts to colonize by immi^tion have proved 
unsuccessful. The Diocese of Piauhy, formerly in- 
cluded in the Diocese of Sfio Luiz do Maiunhao, was, on 
II August, 1002, erected by Leo XIII into a separate 
diocese. Its jurisdiction comprises the Piauhy State, 
and its population (1911) is 425,000, with 32 parishes. 
Its first bishop, Mgr de Aranjo Pereira (b. at Limolira. 
4 Nov., 1853), was consecrated on 9 Nov., 1003, ana 
the present bishop Mgr Joachim Antonio de Almeida 
(b. 7 Aug., 1868) on HDecember, 1905. 

J. Moreno-Lacalle. 

Piaua Irxnerina, Diocese of (Platiensis), in 
the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily. The city 
of Piazza Armerina is situated on a high hiU 
in a very fertile district. Its origin is obscure. 
Gulielmo il Mak> destroved it in 1166 on account 
of a rebellion, and Gulielmo il Buono rebuilt it, to- 
gether with the church of 1' Asunta, now the cathedral, 
and in which there is an admirable picture of the As- 
sumption by Pidadino. The church of the priory of 
S. Andrea also has fine paintings and frescoes. The 
diocese, taken from that of .Catania was created in 
1817, its first prelate was Girolamo Aprile e Benzi; 
it is a suffragan of S3rracuse, has 23 parishes, with 184,- 
500 inhabitants, 7 retigious houses of men and 19 of 
women, 1 school for boys and 7 for girls, and 1 Cath- 
olic weekly. 

Cai^psllrti, Le Chieae d'ltalia, XXI. 

U. Benigni. 

Piaui, Giuseppe, astronomer, b. at Ponte in 
Valtellina. 16 July, 1746; d. at Naples, 22 July, 1826. 
He took the habit of the Theatines at Milan and fin- 
ished his novitiate at the convent of San Antonio. 
Studying at colleges of the order at Milan, Turin, 
Rome, and Genoa, under such preceptors as Tirabos- 
chi, Beccaria, Le Seur, and Jacquier, he acquired a 
taste for mathematics and astronomy. He taught 
philosophy for a time at Genoa and mathematics at 
the new University of Malta while it lasted. In 1779, 
as professor of dogmatic theologor in Rome, his col- 
league was Chiaramonti, later Pius VII. In 1780 
he was called to the chair of higher mathematics at the 
academy of Palermo. There he soon obtained a grant 
from Pnnce Caramanico, Viceroy of Sicily, for an ob- 
servatory. As its director he was charged to get the 
necessary instruments. He went to Paris in 1787 to 
studv with Lalande, to England in 1788 to work with 
Maskelyne and the famous instrument-maker Rama- 
den. A large vertical circle with reading microscopes, 
a transit, and other apparatus were sent to Palermo 
in 1789, where they were placed on top of a tower of 
the royal palace. Observations were started in May, 

1791, and the first reports were published as early as 

1792. Soon he was able to correct errors in the esti- 
mation of the obliquity of the ecliptic, of the aberra- 
tion of light, of the length of the tropical year, and of 
the paraUstt of the fix^ stars. He saw the necessity 
for a revision of the existing catalo^es of stars and 
for the exact determination of their positions. In 
1803 he published a list of 6784 stars and in 1814 a 
second catalogue containing 7646 stars. Both lists 
were awarded prizes by the Institute of France. 

While looking for a small star mentioned in one of 
the earlier lists he made his great discovery of the first 
known planetoid, 1 Jan., 1801. Locating a strange 
heavenly body of the eighth magnitude and repeatmg 
the observation several nights in succession, he found 
that this star had shifted slightly. Believing it to 
be a comet, he announced its discovery. These few 
but exact measurements eiiabled Gauss to calculate 
the orbit and to find that this was a new planet, be- 
tween Mars and Jupiter. Kepler and Bode had 

coned attention to the apparent gap between these 
two, ao that the pladng of this new body within that 
space caused great excitement among astronomers. 
Piazii propoaed the name of Ceree Ferdinandea, 


the astronomer 
requested the pri v- 
ilege of using the 
money for the pur- 
pose of a much- 
needed equatorial 
telescope. In 1812 
ho received the 
commission to re- 
form the weights 

Sicily in accord- 
« with the 
trie system. In 
1817 as director- 
general of the ob- 
8?rvatorie8 of the 
Two Sicilies hewas 
charged with the 
plans of the new observatory which Murat was es- 
tablishing in Naples. He was a memtier of the Acad- 
emies of Naples, Turin, Gottingen, Berlin, and St. 
Petetsbunc, foreign associate of the Institute of Milah 
etc. Besides the numerous memoirs published in the 
proceedings of the various academies, the following 
works may be mentioned: "Delia specola aatronomica 
di Palermo libri quatro" (Palermo, 1792); "SuH' 
orologio Italiano e I'Europeo" (Palermo, 1798); 
"Delia scoperta del nuovo planeta Cerere Ferdi- 
nandea" (Palermo, 1802); "Prscipuarum stellarum 
inerrantium poeitiones inedis incunte seculo XIX ex 
observationibus habitis in specula Panormitana at 
1793 ad 1802" (Palermo, 1803, 1814); "Codicemetrico 
slculo" (Catane, 1812); "Lexiooi di astronomia" 
(Palermo, 1817; tr. Westphal, Berlin, 1822); "Raga- 
nagliodalrealeoeservatonod'Napoli (Naples, 1821). 

Wolf, Gadiidut dir AxromnnH [Munich, ISTf); Mathut. 
LMUronorM Giotanni Piaiii IMilM, 1871); Cotmoi (PwM. 2 
Mitrch, ud IS Juoe, 19011; Khelleb, Dm ChrulerUam (Ftci- 
bun, 19M), 75-80. 

William Fox. 

Pibush, JoBN, Venerable, English martyr, b. at 
Thirsk, Yorkshire ; d. at St. Thomas's Waterings, 
Camberwell, 18 February, 1000-1. According to 
Gillow he was probably a son of Thomas Pibush, of 
Great Fencott, and Jane, sister to Peter Danby of 
Scotton. He came to Reims on 4 August, 1580, re- 
ceived minor orders and subdiaconate in Sept., and 
diaconate in Dec., 1586, and was ordainea on 14 
March, 1587. He was sent on the English mission 
on 3 Jan., 15S8-9, arrested at Morton-in-Marsh, 
Gloucestershire, in 1583, aad sent to London, where 
he arrived before 24 July. The Privy Council com- 
mitted him lo the Gatehouse at Westminster, where 
he remained a year. He was then tried at the 
Gloucester Assizes under 27 Ehz., c. 2, for being a 
priest, but not sentenced, and was returned to Glouces- 
ter gaol, whence he escaped on 19 February (1594- 
S). The next dav he was recaptured at Matson and 
taken back to Gloucester gaol, whence he was sent 
to the Marahalsea, London, and agtun tried under the 
same statute at Westminster on 1 July, 1595. He 
was sentenced to sulTcr the penalties of high treason 
at St. Thomas's Waterings, and in the meantime was 
to be returned to the Marahalsea. However, by the 
end of the year he was in the Queen's Bench prison, 
where he remained for more than five years. The 
sentence was carried out after one day's notice. 


Khoi, Douay Diariii (LDDdaa. 1B7S). IflB, 179. IBS, 212, 214. 
223: POU.EH, AtU of the Enfttth Uarlvrt (Loadno. I8B1). 336-6; 
Eftelith Harlyrt, I68i-ie03 dtinAoaCtXh. Il«g.8w,. 19081,337- 
*0:Oi\Jav, Bibl.Dii*,Bnt.Cat\.».y. ;Ciu.>.iova. Uutiimatv 
PriaU. I. n. 13S; Diwur, AcU of !*• Priry CouiKit (Loodoo. 
1890-1W)7). ul*, Ul. 

John B. Wainxwkiobt. 

PlC4rd, Jean, astronomer, b. at La FI£che, 21 
July, 1620; d. at Paris, 12 Oct., 16S2. He was a priest 
and prior of RillS in Anjou. As a pupil of Gasaendi he 
obee«Ted with him the solar eclipse of 25 Aug., 1645. 
In 1656 he succeeded his master as professor of astron- 
omy at the Collie de France. His principal achieve- 
ment was the accurate measurement of an arc of a 
meridian of the earth, the distance from Sourdon, 
near Amiens, to Malvoisine, south of Paris, in 1669- 
70. His result, 57060 towea (a toise = about 6'4 ft.) 
for the degree of arc, has been found to be only 14 
loiset too small. He applied telescopes and microm- 
eters to graduated astronomical and measuring in- 
stniments as early as 1667. The quadrant he used 
had a radius of 38 inches and nas so finely graduated 
that he could read the angles to one quarter of a min- 
ute. The sextant employed for determining the me- 
ridian was6 feet in radius. In 1669 he was able to ob- 
serve stars on the meridian during day-time and to 
measure their position with the aid of cross-wires at 
the focus of his telescope. In order to make sure 
that his standard loUe snottid not be lost, like those 
used by others before him, he conceived the idea of 
comparing it with the length of the simple pendulum 
beating seconds at Paris, and thus made it possible to 
reproduce the standard at any time. 

Picard is regarded as the founder of modem as- 
tronomy in France. He introduced new methods, im- 
proved the old instruments, and added new devices, 
such as the pendulum clock. As a result of Picard's 
work, Newton was able to revise his calculations and 
announce his great law of universal gravitation. 
The discovery of the aberration of light also became ~ 
a possibihty on account of Picard's study of Tycho 
Brahe's ob»ervations. In 1671 he received from Bat^ 
tholinus at Copenhagen an exact copy of Tycho's 
records and then went with BarthoUnus to the Island 
of Hveen in order to determine the exact position of 
Tycho's observatory at Uranienborg. He was modest 
and unselfish enou^ to recommend the rival Italian 
astronomer Cassini to Colbert and Louis XIV for the 
direction of the new observatory at Paris. Caasini, 
on the contrary, proved envious, igjioring Picard's 
insistent recommendations of a mural circle for accurate 
meridional observationB, until after the latter's death. 

IHcard was among the first members of the Acad- 
enu'. He also started the publication of the ^nin ml 
"Connaissance des temps" In 1679 (Paris, 1678), and 
continued the same until 1683. Since then it has been 
published continuously. His "Mesure de la terre" 
was brought out in 1671, Paris. 

WoL7, OmtAkAi. dirr A.ii-onoiiiw (Munich. 1879) ; DriAMBHe, 
Ilia, de I'oKr. mod., II (Psria. 1821). 667-632. 

WiLUAH Fox. 

Picc«loiainl,ALEBBANDRo, litterateur, philosopher, 
astronomer, b. 13 June, 1508; d. 12 March, 1578. He 
passed his youth in the study of literature and wrote 
several comedies ("Amor costante", "Alessandro", 
"Ortensio"), translated into Italian verse Ovid's 
"Metamorphoses", part of the "^neid", Aristotle's 
"Poetics" and "Rnetoric", composed a hundred 
Bonnete (Rome, 1549), and other rhyme. He repu- 
diated in later years "Raffaello" or "Dialogo della 
creansa donne " as too hcentious. In' 1540 he became 
professor of philosophy at Padua, where he wrote 
" Istituiione di tutta la vita dell' uomo nato nobile 
e in cittjl libera", "Filosofia naturale" in which he 
followed the theories of ancient and medieval phi- 
losophers, while in his "Trattato della grandezza 
della terrae dell' acqua" (Venice, 1558), he combatted 


the Aristotelean and Ptolemaic opinion that water Pichler, a renowned Austrian family of gem* 

was more extensive than land, thereby provoking, cutters who lived and died in Italy^ 



to the Ptolemaic^theory. He also wrote on the reform art. He went to work in Naples with a goldsmith and 

of the calendar (1578), and a commentary on the engraver of precious stones. In 1743, proficient in 

mechanics of Aristotle. To counteract "Raffaella" his new calling, he moved to Rome and copied many 

he wrote his "Orazione in lode delle donne" (Rome, antiques. He attained excellence and fame, but waa 

(1549). His fame extended beyond Italy. Gregory somewhat limited in his field for want of early 

AlII, in 1574, appointed him titular Bishop of Pa- training and grounding in design. 

traB and coadjutor to Francesco Bandini, Archbishop Giovanni (Johann Anton), the son of the fore- 

of Siena, who survived him. going, was b. at Naples, 1 Jan., 1734; d. in Rome. 

FABiAin, Vita diAlesaandroPiceolominHSienA, 1749 tLud 1759); 25 Jan., 1791. He was a painter, gem-cutter, and 

TiRABoscHi. Storia delta leUeratura itaiiana, V". P^- 1 ^ experimenter in encaustic and mosaic, a pupil of his 

father, and of the painter Corvi. His scholarship 

Piccolomini, Enea Silvio. See Pius U, Pope. and knowledge of the fine arts gave him unusual 

advantages. Early m life he executed a.senes of his- 

Piccoloxnini-Amxnaxinati, Jacopo, cardinal, b. in torical paintings for the Franciscans at Orioli, and the 

the Villa Basilica near Lucca, 1422; d. at San Lorenzo Augustinians at Braccian; also a St. Michael for the 

near Bolsena, 10 Sept., 1479. He was related to the Pauline nuns in Rome. Later he devoted himself 

Piccolomini of Siena. His Uterary and theological wholhr to intaglio; he wrought gems of great beauty 

education he acquired in Florence. Under Nicholas V and finish, which resembled the classic so closely in 

he went to Rome, where, for a while, he Uved in ex- style and execution that Winckelmann is said to have 

treme penury. In 1450 ne became private secretary thought them antiques. He was held in high regard 

to Cardinal Domenico Capranica ; later Calistus III and received innumerable honours and lucrative com- 

appointed him secretary of Briefs. He was retained missions. Works: Hercules strangling the Lion; 

in this office bpr Pius II, who also made him a member Leander crossing the Hellespont; Nemesis, Leda, 

of the pontifical household, on which occasion he Galatea, Venus, Dancers, the Vestal Tuccia, Arethusa, 

assumea the family name of Piccolomini. In 1460 he Ariadne, Antinous, Sappho; portraits of Pius VI 

was made Bishop of Pa via by Pius II, and throughout and the Emperor Joseph II ; and many other subjects, 

the pontificate of the latter was his most trusted con- His son Giacomo was trained to be a gem-cutter and 

fidant and adviser. He exhibited paternal solicitude executed many works in Milan, whither he had gone 

in the government of his diocese, and during his pro- to be near his sister Theresa, married to the poet 

longed absences entrusted its affairs to able vicars, Vincenzo Monti. He died in early manhood, 

with whom he remained in constant touch. On 18 Giuseppe (Johann Joseph), b. in Rome, 1760: 

December, 1461, he was made cardinal, and was com- d. there, 1820. He was a son of Antonio by a second 

monly known as the Cardinal of Pavia. He accom- marriage and half brother to Giovanni, who taught 

{>aniea Pius II to Ancona, and attended him in his him the family art. Among his works are the por- 

ast illness. In the subsequent conclave he favoured trait of Alexander I of Russia; the Three Graces after 

the election of Paul II, whose displeasure he after- Canova; Achilles, Bacchus, Ceres, lo, Medusa, Per- 

ward incurred by insisting on the full observance sens etc. He signs in Greek, like the older Pichlers 

of the ante-election capitulations that the pope had IIIXAEP, using the initial ^. 

signed. The imprisonment of his private secretary Luigi, the most distinguished of the Pichler family, 

by Paul II on a cnarge of complicity in the conspiracy was b. in Rome 31 Jan., 1773, of the second marriage 

of the "Accademici offended Piccolomini still more, of Antonio; d. 13 March, 1854. Losing his father 

and his open defence of the secretarv aggravated the while very young, he was indebted to his half-brother, 

eope's ill-will. The disfavour in which he was held Giovanni, for his careful education under a private 

y Paul II did not exempt his episcopal revenues from tutor and for four years of art training with the 

sequestration by the Duke of Milan, Galeazzo Maria, painter De Angelis. Almost in childhood the bov 

It was due to his insistence that Paul II took energetic had taken to himself the tools of the gem-cutter and, 

measures against George Podiebrad, King of Bohemia, as he grew older, showed a special liking for cameo. 

Sixtus IV was scarcely more favourable towards Picco- Gipvanni taught him their common art, and con- 

lomini than Paul II. noisseurs esteem that Luigi's incisions have even more 

He was the friend of students and scholars, and pro- finish, clearness, and Ught-^athering quality than 

tected Jacopo de Volterra. In 1470 he was trans- those of his brother. He received many commissions 

f erred to the See of Lucca and was named papal envoy from the Vatican and the Courts of France and Aus- 

to Umbria. He wrote a continuation in seven books tria, and kept a splendid house where music and 

of the"Commentarii''of PiusII. His stvle is elegant, masques were frequently given. He made several 

but he is not alwavs inipartial, especially apropos of trips to Vienna and was asked to found a school there. 

Paul II or Sixtus IV. His Commentaries, neverthe- In 1818 he copied in enamel five hundred gems of the 

less, remain an important source for contemporary Vienna Cabinet which the emperor wished to present 

history, and his valuable letters have been collected to the pope. For the same city he made a complete 

and published. Ammannati is one of the most sym- collection of copies of the intaglios of his father and 

pathetic personalities of the Italian Renaissance. He brother, adding a set of his own, thus bringing the 

enjoyed the friendship of noted prelates and human- historical collection of 1400 antiques up to modem . 

ists, among others. Cardinals Bessarion, Carvajal, times. Venus, Cupid and Psyche, Apollo, Head of 

Roverella etc. Bessarion (Pastor, "Geschichte der Julius Csesar, Mars, Iris, the Day and Ni^ht of 

P&pste", II, 731), praises his executive ability and Thorwaldsen; and two exquisite heads of Christ are 

readiness, his charity and zeal. some of his subjects; bp.side8 many originals and 

BvistoUt a eommentaHi Jaecbi Piccolomini cardinali» PapienH, Portraits, including Giovanni Pichler's, WinckeV- 

(Milan, 1506), added also to the Frankfort ed. of the Com- mann's, Joseph II, PlUS VII, and Gregory XVI. 

7!r*^'""j°/i ^*"? ." (Frankfort, 1614); Paul;, Ditouisizione Luisti received innumerable honours from the popes 

'irS'n.T'diSr. hxT'^^^i^. ^ t^ SdiJi^in. «ind sovereigns of his day. His last gem, a hea/Tf 

163. Ajax, which he wished to present to Pius IX, was 

U. Bbnigni. placed by tho pope in a gold case in the Vatican coUec- 


tion with the signature n. A or niXAEP. A. The clamour, which loudly demanded the death of Oates's 

tomb of the Pichlers is in S. Lorenzo in Lucina, victims, and twice within a month the three prisoners 

Rome. were ordered for execution and then reprieved. At 

r ?*^' ^^ii^ ^'"- iS?!- ^S***" ^^???' V^^Im M'^o^^' length Charles permitted the execution of the other 

J Ire PiehUr (Vienna, 1844); Rollett. Die dm Meiater der ♦,„Jr k«,*;,»»*l»«* i.i,:„„^„|j „„x:„r,,4.k^,,,^^i« «„j „«„^ 

Gemmoolvpiik, Antonio, Giovanni und Luigi PiehUr (Vienna, two, hopmsf that this WOUld satisfy the people and save 

IS7A) ,NAaijat'mNeus9aU{femoine$KQn$tUr Lex. (Munich, i&ii); Pickenng from his fate. The contrary took place, 

BoccABDo in JVuPto Bneidopedia /(aiiaiw (Turin, 1884). however, and, 26 April, 1679, the House of Commons 

M. L. Handlet. petitioned for Pickering's execution. Charles yielded 

Plchler. Vitus, distincuiahed canonuit and contro- |J??»JP!ff W^^T^itn*^"^ TnWr^«^Ili?''Ji?K 

vereial writer, b. at GroSberghofen, 24 May, 1670; d. £ f^^.^'^/J^LA^lP^e*,?! ^?*^ !i*S!L^^o 

at Munich, 15 Feb., 1736. He stuAed for tfie secillar K^ preserved among the rehcs at Downside 

Drie8th«)d, but aftw ordination entered the Society of rA«^fr^ ./ wiUi^m Ireland, Tiuma» PicMno and John 

Jesus, 28 Sept., 1696. For four vears he was professor Ornt far eontpiriitt to murdtr the hint . . . (London, 1678) i 

of philosophy at Brieue and Dillingen. He was then A.n exact abridgmmt of aUlluTyiaU . . . rehHnt^lothepopiih 

•dvan«d to the cLir of th^iogy, " controversial }fiaS^''!SS^;^f^J!l^l^'^£l!^/Zli^':in 

and scholastic, at AUgsburs. He acamred fame m (BmsaelB. 1742), 318; Challoner, Memoira of Misgionary 

the field of canon law, which he taught for nineteen ^'"'f. II (London. 1742), 376; Oliver, ColUHioM ittustrating 

vmirR at Dillinirpn anrl at Tmrolnt Ailt whnrp htk wm '."* Hxaiory of the Caiholie Reltgton %n Comtoall, Devon, etc. (Lon-, 

years at l^imngen, ana ai ingOlStaat, wnere ne was ^^^^ igjjj 5Q0. Corkbr, Reinonttranee 0/ piety and innocence 

the successor of the lllustnoUS canonist, Fr. Schmalz- (London. 1683); Snow. Necrolooy of the Bnaliah BenedieiineM 

grueber. His latest employment was as prefect of (London, 1883), 178; W«u>on. Chronologieal Notea on the Bngliah 

Egher studies at Munich. . lib first important Ut««y ^SS^t^^i.^lt^^^fif^^^i^';'^''^'' 
work was " Examen polemicum super AuKustana Con- q, Rogeb Hudlebton. 

fessione" (1708), an examination of the Lutheran 

Augsburg Confession. Other controversial works fol- Piconio, Bernardinb a (Henri Bernardine de 

lowed, generally directed against Lutheranism, such Picquigny), b. at Picquigny, Picardy, 1633; d. in 

as "Lutheranismus constanter errans" (1709) ; "Una Paris, 8 December, 1709; was educated at Picquigny, 

et vera fides" (1710); "Theologia polemica particu- and joined the Capuchins in 1649. As professor of 

laris" (1711). In his "Cursus theologi® polemica theology he shed great lustre upon his order; hisbest- 

universae" (1713), Pichler devotes the first part to the known work is his "Triplex expositio epistolarum 

fundamentals of polemical theology and the second sancti Pauli" (Paris, 1703 [French], 1706 [English, 

part to the particular errors of the reformers. It is tr. Prichard], London, 1888), which has ever been 

said that he was the first writer to lay down, clearly popular among Scriptural scholars. Piconio also 

and separately, the distinction between fundamental wrote "Triplex expositio in sacrosancta D. N. Jesu 

theology and other divisions of the science. He also Christi Evangelia" (Paris, 1726), and a book of moral 

wrote an unportant work on papal infallibility, " Papa- instructions. A complete edition of his works, "Opera 

tus nunquam errans in proponendis fidei articulis" omnia Bemardini a Piconio", was published at Paris 

(1709). Although widely renowned as a polemical (1870-2). 

theologian. Pichler is better known as a canonist. He Hurtbr, Nomenckuor Uterariue, ll, 788. 
published nis "Candidatus juris prudentia sacrae" in William C. Nevilb. 
1722; this was foUowed by "^mma iurisprudentiffl Picpus, eoNGREOATioN op the. See Sacred 
8acr»umvers» m 1723 sjiq. He also issued "Mam- Heartoof Jesus and Mary, Congregation op the. 
pulus casuum jindicorum and several epitomes of his ' 
larger canonical treatises. Pichler's controversial Picquet, Francois, a celebrated Sulpician mission- 
works were in great vogue during the eighteenth cen- ary in Canada, b. at Bourg, Bresse, France, 4 Dec., 
tury, while his oooks on canon law were used as text- 1708; d. at Verjon, Ain, France, in 1781. He entered 
books in many universities. His solutions of difficult the Seminary of Lyons (1727), where he was ordained 
cases in jurisprudence gave a decided impetus to the deacon in 1731. At the Seminary of St. Sulpice in 
study of the canons andafforded a key to the intricate Paris, after winning his doctorate at the Sorbonne, 
portionsof the "Corpus juris canonici". Fourteen of he was raised to the priesthood, and became a Sul- 
Pichler's works, excluding the many editions and alter- pician. The same year he begged to be sent to Can- 
ations, are enumerated. ada, and in the month of July arrived at Montreal, 
HwTKR. Nomon^ator literariua. III (innBbnick. 1895); Sou- where for five years (1734-9) he was engaged in the 

MEBVOOEL, BMiothioue de la Compaon*e de Jistu, VI (Bnusels, wiinifltrv On fha Tnrlian Tniaainn nf thp JM*^fti^ 

1896): DKBACKiaTitWwiWflueiiM^mwtiM. 5. y. (LiAge, 1853- 5J>nistry. un tne Indian mission 01 tne LiajMies- 
76). William H. W. Fanning. Deux-Montagnes (now Oka), he acquired the Algon- 
quin and Iroquois tongues so perfectly that he 
Piekaring, Thomas, Venerable, lay brother and surpassed the ablest orators of these tribes. His in- 
inart3rr, a member of an old Westmoreland family, b. fluence enabled him to win a large number of these 
c. 1621; executed at Tyburn, 9 May, 1679. He was savages to the true Faith. The Lake mission became 
sent to the Benedictine monasteiy of St. Gregory at venr populous: Nipissings, Outaouois, Mohawks, 
Douai, where he took vows as a fay brother in 1660. and Hurons crowded alongside the Algonquins and 
In 1665 he was sent to London, where, as steward or Iroquois. Picquet fortified this Cathohc centre 
procurator to the little community of Benedictines against the pagan tribes, and erected the Calvary 
who served the queen's chapel royal, he became ^ich still existe, with its well-built stations stretch- 
known personally to the queen and Charles II; and ing along the mountain side facing the lake. In the 
when in 1675, urged by the parliament, Charles issued intercolonial war between France and England (1743- 
a proclamation ordering tne Benedictines to leave 8), the Indian aUiesof these two powers came to arms. 
England jirithin a fixed time, Pickering was allowed to Due to the injQuence of their missionary the Five 
remain, probably on the ground that he was not a Nations, hitherto allies of the English, remained 

?riest. in 1678 came the pretended revelations of neutrfd, while the other savages carried on a guerilla 

'itus Oates, and Pickering was accused of conspiring war in New England or served as scouts for the French 

to murder the king. No evidence except Oates's troops. When peace was restored, Picquet volun- 

word was produced and Pickering's innocence was so teered to establisn an Indian post on the Presentation 

obvious that the queen publicly announced her belief River, whence he spread the Gospel among the Iro^ 

in him, but the jury found him guilty, and with two quois nations, as far as the Indians of the West, 

others he was condemned to be nanged, drawn, and Founded on 1 June, 1749, this post became the Fort 

quartered. The king was divided between the wish of the Presentation in the following year; from it 

to save the innocent men and fear of the popular arose the town of Ogdensburg, New York* 


In 1751 Picquet travelled round Lake Ontario to Leo XIII made him cardinal, 1879. Sincerely at* 

gather into his mission as many Iroquois as possible, tached to his diocese, Mgr Fie had refused all ofifers 

and succeeded in establishing 392 families at the of preferment: a seat in the National Assembly, the 

Presentation. In 1752 Mgr de Pontbriand, the last Archbishopric of Tours, and even the primatial See of 

French Bishop of Quebec, baptized 132 of them. A Lyons. Kis works, full of doctrine and unction, were 

banner, preserved in the church of Oka, perpetuates published serially during his Ufetime at Poitiers, but 

the souvenir of this event, and the memory of the were later collected into ''(Euvres ^piscopales", 10 

fidelity of the Five Nations to the cause of France, vols., Paris, s. d., and "(Euvres sacerdotales", 2 vols., 

for, in the course of the Seven Years* War, it floated Paris, s. d. 

side by side with the Fleur-de-lis on many a battle- , Baunard. ^trtoir* du CardiruU Fie (Poitiers, 1893); Bebsb, 

field In 1753 Picquet went to France an/ presented '^,^^tS!^^,r: u ^n'll'^in '^S^^^^-JJ-ffi 

to the mimster of the Navy a well-documented Caiholiquea (ParU, 1895); La France Catholique (Paris, 1881); 

memorandum concerning Canada, in which he L'Epitcopat/rancaU, i80s-i 906 {ViuiB, 1907), B.y. Poitiers. 
pointed out the best means for preserving that colony J- F. Sollier. 

for the French Crown. Hardly had he returned to 

Canada (1754) when hostilities were resumed. He Piedmont (Ital. Piemonte)^ a part (compariimento) 
directed his savages against the English, whom he of northern Italy, bounded on the north by Switser- 
considered as much the enemies of Catholicism as of land, on the west by France, on the south by Ligiuia, 
France, and for six years accompanied them on their and on the east by Lombardy. It includes the plain 
expeditions and into the field of battle. ^'Abb^ of the Upper Po, and the Alpine valleys that descend 
Picquet was worth several regiments '\ said Governor towards the plain from the south side of the Pennine 
Duauesne of him. The English set a price on his Alps, from the east side of the Graiian and Cottian, 
heaa. When all hope of the cause was lost, by the and from the north side of the Maritime Alps. Its 
order of his superiors who feared he might fall into name, pedes moniium^ from which arose Pedimontium, 
the hands of the English, Pic<]uet returned to France, came from its geographical position, enclosed on three 
passing thither through Louisiana (1760). He was sides by high mountains. At the present time it in- 
engaged in the ministry in Paris till 1772. He then eludes the four Italian provinces of Turin, Novara, 
returned to his homeland, Bresse, and was named Alessandria, and Cuneo. In the Middle Ages and in 
canon of the cathedral of Bourg, where he died. antiquity the country was important chiefly because 
l^es fdifianus et eurieueee {Mhnmrea des Indes), XXVI jt contained the passes over the Alps which led from 

^c^'^li ^-%JSS:^'^"cJrr&^Z It Is s^«r^i Italy to Gaul. . ifnta the berinning of the fourth cen- 

du Cfinada, XII. sect. 1 (1894) ; Bertrand. Bihliothkque sidpi- tury Chnstianity had made little progress. However, 

^if**^* **Y^\^l.^. '?i?^*!^ ^ "* <^^P^i« ^^ Sainf-Sulpice, I jq the course of the fourth and fifth centuries Chris- 

(Pana, 19(X)), 394-401; Chaqny, Un difeiiseur de la NouvtUe- ai^-u,, „,»-.«,« j -„«;^i,, n,v>r^*«n. 4-V.a watv^^Ia «a«* «rv«» 

France, Franioie Picquk ''le Canidien" (Lyons, 1911). tianity spread rapidly among the people, now com- 

A. FouRNET. pletely Romanized. The earhest episcopal sees were 

-oAm^m a«^ Q^^^mr ^^^^ estabushcd in this era, namely Turin, Asti, and Aosta. 
new. HeeacoTLAND. j^ ^j^^ ^^j^ ^^^^^^ ^ges various petty feudal 

Pie, Louis-Edouard-D6sir£, cardinal, b. at Pont- states were formed in the Piedmontese country, the 

gouin. Diocese of Chartres, 1815; d. at Angoul^me, inost important of which were the Marquessates of 

1880. He studied at the Seminary of Chartres and Ivrea, Suso, Saluzzo, Montferrat, and the Countship 

at St. Sulpice, was ordained 1839, became Vicar- of Turin. The counts of Savoy early made successful 

General of Chartres, 1844, and Bishop of Poitiers, attempts to establish their authority in this region. 

1849. He created many parishes, established in his At the beginning of the eleventh century Aosta and 

seminary a canonical nujulty of theology, founded the territory under its control belonged to Count 

for the missions of the diocese the Oblates of St. Humbert I of Savoy. His son Oddo (Otto, d. 1060) 

Hilary, and brought the Jesuits to Poitiers and the married the Marchioness Adelaide of Turin, and in 

Benedictines to Solesmes and Ligug^. To his initia- this way became possessed of the Marquessate of Susa, 

tive were largely due the resumption of the provincial with the towns of Turin and Pinerolo, the foundation 

synods in France, the promotion of St. Hilary's cultus, of the later Piedmont. After the death (1232) of 

and the erection of the national shrine of the Sacred Thomas I, Count of Savoy, this marquessate went to a 

Heart at Montmartre. He is, however, best known younger branch, the descendants of Thomas II (d. 

for his opposition to modem errors, and his cham- 1259), son of Thomas I; Amadeus V, son of Thomas 

pionship of the rights of the Church. Regarding as H, is the ancestor of the present ItaUan royal family, 

futile the compromises accepted by other Catholic These rulers called theiyselves Counts of Piedmont, 

leaders, he fought alike all philosophical theories and On account of the position of their territories the 

political arrangements that did not come up to the Dukes of Savoy had a large share in the wars for 

full traditional Christian standard. His stand in supremacy in northern Italy. Besides extending their 

matters philosophical was indicated as early as 1854- authority into Switzerland in the fifteenth and six- 

65 in two synodal instructions against " the errors of teenth centuries, they also gained new domains in 

the present day and of philosophy". Italy: the lordships of VerceUi, Asti, and Cava, and 

In politics a staunch follower of the Comte de the feudal suzerainty over Montferrat. In the wars 
Chambord, he trusted but Httle the other regimes between the Emperor Charles V and Francis I of 
under which he lived. To Napoleon III, who had France, Duke Charles III id. 1553) of Piedmont lost 
declared untimely certain measures suggested by the the greater part of his duchy. In the Peace of C4teau- 
bishop, Pie said one day: "Sire, since the time has not Cambresis (1559), however, his son Emmanuel Phi- 
come for Christ to reign, then the time has not come libert (d. 1580) regained nearly all of his father's 
for government to last". Such was the vigour with possessions, and obtained, in exchange for other ter- 
which he stigmatized the imperial insincerity regard- ritories, the Marquessate of Tenda and the Princi- 
ing the independence of the Papal States that he was pality of Oneglia. 

denounced to both the Council of State and the Emmanuel Philibert's successor, Charles Emmanuel 

Holy See. The former pronounced him guilty of I (1580-1630), acquired the Marquessate of Saluzzo 

abuse of power, but Cardinal Antonelli valiantly stood and a large part of Montferrat, which his son Victor 

by him. At the Vatican Council he did not sign the Amadeus I (1630-37) was able to retain by conceding 

rmstulaiion petitioning for the definition of papal in- two other lordships to France. During the re^cy of 

fnllibility, but once it was placed on the programme of the widow of Victor Amadeus I, the French Princess 

the council, he proved one of the best exponents and Christine, the influence of France in the Duchy of 

defenders of it. As a reward for his loyal services, Savoy was greatly increased. Her son Charles Emjnwi- 




ud II (d. 1675) sought in vain to escape this dominat- 
ing control. Victor Amadeus II (1675-1730) joined 
the great alliance against France in the War oftlic 
Spanish Succession. By the victory of Turin in 1706 
ranee Eugene drove out the French troops that had 
made a sudden descent upon Piedmont, thus, ridding 
the duke of his enemies. As a reward for joining the 
cdliance the duke received by the Peace of Utrecht of 
1713 the Marauessate of Montferrat, the City of Ales- 
sandria, and tne Districts of Val Sesia and Liomellina. 
so that the part of his territories situated in Italy had 
essentially the same extent as the present Department 
of Piedmont. Outside of these new territories he was 
granted the Island of Sicily, which, however, he lost 
again when Spanish troops attacked the island in 1718. 
In 1720 as compensation for this loss he received the 
Island of Sardinia. He now assumed the title of Kins 
of Sardinia; besides the island, the kingdom included 
Savov and Piedmont on the mainland. In the Polish 
and Austrian wars of succession the next king, Charles 
Emmanuel III (as king^ Charles Emmanuel I, 1730- 
73), acquired the additional Italian districts of Tor- 
tona and Novara, also Anghiera, Bobbio, and a part 
of the principality of Pavia. His son Victor Amadeus 
III (1773-96) was a weak man of little iihportance. 
During his reign the storms caused by the French 
Revolution swept over his kingdom. Napoleon's vic- 
tories obliged him in 1796 to cede Savoy and Nice to 
France, and his son and successor Charles Emmanuel 
II (1796^^1802) lost all his territories on the mainland, 
which, together with Liguria and Parma, were united 
to France. The king abdicated, entered the Society of 
Jesus, and in 1802 resigned the crown to his brother 
Victor Emmanuel I. At first the latter resided in 

Until the seventeenth century the position of the 
Church in Piedmont was a satisfactory one; no re- 
striction was placed upon its activities. The country 
contained numerous dioceses; of these Aosta was a 
suffragan of Tarentaise, Nice of Embrun, and the 
other dioceses on Italian soil were suffragans of Milan. 
In 1515 Turin, where the Dukes of Savoy lived, was 
made an archdiocese with the two suffragan sees of 
Ivrea and Mondovi. As lord chancellor and first sec- 
letarv of state the Archbishop of Turin was by law a 
member of the council of state. The ducal family was 
very religious, and until the end of the seventeenth 
centurv maintained close relations with the Papal 
See, which had established a permanent nunciature at 
Turin in the sixteenth century, while an agent of the 
Government of Piedmont resided at Rome. For some 
of their domains the dukes were vassals of the Holy 
See, but this relation caused no difficulties. There was 
a large body of clergy, and monasteries were numerous. 
There were^also two religious orders of knights, that 
of St. Lasarus, an order or hospitallers for the care of 
the sick, especiallv lepers, and that of ^t. Mauritius, 
which had been founded by Amadeus VIII in 1434 
and confirmed in 1572 by Gregory XII. The same 
pope confirmed the union of the two orders, of which 
the duke was the perpetual grand master. The orig- 
inal purpose of these knightly orders was, however, 
very soon lost sight of; in recent times they have been 
changed into a secular decoration. Duke Charles 
Emmanuel I was very zealous in the struggle against' 
Protestantism, and both he and his two successors 
took energetic measures against the growth of the 
Waldensians. However, Emmanuel Philibert made 
the executioA^of the judgments of the ecclesiastical 
Inauisition dopendent on the consent of the senate 
and judicial investigation by the Government. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century the 
dukes, who had become absolute rulers, and their 
administrative officials began to suppress the liberties 
of the Church in imitation of France. They even 
interfered in the purely ecclesiastical government of 
the Church. Thus during the administration of Vic- 

tor Amadeus, who was the actual ruler from 1684, 
violent dissensions with the Holy See arose and se- 
riously injured religious life, especially because large 
numbers of dioceses and higher ecclesiastical benefices 
remained vacant for a long period. Length>r negotia- 
tions were carried on with Home. An edict issued by 
Victor Amadeus in 1694 for the benefit of the Walden- 
sians was rejected at Rome, because it annulled the 
old law for the protection of the Catholic Church. 
The duke took the most severe measures against this 
Roman decree. The senate forbade its publication 
under heavy penalties, so that it could not be executed, 
and the tribunal of the Inquisition of Piedmont lost 
nearly all its importance. The Dioceses of Casale, 
Acqui, and Ventimiglia included parts of the territory 
of Piedmont, although the bishops did not reside in 
the duchy; this was regarded as a great grievance. 
The duke wished to force these bishops to appoint 
episcopal vicars for the supervision ot those of his 
subjects belonging to their dioceses; this the bishops 
refused to do. Whereupon the landed property m 
Piedmont belonging to the Diocese of Nice was se- 
questrated; this Ic^ the bishop, after three years of 
unsuccessful negotiations, to excommunicate the 
secular officials who had carried out the ducal decree. 
The senate forbade the recognition of the sentence of 
excommunication under the severest penalties, for 
the laity the penalty of death, and commanded the 
priests to grant the sacraments to the excommuni- 
cated. This last command, however, was recalled by 
the duke as too extreme a measure against ecclesias- 
tical authority. 

Victor Amadeus now claimed the entire right of 
presentation to all the sees and to all the abbeys in his 
territories granted by the pope in consistory, on 
p^round of a privilege conferred by Pope Nicholas V 
in 1451 upon Duke Louis of Savoy, whereby the pope, 
before filling sees and abbacies, would ask for the 
opinion and consent of the duke in regard to the per- 
sons nominated. This privilege had oeen confirmed 
on various occasions during the sixteenth century. 
Rome was not willing to acknowledge the privilege 
in this enlarged form. The duke had also issued an 
edict by which a secular judge was not to grant per- 
mission to those desiring to enter the clergy until he 
had fully informed himself concerning the ability of 
the candidate, the number of parishes in the locality, 
and of the priests and monks there, and the nature ot 
the property to be assigned to the candidate for his 
support. In 1700 a bitter dispute arose between the 
Arcnbishop of Turin and the ducal delegation, when 
the arehbishop by a decree declared invalid the eccle- 
siastical^ arrangements proposed by the laity against 
the decrees of the Apostolic See. However, the bish- 
ops, supported by the nuncio, followed the instruc- 
tions of the pope in all ecclesiastical questions. Fur- 
ther disputes also arose concerning the testamentary 
competency of regulars, a right which was denied the 
regular clergy by the Government, and as to thejnghts 
of the pope in the fiefs of the Roman Church thai 
were possessed by the dukes. These questions were 
exhaustively examined at Rome, and the advocate of 
the consistory, Sardini, was sent to Turin to negotiate 
the matters; but the agreement adjusting the diffi- 
culty that was obtained by him was not accepted at 
Rome. New troubles constantly arose when the 
duke confiscated the revenues of benefices accruing 
during their vacancy and abrogated the spolia (prop- 
erty of ecclesiastics deceasidd intestate) of ecclesias- 
tical benefices. The Government appointed an ad- 
ministrator of its own for the care and administi^Xion 
of the estates of vacant benefices, but he was not recog- 
nized by the bishops. Secular approval of ecclesias- 
tical acts and ordmances was made necessary in a 
continually increasing number of cases. New negotia- 
tions, undertaken in 1710 at Rome by Count de 
Gubematis, produced no results. The only agreement 




reached was in regard to the administrator of vacant 
benefices, who was also appointed the Apostolic ad- 
ministrator for this purpose. In this form the office of 
the Apostolic-royal steward continued to exist. 

When the Island of Sardinia was granted to Pied- 
mont in 1720 a new conflict arose, as the pope claimed 
to be the sovereign of the island. The basb of this 
was that Boniface VIII had invested the King of 
Aragon with the island under the condition that it 
should never be separated from the Crown of Aragon. 
Consequently the demand was made upon the new 
King or Sardinia that he should seek papal investiture. 
As Victor Amadeus refused to do this, the pope re- 
jected the arrangements for filling the episcopal sees 
and ecclesiastical benefices made by the king, who also 
clamed all the rights of patronage exercised by the 
Spanish sovereign. As a consequence most of the sees 
on the islands were without incumbents, which in- 
creased the difficulties. Benedict XIII (1724-30) 
sought to bring about a reconciliation in order to put 
an end to the injury inflicted on religious life. In 
Turin the necessity of an accommodation was also 
reaUzed, and the king sent the adroit and-iskilful 
Marquess d'Ormefk to Home to prepare the way for 
the negotiations. The peace-loving pope made large 
concessions, although the king made still further en- 
croachments upon the rights of the Church. The 
negotiations were carried on by a congregation com- 
posed of four cardinals and the prelate Merlini. Sev- 
eral points were adjusted, especially the king's ri^t 
of presentation to the bishoprics and abbacies, while 
others were discussed, particularly the immunity of 
the Church, the right of the pope to claim the spolia, 
also the right to charge ecclesiastical revenues with 
pensions. Most of the difficulties were finally ad- 
justed, and an agreement was signed in 1727, so that 
the vacant sees could now be filled and ecclesiastical 
administration resumed. King Charles Emmanuel 
III (1730-73) made new conventions with Benedict 
XIV (1740-59), who had formerly supported the 
Marquess d'Ormea in his negotiations, and had al- 
ways maintained friendly relations with him. By two 
conventions made in 1741 the King of Sardinia was 
granted the Apostolic vicariate for the papal fiefs on 
condition of paying a quit-rent, and the questions of 
the ecclesiastical benences, the revenues of benefices 
during vacancy, and the administration of these va- 
cant benefices were adjusted. Notwithstanding his 
friendliness, the papal commissioner had a very difficult 
position to maintain in his relations with the presidcmt 
of the senate, Caissotti. Finally on 6 Jan., 1742. the 
pope issued instructions to the bishops, in which t>oth 
jides had concurred; in these it was made the duty of 
foreign bishops to appoint vicars for the parts of their 
dioceses in tne territory of Piedmont, ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction was curtailed, and the landed property of 
the Church that had been obtained after 162X) was 
made subject to the ordinary civil taxes. In 1750 the 
pope resigned various revenues that the Apostolic See 
derived from Piedmont in return for a very small in- 
demnity. Charles Emmanuel III now remained on 
the best of terms with Rome, notwithstanding isolated 
difficulties and disputes which still arose. Merlini 
was once more received at Turin as nuncio, and the 
piously-inclined king sou^t to promote the interests 
of religion, to protect Christian discipline, and to sup- 
port the nghta of the Church in other countries. 

The last period of the history of the Kingdom of 
Sardinia began after the Napoleonic era. In 1814-15 
Victor Emmanuel I re^ainea Piedmont with the terri- 
tories of Genoa (Liguna) and Grenoble. The Govern- 
ment again sought to base the administration on the 
old political principles of the period before the French 
Revolution, while a larpe part of the citizens of the 
country were filled with ideas of political independence 
and Liberalism, and the revolutionary secret society, 
the Carbonari, was at work. When in 1821 a military 

insurrection broke out, the king abdicated in favour of 
his brother Charles Felik (1821-31). Before Charles 
Felix arrived the country was administered by' 
Charles Albert, the heir-presumptive to the throne, 
who was a memb^ of the Savoy-Carignan branch of 
the family. Charles at once established the Spanish 
constitution of 1812 and summoned a Liberal minis- 
try. However, Charles Felix crushed the Liberal 
opposition with the aid of Austrian troops and re- 
estiEJ[>lished former administrative conditions. At his 
death the direct line of the dynasty of Savoy was ex- 
tinct, and he was succeeded by Charles Albert of 
Savoy-Carignan ( 183 1-49) . This kins gave the coun- 
try a constitution in 1848, summonea a Liberal min- 
istry, and assumed the l^uiership of the movement 
for the national unity of Italy. Tnis led to a war with 
Austria in which he was defeated at Novara, and con- 
sequently was obliged to abdicate on 4 Nov., 1849, in 
favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II (1849-78). 
Count Camillo de Cavour (d. 6 June, 1861) was soon 
made the head of the administration. Journeys in 
France and England had imbued Cavour with ideas 
of political and parUamentary freedom; from 1848 he 
had sought to spread his opinions by publishing with 
the aid of Balbo, Santa Rosa, and others the journal 
''II Risorgimento'\ On 4 Nov., 1852, he was made 
president of the ministry; he now sought by the eco- 
nomic development of the country and by aiplomattc 
relations, especially on the occasion of the Crimean 
War, and at the Congress of Paris in 1856, where the 
" Italian '^ question was raisied, to prepare for war 
with Austria. 

In a secret agreement with Napoleon III made at 
Plombi^res on 20 July, 1858, he gsdned the support of 
the French emperor by promising to cede Savoy and 
Nice to France. In this way Victor Emmanuel II was 
able in 1859 to begin war against Austria with the 
aid of Napoleon, and the two alUes defeated the Aus- 
trian army at Magenta (4 June) and at Solferino (24 
June). At the same time a revolution broke out in 
central Italy that had been planned by the followers 
of Mazzini, and the national union founded by him in 
Piedmont. Tuscany, the duchies, and the districts 
ruled by delegation received Piedmontese adminis- 
trators. In his choice of means the only principle fol- 
lowed by Cavour was to use whatever might prove 
advantageous to him. His connexion with men like 
Mazzini. Garibaldi, and others shows the lack of prin- 
ciple in nis conduct. Piedmont adopted the cause of 
the revolution. In the Peace of Zurich, 10 Nov., 1859, 
it was stipulated that Lombardy would be given to 
Piedmont. In 1860 the people of Savoy and Nice 
voted for union with France, so that these territories 
now became a part of France^ and the royal d3masty 
of Piedmont resigned its native land of Savoy. As 
compensation for this loss Piedmont received Tus- 
cany and Emilia. On 2 April, 1860, the "National 
Parliament'' was opened at Turin; the parliament, 
asserting the principle of nationality, demanded 
* ' Italy for the Italians ' ' . Soon other Italian domains 
were absorbed, and on 17 March, 1861, Victor Em- 
manuel II assumed the title of Kin^ of Italy (see 
Italy), whereby Piedmont and the Kingdom of Italy 
were merged into the united Kingdom of Italy. On 
29 March, 1861, Cavour announced that Rome was 
the future capital of united Italy. 

After the readjustment of ecclesiastical conditions 
in 1817 there were seven Church provinces in the 
Kingdom of Sardinia that had been formed and en- 
larged in the period following the Napoleonic era. 
These archdioceses were: in Piedmont, Turin with 10 
suffragans, to which in 1860 an eleventh, Aosta (which 
had belonged to Chamb^ry), was added; Vercellt 
with 5 suffragans; in Liguria, Genoa with 6 suffragans; 
in Savoy, Chambi§ry with 4 suffragans (after the with- 
drawal of Aosta only 3): on the Island of Sardinia the 
three Archdioceaes of CagUari, Oristano, and Sassari, 



with 8 suffragans. Both the Liberal movement and 
the intrigues of the revolutionary party in Piedmont 
were in every way inimical to the CJhurch. In March, 
1S48, the expulsion of the Jesuits was begun in the 
harshest manner. In October a law regarding instruc- 
tion was issued that was adverse to the Church. In 
the next year began the hostilities directed against 
Archbishop Luigi Franconi of Turin and other bish- 
ops. The Archbishops of Turin and Sassari were 
even imprisoned. In 1850 the ecclesiastical immuni- 
ties were suppressed and ecclesiastical jurisdiction was 
limited. In 1851 the Government regulated theo- 
logical instruction without the concurrence of the 
Church; in 1853* civil marriage was introduced; in 
1853 the office of the Apostolic royal steward was com- 
pletely secularized; in 1854 laws were issued directed 
against the monasteries; in 1855 the ecclesiastical 
academy of Superga was suppressed; in 1856 and the 
following years oppressive measures were issued 
against parish priests and parish administration, such 
as confiscation of the greater part of the lands of the 
Church. Using the party cry of a "free Church in a 
free state", Cavour and his confederates robbed the 
Church in many directions of. its essential rights and 
freedom, as well as of its rightful possessions. The 
same spirit of hostility to the Church was shown 
towards the papacy; the nunciature at Turin was 
suppressed. Thus the union of It^ly was carried on, 
even by Piedmont, that had allied itsdf to revolution- 
ary elements hostile to the Church, in a manner 
inimical throughout to the Church ana religion. This 
hostility continued to control the official measures as 
well as the entire course of the Italian Government. 

Monumenia hittoria pairia, I aqq. (Turin, 1836); Carutti, 
Regetta eomUum SabaudicB, marehionum in Italia, xuque cut an, 
i^oJ (Turin, 1889); Cibrabio, OpereUe e frammenli 9torici (Flor- 
ence, 1856); Idem, Origini eprogreaao delle istituzioni ddUa mo- 
nardiia di. Savoia (2nd ed., 2 voU., Florence, 1869) ; Cardtti, 
Storia dd regno di ViOorio Amadeo I J (Turin, 1856); Ricotti, 
^aria deUa monarehia Fiemontete (6 vols., Florence, 1861-49); 
Gaboito, Storia del Piemonte 1292-1S49 (Rome. 1894); GaI/- 
LBNGA, llietory of Piedmont (3 vols., London, 1854-55); Brof- 
FERio, Storia del Piemonte dal 1814 ai giomi noatri (5 vols.. Turin, 
1849-52); Valla uri, Storia delle Univerntii degli atudi in Pie- 
manU (Turin. 1845); Savio, Gli anliehi veaeovi d' Italia: I. // 
Piemonte (Turin, 1898); Mkyranebius, Pedemontium aacrumt 
I sq. (Turin, 1834 — )', HerqenrOthbr. Piemonte Unterhand- 
lungen mit dem hi. StuhU im 18. Jahrh. in Kaiholieche Studien, III 
(WQrsburg, 1876) ; Coloml4TTi, Megre. Luigi dei marehesi Pran- 
eani, ttreiteeeove di Torino 1832-1862 (Turin, 1902); Bxanchi. // 
eonU Camillo Catour (3rd ed., Turin. 1863) ; ICraus, Cavour. Die 
Srhd>ung Italiene im 19. Jahrh. in WeUgeschiehte in Charakterbil' 
dtm (Mainx. 1902) ; Manno, Bibliogre^fia etoriea degli etati delta 
monarehia d% Savoia (8 vols., Turin, 1884-1908). 

J. P. KiBSCH. 


. Piel, Petbr, a pioneer in the movement for reform 
of church music, b. at Kessewick, near Bonn, 12 Aug., 
1835; d. at Bcppard, on the Rhine, 21 Aug., 19&. 
Educated in the seminary for teachers at Kempen, 
he was instructed in music by Albert Michael Jop- 
ken (1828-78), and became professor of music at tne 
Seminary of Boppard in 1868, a position which he 
held until his death. During all the years of his in- 
cumbency Piel displaved extraordinary activity as 
composer, teacher, and critic. He wrote a number of 
masses, both for e<]ual and mixed voices, numerous 
motets, antiphons in honour of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary for four and eight voices, Magnificats in the 
eight Gregorian modes, and a Te Deum, all of which 
have enjoyed great vogue. Piel's compositions reveal 
the resourceful contrapuntist, and are of classic 
purity of style. His trios^ preludes, and postludes for 
the organ are models of finish and smoothness. It is 
as a teacher, however, and through the large number 
of distinguished musicians whom he formed that 
Piel exerted the greatest influence. His "Harmonie- 
lehre" has passed through a number of editions and 
is a standard book of instruction in liturgical music. 
In 1887 he received from the German Government 
the title of Royal Director of Music. 

HoKYBLER, Peter Piel (DOaaeldorf, 1907); Cdeilienverein*9 
Caialoo (Ratiabon. 1870). JoBEPH OtTEN. 

Pienza. See Chiusi-Pienza, Diocese of. 

Pie Pelicane, Jesu, Doxnine, the sixth quatrain 
of Adoro Te Devote (a. v.), sometimes used as a 
separate hymn at Benediction of the Most Blessed 

Pierius, priest and probably head master of the 
catechetical school at Alexandria conjointly with 
Achillas, flourished while Theonas was bishop of that 
city; d. at Rome after 300. His skill as an exegetical 
writer and as a preacher gained. for him the impel- 
lation, "Origen the Younger". Philip of SideyPho- 
tius, and others assert that he was a martyr. Hpw- 
ever, since St. Jerome assures us that he survived the 
Diocletian persecution and spent the rest of his life 
at Rome, the term '^ martyr can only mean that he 
underwent sufferings, not death, for ms Faith. The 
Roman Mart3rrology commemorates him on 4 Novem- 
ber. He wrote a work (fitfi^low) comprising twelve 
treatises or sermons (^^oc), in some of which he 
repeats the dogmatic errors attributed by some 
authors to Origen (q. v.), such as the subordination 
of the Holy Ghost to the Father and the Son, and the 
pre-existenoe of human souls. His known sermons are : 
one on the Gospel of St. Luke (tls rd jcard Aovxaw); 
an Easter sermon on Osee (c'f r6 ird^-xa '^^ '^^^ *^V) ; 
a sermon on the "Mother of God («-epi r^f dwrUov)'^ 
a few other Easter sermons; and a eulogy on St. 
Pamphilus, who had been one of his disciples (e't 
rhw ptoF rod iiy lov Uofi^IKov). Only some fragments 
of his writings are extant. They were edited by 
Routh in "Reliqui» Sacr®"^ III, 423-35, in P. G., 
X, 241-6. and, with newly discovered fragments, by 
Boor in Texte und Untersuchun^en zur Geschichte 
der altchristlichen Literatur", V, li ( (Leipzig, 1888), 
165-184. For an English translation see Salmond in 
"Ante-Nicene Fathers" (New York, 1896), 157. 

Radvord, Three Teachere of Alexandria (Cambridge, 1908); 
Bardbnhbwkr, Oeseh. der altehrial. Lit., II (Freiburg. 1903), 
198-203; Idem, Patrologie, tr. Shahan (Freiburg. 1908), 158; 
Harnack, Geach. der altchrist. Lit., I (Leiptig, 1893). 439-44; 
Acta SS., II Nov., 254-64. 

Michael Ott. 

Pierleone, Pibtro. See Anaclbtus II, Popb. 

. Pierre d'Ailly. See Aillt. 

Pierre de Caatelnau, Blessed, b. in the Diocese 
of Montpellier, Languedoc, now Department of H6- 
rault, France; d., 15 Jan., 1208. He embraced the ec- 
clesiastical state, and was appointed Archdeacon of 
Maguelonne (now Montpellier). Pope Innocent ill 
sent him (1199) with two Cistercians as his legate into 
the middle of France, for the conversion of the Al- 
bigenses. Some time later, about 120K2, he received the 
Cistercian habit at Fontfroide, near Narbonne. He 
was agiun confirmed as Apostolic legate and first inquis- 
itor. He gave himself untiringly to his work, strength- 
ening those not vet infected with error, reclaiming 
with tenderness those who had fallen but manifested 
good will, and pronouncing ecclesiastical censures 
against the obdurate. Whilst endeavouring to recon- 
cile Ravmond, Count of Toulouse, he was, by order 
of the latter, transpierced with a lance, crying as he 
fell, " M^ God forgive you as I do." His feast is cele- 
brated in the Cistercian order, by one part on 5 March, 
and by the other on 14 March. He is also honourea 
as a mar^ in the Dioceses of Carcassonne and 
Treves. His relics are interred in the church of the 
ancient Abbey of St-Gilles. 

Breviariumcittercienae (5 March) ; Chalsmot, Serxee eanctorum 
et Beatorum «. o. e. (Paris, 1670); Annua eiatercienaia (Wettingen, 
1682); Henriqusz, Menologium ciatercienae (Antwerp, 1630); 
Cauvbt, Stude hiatorique aur Fontfroide (Montpellier, 1875); 
Carstto, Santorale ciatercienae, II (Turin, 1708). 

Edmoxd M. Obrecht. 

Pierre de Maricourt, sumamed Peter the 
Pilgrim {Petrus 'Peregrinus)^ phvsician of the Middle 
Ages. Under the name of Magister Petrus de 
Mahame-curia, Picardus", he is quoted by Roger 




Bacon in his "Opus Majus'' as the onlv author of his 
time who possessed an exact knowleage of perspec- 
tive. According to Bacon he came from Picardy, and 
the village of Maricourt is situated in the Depart- 
ment of the Somme, near P^ronne. He has left a re- 
markable treatise on the magnet, ''Epistola Petri 
Peregrini de Maricourt ad Sygerum de Foucauoourt, 
militem, de mamete'^: Syger de Foucaucourt was a 
friend and neighbour ol the author, his domain border- 
ing on that of Maricourt. It is dated 8 August, 1269, 
and bears the legend: Actum in castriaf in obsidiane 
LuceruB (done in camp during the si^e of Luceria), 
whence wp know that the author was in the army of 
Charles of Anjou, who, in 1260, laid sie^e to the city 
of Lucera or Nocera, the only detail of his life known. 
The sobriquet '^Pilgrim" would lead us to suppose, 
in addition, that he was a crusader. The ''Epistola 
de magnete" is divided into two parts. The first, 
a model of inductive reasoning based on definite ex- 
periences correctly interpreted, sets forth the funda- 
mental laws of magnetism. His part seems to have 
been, not the discovery of these laws, but their pres- 
entation in logical order. In the second division, less 
admirable, an attempt is made to prove that with the 
help of magnets it is possible to realize perpetual mo- 
tion. From medieval times the work was exceedingly 
popular; in 1326 Thomas Bradwardine quotes it in 
nis "Tractatus de proportionibus'', and after his time 
the masters of Oxtora University make frequent use 
of it. The manuscripts containing it are very numer- 
ous, and it has been printed a number of times. The 
first edition was issued at Augsburg, 1558, by Achilles 
Gasser. In 1572 Jean Taisner or Taisnier publi^ed 
from the press of Johann Birkmann of Cologne a work 
entitled ^'Opusculum perpetua memoria dignissimum, 
de natura magnetis et ejus effectibus. Item de motu 
continuo''. In this celebrated piece of plagiarism 
Taisnier presents, as though from his own pen, the 
''Epistola de magnete^' of Pierre de Maricourt and a 
treatise on the fall of bodies by Gianbattista Bene- 
detti. The "Epistola de magnete'^ was later issued 
by Libri (Histoire des sciences math6matiques en 
Italic, II, Paris, 1838; note v, pp. 487-505), but this 
edition was full of defects; correct editions were pub- 
hshed by P. D. Timoteo Bertelli (in "Bulletino di 
bibliografia e di storia delle scienze matematiche e 
fisiche pubblicata da B. Boncampagni", I, 1868, pp. 
70-80) and G. Hellmann ("Neudrucke von Schriften 
und Karten Uber Meteorologie und Erdmagnetismus, 
No. 10, Rara magnetica'', 6erlin, 1898). A transla- 
tion into English has been made by Silvanufi P. 
Thompson ("Peter Peregrinus of Maricourt, Epistle 
to Sygerus of Foucaucourt, Soldier, concerning the 
Magnet '\ Chiswick Press, s. d.), also by Brother 
Arnold ("The Letter of retrus Peregrinus on the 
Magnet, a. d. 1269", with introductory note by 
Brother Potamian, New York. 1904). 

Bertelu, Sopra PvUro Peregrino ai Maricourt e la sua EpiaUAa 
de MagneU in BvUeiino publieala da B. Bonemnpaan** I (18^) i 
1-32; Idem. Sulla BpiaUAa di Bietro Peregrino di MarieouH e 
iopra aleuni trovati e teorie magneliche dd secoio XIII, ibid., 
0^-09, 319-420; Idbii, Inlomo a due eodiei Vatieani deUa Bjnatola 
de tnagnele di Pietro Peregrino di Maricourt ed aUe prime oeeer- 
9aeioni della dedinatione magneticat ibid., IV (1871). 303-31; 
BONCOMPAOKI, Intorno alle editioni della Bpietola de magnete 
di Pietro Peregrino de Maricourt, ibid., 332-39. 

Pierre Duhem. 

Pierre Mathieu. See Liaer Septimus. 

Pierron, Jean, missionary, b. at Dun-sur-Meuse, 
France, 28 Sept., 1631; date and place of death un- 
known. He entered the Jesuit novitiate at Nancy, 21 
Nov., 1650, and after studying at Pont-^-Mousson he 
became an instructor at Reims and Verdun; he com- 
pleted the curriculum in 1665 and spent two years 
more as an instructor at Metz. On his arrival in 
Canada in June, 1667, he was sent to the Iroquois 
mission of Sainte-Marie. In a letter written the same 
year he described his impressions of the country, the 

characteristics and customs of the savages, and e& 
pressed an admiration for the Iroquois language, which 
reminded him of Greek. He arrived at Tionontoguen, 
the principal village of the Mohawks, on 7 Oct., 1668, 
where he replaced Father Fremin.. These people were 
one of the most flourishing of the Iroauois nations, 
vaUant and proud warriors, and difficult to convert. 
Father Pierron made use of pictures which he painted 
himself in order to make his teachings more impres- 
sive, and invented a game by means of which the In- 
dians learned the doctrines and devotions of the 
Church; he taught the children to read and write. He 
spent one winter in Acadia to ascertain if it were po»- 
sible to re-establish the missions which had been ex- 
pelled in 1655, and travelled through New England, 
Maryland (wluch at that time had a Catholic gover- 
nor, Charles Calvert), and Virginia; returning to the 
Iroquois, he worked among them until 1677 and went 
to France in the following year. He was a man of 
rare virtue, and during all his missionary career fought 
against a natural repugnance to the Iroquois. 

Ed. Tkwaitbs. Jeeuit Rdatume (Cleveland. 1896-1901) ; Camp- 
bell, Pioneer Prieeta of North America (New York, 1909). 

J. Zevelt. 

Pienon, Philippe, b. at Ath, Hainaut (Belgium), 
4 January, 1642; d. at Lorette, Quebec, 1688. At 
the age of eighteen he entered the Jesuit novitiate at 
Toumai, and pursued his studies at Louvain, Lille, 
and Douay. He was an instructor at ,Armenti^res 
and Bethune before he went to Canada in 1666, where 
he taught grammar in the college at Quebec> and pre- 
sented a successful Latin play on the Passion of Our 
Lord. After studying theology for two years he was 
ordained in 1669, then worked among the Indians at 
Prairie de la Madeleine and Sillery. From 1673 to 
1683 he (Ud excellent work b^ spreading Christianity 
among the Hurons of the Makinac mission. In a letter 
from St. Ignace he described how his church increased 
in numbers and grew strong in faith. Later, from 1683 
he was a missionai^ among the Sioux west of Lake 
Superior, and remained as such until his death. 

Ed. Thwaites. Jeeuit Relatione (Cleveland, 1896-1901). 

J. Zevelt. 

Pietism, a movement within the ranks of Protest- 
antism, originating in the reaction agunst the fruitless 
Protestant orthodoxy of the seventeenth century, and 
aiming at the revival of devotion and practical Chris- 
tianity. Its appearance in the German Lutheran 
Church, about 1670, is connected with the niune of 
Spener. Similar movements had preceded it in the 
Reformed Church of the Netherlands (Gisbert 
Voetius, Jodocus von Lodensteyn) and on the German 
Lower Rhine (Gerhard Tersteegen). Among German 
Lutherans the mystics Valentin Weigel and Johannes 
Amdt an'' the theologians Johann Gerhard, Johann 
Matthias Meyfart, and Theophilus Grossgebauer may 
be regarded as precursors of Spener. 

Phnipp Jakob Spener, bom in 1635 at Rappoltsweiler 
in Alsace, had been from his earliest years, under the 
influence of the pious Countess Agathe von Rappolt- 
stein, familiar with such ascetical works as Arndt's 
"Sechs Bticher vom wahren Christenthum". At 
Geneva, whither he went as student in 1660, he was 
profoundly impressed by Jean de Labadie, then active 
as a Reformed preacher, but later a separatist fanatic. 
Spener found his first sphere of practical work at 
Frankfort on the Main, where he was appointed pastor 
and senior in 1666. His sermons, in which he em- 
phasized the necessity of a lively faith and the sane- 
tification of daily Ufe, brought him many adherents 
among the more serious of his hearers; but recognizing 
the impossibihty of leading the people at large to the 
desired degree of perfection, he conceived the idea of 
an ecclesima in ecdesiay established in 1670 the so- 
called ''Collegia pietatis" (whence the name Pietists), 


i e private aaBemblies in his own house for pious read- promoted the dissemination of the Bible through the 
ing Mid mutual edification, and wrote "Pia desideria establishment (1710), by Freiherr von Qanstein, of a 
Oder herzliches Verlangen nach gotteefalliger Besse- bible house at the Halle orphan asylum. The Pietists 
rung der wahren evangelischen Kirche"* (1675). After on the whole preserved the doctrinal content of Lu- 
criticising the prevalent abuses, he makes six sugges- theran dogma, but treated systematic theology and 
tions for the improvement of ecclesiastical conditions: philosophy as quite secondary. In preaching against 
In view of the inadequacy of sermons for the purpose, the prevalent laidty of morals they relegated to the 
private gatherings should be held to secure among the background the Lutheran dogma of justification by 
people a more thorough acquaintance with the Word faith alone and insisted on a life of active devotion, 
of God; the idea of a universal priesthood, which had and the doctrine of repentance, conversion, and regen- 
not attained its rightful significance in tne previous eration. The Pietist conventicles sought to further 
development of the Lutheran Church, was to oe more the "penitential conflict" leading to regeneration by 
fully realized; with the knowledge of Christianity was prayer, devout reading, and exhortations. The so- 
to be closely joined the exercise of charity and the called "adiaphora", theatres, dancing, etc., were 
spirit of forraveness; the attitude towards unbehevers- regarded as sinful. After the foundation of the Uni- 
snould be determined upon not by a controversial versity of Halle the campaign against Pietism was 
spirit, but by the charitable desire of winning these pursued with increased vigour by the orthodox Lu- 
souls; the theological course should be reformed in therans, notably Samuel Schelwig at Danzig, Valen- 
order to spur the students not* only to diligence, but tin Alberti at Leipzig, and the theological faculty of 
also to a devout life, in which the professors should set Wittenberg, with Johann Deutschmann at its head, 
the example; in preaching, rhetoric should be aban- Later came Valentin Ernst Ldscher (d. 1747), against 
doned and stress laid upon inculcating fiuth and a whom Pietism was defended by Joachim Lange, pro- 
living, practical Christianity. Si)ener further de- fessor at Halle. During these struggles the founders 
fended his ideas of a universal priesthood in ''Das of Pietism had passed away, Spener m 1705, Francke 
geistliche Priesterthum, ausgottlichem Wort ktirzlich in 1727, Breithaupt in 1732, and then followed the 
b^hrieben" (1677). His "Pia Desideria" won him period of decUne. 

many adherents, but also aroused violent opposition Meanwhile, despite opposition, the influence of 

among Lutheran theologians. Pietism had spread, and its prestige, with the support 

A wider sphere of activity opened to Spener in 1686 of King Freclerick I and Frederick William I, sur- 

when he was appointed court preacher at Dresden, vived Francke's death. Frederick William I decreed 

During the same year, August Hermann Francke. (1729) that all theologians desiring appointments in 

Paul Anton, and Johann Kaspar Schade established Prussia should study at Halle for two years; but the 

at Leipzig, along the line of Spener's ideas, the "Col- favour shown the Pietists ceased with the accession 

legia philobiblica", for the-practical and devotional of Frederick II. Besides Halle, the Universities of 

explanation of Holy Scripture, which attracted large Konigsberg and Giessen aided in the spread of Piet- 

numbers of masters and students. The Pietist move- ism. It had also a powerful patron in Frederick IV, 

ment at Leipzig, however, came to an end a few years King of Denmark, who encouraged the movement in 

later owing to the opposition of the theological faculty, his country, sent Danish students of theology to Halle, 

headed by Professor Johann Benedict Carpzov. The and requested Francke to recommend missionaries 

Pietists were accused of false doctrines, contempt for for the Danish East Indian possessions. At Wiirtem- 

public worship and the science of theology, and sepa- ber^ Pietism took on a special character; while hold- 

ratistic tendencies. The "Collegia philoDiblica" was ing m essentials to the ideas of Spener and Francke, it 

dissolved in 1690 and the leaders of the movement, for- was more moderate, adhered more closely to the or- 

bidden to lecture on theology, left Leipzig. Spener, ganization and theology of the Lutheran Church, kept 

who had fallen into disfavour with the Elector of Sax- clear of eccentricities, had more scholarly interests, 

ony, removed in 1691 to Berlin, where he was ap- and flourished longer than the Pietism of Northern 

pomted provost to the church of St. Nicholas and Germany. Francke, who had travelled through WOr- 

counsellor to the consistory. Pietism was also at- temberg in 1717, was held in great veneration, while 

tacked in Carpzov's Blaster programme of 1691 and there was no intercourse at aU with the later rerae- 

the anonymous treatise ''Imago Pietismi" (1691), sentatives of Pietism in Northern Germany. The 

probably the work of Pastor Roth of Halle. A lively leader of the movement at Wtirtemberg was Johann 

exchange of controversial pamphlets ensued. Spener's Albrecht Bengel (d. 1752), who, like many other 

call to Berlin was of great significance for Pietism, Wtirtemberg theologians, had studied at Halle; with 

as he here enjoyed the full confidence of Prince Fred- him were associated Eberhard Weismann and Frie- 

erick III (later King Frederick I of Prussia) and drich Christoph Oetinger. A separatistic community 

wielded a decisive influence in the selection of pro- which grew out of Pietism was the "Hermhtiter," 

fessors for the theological faculty of the recently whose founder. Count von Zinzendorf, had been edu- 

founded University of Halle. Francke, who had been cated in Francke's institutions at Halle. In Swit- 

working at Erfurt since his departure from Leipzig, zerland. Pietism was widespread, specially in the 

went to Halle as professor and pastor in January, cantons of Bern. Zurich, Basle, and Waadt. 

1692; his friend, Joachim Justus Breithaupt, had pre- So far as it followed the paths traced by Spener and 

ceded him in October. 1691, as first professor of theol- Francke, Pietism produced some beneficial results, 

oflpr and director of the theological seminary. Some- In the subjective bias of the whole movement, how- 

what later Paul Anton, formerly a colleague of ever, there lay from the beginnning the danger of many 

Francke's at Leipzig, also received a chair at Halle, abuses. It often degenerated into fanaticism, with 

Professors in other faculties, like the celebrated jurist alleged prophecies, visions, and mystical states (e. g.. 

Christian Thomasius, organizer of the new university, bloody sweats). This decadent Pietism led to the 

^ . _ . ^ orgies (e. g. the Wittgenstein scandals and the 

movement m Lutheran Germany. Buttlar gang). Among the theologians who, starting 

Francke ranks high also m the history of education, as Pietists, advanced to an independent position, 

owing to the establishment (1695) of his orphan asy- quite at variance with organized Protestantism, the 

XII.— 6 


of orthodox Christianity. Though the founders of vam Marci Beneventani astronomiam '' (Paris, 1522); 

Pietism had no idea of forsaking the basis of Lutheran and ** Defensio Apologias adversus Marci Beneven- 

dogma, the Pietistic movement, with its treatment of tani astronomiam (Paris, 1622). As a theologian he 

dogma as a secondary matter and its indifference to zealously defended the authority of the Church 

variations in doctrine, prepared the ground for the agidnst the Reformers. His most important theologi- 

theological rationalism of the period of enlighten- cal work is a rejoinder to Henry VIII of England and 

ment. Johann Salomo Semler, the father of ration- is entitled: '^merarchise ecclesiasticsD assertio'' (d^o- 

alism, came from the Halle school of Pietism, and his logne, 1538, dedicated to Paul III; later editions, 1544, 

appointment as professor of theology at the Univer- 1558, 1572). In reply John Lebmd wrote his ^'Anti- 

sity of Halle in 1752 opened the way to the ascendancy philarchia" ; cf. '' Diet. Nat. Biog.'' (new ed., London, 

of rationalism, against which the devout Pietists 1909), 'XI, 893. Pighius also wrote: '' Apologia indicti 

were as powerless as the representatives of Protestant a Paulo III. ConciUi, adversus Lutheranas confce- 

orthodoxy. Pietism revived in Protestant Germany derationes" (Cologne, 1537; Paris, 1538); ^'De libero 

and Protestant Switzerland, early in the nineteenth hominis arbitrio et divina jgratia libri X" (Cologne, 

century, as a reaction against the rationalistic en- 1542), against Luther and Calvin; ''Controversiarum 

Ughtenment and a response to more deeply felt reli- prsBcipuarum in Comitiis Ratisponensibus tracta- 

gious needs. /. far-reaching activity along these lines iarum . . . explicatio (Cologne, 1542). To this were 

was exerted in many parts of Germany and Switzer- added the two treatises: '^Qusestio de divortiatorum 

land by Freif rau von KrUdener by means of her ser- novis coniugiis et uxorum pluralitate sub lege evan^e- 

mons on penance. Tract societies and associations lica" and Diatriba de actis VI. et VII. Synodi". 

for propagating home missions did much to promote Other theological works were: ''Ratio componendo- 

the spirit of Pietism. On the other hand, along with mm dissidiorum et sarciendse in religione concordiae" 

good results, this movement again degenerated into ((Cologne, 1542), and his last worl!, "Apologia adver- 

mystical fanaticism and sectarianism (e. g., the bus Martini Buceri calumnias" (Mainz, 1543). A 

''sanctimonious hypocrites" at Kdnigsberg, about treatise "Adversus Grsecorum errores", dedicated to 

1835; the adherents of Schonherr, Ebel, andDiestel). Clement VII, is preserved in manuscript in the Vati- 

There are also connecting links between the subjectiv- can Library. 

ism of the Pietists and the theological hberahsm of Pighius was in his convictions a faithful adherent of 

Albrecht Ritschl and his school, whose insistence on the Church and a man of the best intentions, but on 

interior religious experience in the form of feeling is some points he advanced teachings which are not in 

a basic idea of Pietism, although the Bitschlian school harmony with the Catholic position. One was his 

is opposed by devout Pietists as well as by Orthodox opinion that original sin was nothing more than the 

Lutnerans. sin of Adam imputed to every child at birth, without 

ScRMiD.Z>ie(7Mc^<2MPiM<MmtM(N(5rdlingen, 1863):Tholucx. any inherent taint of sinfulness being in the child 

ai^JS^Z^te (iriS. •i^)r'H^^o^TlS •*««• I» th« doctrine of justification al?o.he made 

Pietiamua (Bonn, 1880-88); Sachasb. Urapning u. Weten de* too many concessions toFrotestants. He on^nated the 

Pieiitmua (Wiesbaden, 1884) ; HObbneb, Ueber den Pietistntu in doctrine of the doublc righteOUSneSS by wmch man is 

pZ^^t'^^'ii^l,^' r7^!li;]!r*?S^n**77''rJ'^* '^ ^^"^i' justified, that has justly been characterized as "semi- 

rreiKtrcM %n iiacMen (^wiclcau, 1901;, 17— loo; Hadobn, Gesch, V xi. • »» * j* a xi.* xi. ai^ • * j 

de« Pietismtu in den schweizerxBchen re/ormierten Kireken (Ck)n- Luthcramsm . According to this theory, theunputed 

stance, 1901) ; Rennbb, Lebentbilder au9 der PietiateneeU (Bremen, righteousness of Christ is the formal Cause of the JUS- 

^^\\iS?^r'^^^^lL''A^T%'t!.1^^^ tification of man before God, while the individual 

ed., 1853); ubunsbbq, jtA. J. Spener (Gdttinffen, 1803-1906): 'ux •!_ x* -i • _^j.j 

NiEMBTBB, A. H. Francke (Halle. 1794); Gubbickb, A. A. nghteousness inherent m man IS always imperfect and 

Pvancke (Halle, 1827); Kbambb, A. H, Francke (Halle, 1880-2); therefore insufficient. These opinions of Pighius were 

f^^^F^^^lLi,"'J^U^ ^'vS'^' ^^™' adopted by Johannes Cropper and CanKal Con- 

A* H. rraneke (Halle, 1902); Katbbb, ChrxHxan Thomaetue u. ±, • •. j ••' ±a i* 1 xu o :i ^r rp x ^t 

der PieUemtu, supplement to JahreaberieJU dee WWielm Oymna- tanm^urmg the dlSCUSSlon at the Cx>uncil Of Irent Of 

nuffM in Hambiurg (Hamburg. 1900). the "Decretum de Justificatione " they were miun- 

Friedrich Lauchert. tained b;y Seripando, but the Council, with due regard 

Pietaro di Murrone. See Cblbstinb V, Saint, (or the ideas that were justifiable in themselves, re- 

Pqpiq ' * jected the untenable compromise theory itself. 

LxNSBNMANN, Albertits Pighiua und aein tkeologieeher Stant^ 

PighiuB (PiooHE), ALBERT theologian, mathenuj- ^^J&'^^H^i^&'^^lli ']^;S'^V^:i 

tician, and astronomer, b. at Kampen, Overyssel, Xarfa F.(Freiburgim Br., 1879), 167 8q.;DrrTBrcH.0Ia«paro Con- 
Holland, about 1490; d. at Utrecht, 26 Dec., 1542. <arin»(Braunaberg, 1885), 660-69; Hbfblb-HebobkbOtheb, Con- 
He studied philosophy and began the study of the- «?»«J<'"<^'^-. '^ (^^^te« r^\A^?^^' ®^S^i %!S"V^ 

_i ^ A r ^.. • ^L ^ A j_: * tta t- a 1 X "'""^^ ErUatehungsgeech. des TrxerUer Recht/erttffungBdeeretea (Paderborn, 

OlOgy at LiOUVam, where Adrian of Utrecht, later Pope 1909), 165 sq. His correspondence was published by Fbibdens- 

Adnan VI, was one of his teachers. Pighius com- bubq. BeilrOge zum Briefvecheel der kathol. QeUhrten DetUeehlanda 

pleted his studies at Colome and received m 1517 the fTo^f "TTS^m"'*^'^ ^ Zeiuchrifi fur Kirchengeeck., XXIII 

degree of Doctor of Theology. He then followed his Friedrich Lauchbrt. 
teacher Adrian to Spain, and^ when the latter became 

pope, to Rome, where he also remained during the Pignatelli, Venerable -Giuseppe Maria, b. 27 

reigns of Clement VII and Paul III, and was repeat- December, 1737, in Saragossa, Spain; d. 11 Novom- 

edly employed in ecclesiastico-political embassies, ber, 1811. His family was of Neapolitan descent and 

He had taught mathematics to Cardinal Alessandro noble hneage. After finishing his early studies in 

Famese, afterwards Paul III; in 1535 Paul III ap- the Jesuit College of Saragossa, he entered the Societv 

pointed him provost of St. John's at Utrecht, where of Jesus (8 May, -1753) notwithstanding his family'iB 

he had held a canonry since 1524. At the religious opposition. On concluding his ecclesiastical studies 

disputation of Ratisbon in 1541 he was on the Catho- he was ordained, and tau^t at Saragossa. In 1766 

lie side* the Governor of Saragossa was held responsible for 

Among hb writings the following belong to the the threatened famine, and so enraged was the popu- 

sphere of his mathematico-astronomical studies: "As- lace against him that they were about to destroy his 

trologiffi defensio adversus prognosticatorum vulgus, palace by fire. Pignatefli's persuasive power over 

qui annuas praedictiones edunt et se astrologos men- the people averted the calamity. Despite the letter 

tiuntur " (Paris, 1518) ; also the treatise addressed to of thanks sent by Charles III the Jesuits were accused 

I^ X upon the reform of the calendar, "De squinoc- of instigating the above-mentioned riot. Pignatelli's 

tiarum solstitiorumque inventione et de ratione pas- refutation of the calumny was followed by the decree 

chalis celebrationis deque restitutione ecclesiastic! of expulsion of the Fathers of Saragossa (4 April, 

Calondarii (Paris, 1520); also "Apologia adversus no- 1767). Minister Aranda offered to reinstate Nioola 



and Giuseppe Pignatelli, providing they abandon their 
order, but in spite of Giuseppe's ill-health they stood 
firm . Not permitted by Clement III to land at Civit4 
Vwchia, with the other Jesuits of Aragon, he repaired 
to 8t. Boniface in Corsica where he displajred singular 
ability for organisation in providing for nve hundred 
fathers and students. His sister, the Duchess of 
Acerra, aided him with money ana provisions. He 
oreanized studies and maintidned regular observance. 
When France assumed control of Corsica, he was 
obliged to return to Genoa. He was again detailed to 
secure a location in the legation of Ferrara, not only 
for the fathers of his own province of Aragon, but also 
for those of Peru and Mexico, but the community was 
dissolved in August, 1773. The two Pignatelli brothers 
were then obliged to betake themselves to Bologna, 
where they Uved in retirement (being forbidden to 
exercise the sacred ministrv). They devoted them- 
selves to study and Pignatelli himself collected books 
and manuscripts bearing on the history of the Society. 
On ascertaining from Pius IV that the Society of 
Jesus still survived in White Russia, he desired to 
be received there. For various reasons he was obliged 
to defer his departure. During this delay he was 
invited, on the instance of Ferdinand, Duke of Parma, 
to re-establish the Society in his States; and in 1793, 
having obtained through Catharine II a few fathers 
from Russia, with other Jesuits, an establishment was 
made. On 6 July, 1797, Pignatelli there renewed 
his vows. In 1799 he was appointed master of 
novices in Colemo. On the decease of the Duke of 
Parma, the States of Parma were placed under alle- 
giance to France. Notwithstanding this fact, the 
Jesuits remained undisturbed for eighteen months, 
during which period Pignatelli was appointed Pro- 
vindiu of Italy. After consTderable discussion he ob- 
tained the restoration of the Jesuits in Naples. The 
papal Brief (30 Julv, 1804) was much more favourable 
than that granted for Parma. The older Jesuits soon 
asked to be received back; many, however, engaged 
in various ecclesiastical callings, remained at their 
posts. Schools and a college were opened in Sicily, 
out when this part of the kingdom fell mto Napoleon s 
power, the dispersion of the Jesuits was ordered; 
but the decree was not rigorously executed. Pi^a- 
telli founded colleges in Rome, Tivoli, and Orvieto, 
and the fathers were invited to other cities. During 
the exile of Pius VII and the French occupation the 
Society continued unmolested, owing largelv to the 
prudence and the merits of Pignatelli; he even 
managed to avoid the oaths of allegiance to Napo- 
leon. He also secured the restoration of the Society 
in Sardinia (1807). Under Gregory XVI the cause of 
his beatification was introduced. 

NoNBLL, Bl V. P. Jo»i At. PignaieUi J. en m eatindion 
y reatableeimierUo (3 vols., Manresa, 1893-4); Boebo, Istoria 
dd V. Padn Qiut. M. PignaUlli (Rome. 1856). 

U. Benigni. 

Pike, William^Venerable, martyr, bom in Dor- 
setshire; died at Dorchester, Dec, 1591. He was a 
ioiner, and lived at West Moors, West Parley. On 
his way from Dorchester to his home, he fell in with 
the venerable martyr Thomas Pilchard, who con- 
verted him, probably in 1586. At his trial for being 
reconciled with the See of Rome 'Hhe bloody question 
about the Pope's supremacy was put to him, and he 
frankly confessed that he maintcuned the authority 
of the Roman See; for which he was condemned to 
die a traitor's death". When they asked him to re- 
cant in order to save his hfe and his family, ''he 
boldly replied that it did not become a son of Mr. 
PUchard to do so". "Until he died, Mr. Pilchard's 
name was constantly on his lips." Being asked at 
death what had moved him to that resolution etc., 
he said ''Nothing but the smell of a pilchard". The 
date of his death is not recorded, but m the Menology 
his name is imder 22 Dec. 

PoLLKN, AcU of the Bngliah Martyrs (London. 1891). 287; 
English MaHyrt 1684-1608 (London, 1008), 289; Challonbr, 
Missionary Pfiests, I, no. 80: Stanton, Menology of England and 
WaUs (London. 1887). 606. 689. 

John B. Wainewright. 

Pilar, NuESTRA Se5^ora del (Our Lady of the 
Pillar), a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa. 
Spsdn, containing a miraculous image of the Blessea 
Virgin, which is the object of very special devotion 
throughout the kingdom. The image, which is placed 
on a marble pillar, whence the name of tho cnurch, 
was crowned in 1905 with a crown designed by the 
Marquis of Grifii, and valued at 450,000 pesetas 
(£18,750). The present spacious church in Baroque 
style was begun in 1681. According to an ancient 
Spanish tradition, given in the Roman Breviary (for 
12 October, Ad. mat., lect. vi), the original shnne 
was built by St. James the Apostle at the wish of the 
Blessed Virgin, who appeared to him as he was praying 
by the bamu of the Ebro at Saragossa. There has 
been much discussion as to the truth of the tradition. 
Mgr L. Duchesne denies, as did Baronius, the coming 
of St. James to Spain, and reproduces arguments 
founded on writings of the Twelfth (Ecumenical Coun- 
cil,> discovered by Loaisa, but rejected as spurious by 
the Jesuit academician Fita and manv others. Those 
who defend the tradition adduce the testimony of 
St. Jerome (P. L., XXIV, 373) and that of the Moa- 
arabic Office. The oldest written testimony of devo* 
tion to the Blessed Virgin in Saragossa usually quoted 
is that of Pedro Librana (1155). Fita has published 
■data of two Christian tombs at Saragossa, datiQg from 
Roman days, on which the Assumption of the Blessed 
Virgin is represented. 

Ada 8S., VI July; Fl6rxs t Ruoo, Espotia aaorada^ III. IV, 
XXX; TolrA. Venida de Saniiaqo d B»paHa (Madrid. 1797); 
Natalu Alexander, Hist, eed.. Ill; Duchesne, Annates du 
Midi (1900) ; RodrIques in Appendix to Los seis primeros siglos 
de la iglesia (Span. tr. of Duchesne's work, Barcelona, 1910) ; Fita 
in Ratdn y Pe (Madrid, 1901, 1902, 1904); Noauis. Hist. erU, 
apol. de la Yirgen del Pilar (Madrid. 1862) ; Quadrado. EspafUi, 
sus monumenios . . . Aroifdn (Barcelona, 1886); Mensajero del 
Corazdn de Jeads (Madrid, 19()5) ; Messenger of the Sacred HeaH 
(New York, 1894). 

J. M. March. 
Pilate, Acre of. See Apocrypha, sub-title III. 

Pilate, Pontius. — ^After the deposition of the eld- 
est son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his 
father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule 
of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, 
succeeding Valerius Gratus in a. d. 26, had greater 
authority than most procurators under the empire, 
for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial ad- 
ministration, he had supreme power judicially. His 
unusually long period of office (a. d. 2&-36) covers the 
whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist 
and of Jesus Christ. As procurator Pilate was neces- 
sarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know 
Httle of his funily or origin. Some have thought that 
he was only a freedman, deriving his name from 
pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems 
to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a 
freedman would attain to a post of such importance. 
The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his 
appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official 
residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod 
at Csesarea; where there was a military force of about 
3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem 
at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of 
strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, 
hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the 
time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever 
covered with infamy because of the part which he 
took in this matter, though at the time it appeared 
to him of small importance. 

Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right 
and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without 
personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to 




pressure from those whose interest it is that he should 
act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted 
Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, 
but gave way at once when his own position was 
threatened. The other events of his rule are not of 
venr great importance. Philo (Ad Gidum^ 38) speaks 
of him as innexible, merciless, and obstmate. The 
Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not 
only very severe, but showed little consideration for 
their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the 
unage of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in 
Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have 
ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a 
later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt 
shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of 
the remonstrances of the people. The incident men- 
tioned in St. Luke, xiii, 1, of the Gahlseans whose 
blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not else- 
where referred to, but is quite in keeping with other 
authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anx- 
ious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the 
emperor concerning him. The tendency, already dis- 
cernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the 
efiforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as 
lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes 
further in the apocrypnal Gospels and led in later 
years to the claim that he actually became a Chnstiach. 
The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and 
assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his 
wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes 
back to the second century, and may be found in 
Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church 
assi^ps her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and 
Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Cruci- 
fixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from 
which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature 
originated. Some of these were Christian in origin 
(Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, 
but these have all perished. 

His rule was brought to an end through trouble 
which arose in Samana. An impostor had given out 
that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels 
which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on 
Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in 
large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the 
whole affair was a blind, covering some other more 
important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, 
and many were slain. They appealed to VitelUus, who 
was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing 
pohtical had been intended, and complaining of 
Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to 
Rome to answer their charges, but before he could 
reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died. That 
is the last that we know of Pilate from authentic 
sources, but legend has been busy with his name. He 
is said by Eusebius (H. E., ii, 7), on the authority of 
earlier writers, whom he does not name, to have fallen 
into great misfortunes under Caligula, and eventually 
to have committed suicide. Other details come from 
less respectable sources. His body, says the ''Mors 
Pilati", was thrown into the Tiber, but the waters 
were so disturbed by evil spirits that the body was 
taken to Vienne and sunk in the Rhone, where a monu- 
ment, called Pilate's tomb, is still to be seen. As the 
same thing occurred there, it was again removed and 
sunk in the lak^ at Lausanne. It« final disposition was 
in a deep and lonely mountain tarn, which, according 
to later tradition, was on a mountain, still called 
Pilatus, close to Lucerne. The real origin of this name 
is, however, to be sought in the cap of cloud which 
often covers the mountain, and serves as a barometer 
to the inhabitants of Lucerne. There are many other 
legends about Pilate in the folklore of Germany, but 
none of them have the slightest authority. 

MOllkr, Pontiiu PikUuH aer fUnfle Prokuralor von Judda 
(Stuttgart, 1888), gives a licit of earlier writings on Pilate; 
KoaiiREa, Ponce Filale (Paris. 1883) ; Waltjer. Pontius Pilatus, 
fleiM ttudie (AnuBterdam, 1888); Oluvibr, Ponce Pilate §t Ua 

Ponlii in Heme Biblique, V (1896) , 247-64. 594-600; Innbs. Trial of 
Jesus Christ (London, 1899), a legal monograph; for apocryphal 
literature see Lipbius, Die Pilatus Aden (Leipsig, 1871). 

Arthur S. Barnes. 

Pilchard (Pilcher), Thomas Venerable, mar- 
tyr, b. at Battle, Sussex, 1557; d. at Dorchester, 21 
March, 1586-7. He became a Fellow of Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford, in 1576, and took the degree of M.A., in 
1579, resigning his fellowship the following year. He 
arrived at Reims 20 Nov., 1581, and was ordained 
priest at Laon, March, 1583, and was sent on the 
mission. He was arrested soon after, and banished; 
but returned almost immediately. He was again 
arrested early in March, 1586-7, and imprisoned in 
Dorchester Gaol, and in the fortnight between com- 
mittal to prison and condemnation converted thirty 
persons. He was so cruelly drawn upon the hurdle 
that he was fainting when he came to the place of 
execution. When the rope was cut, being still alive 
he stood erect under the scaffold. The executioner, 
a cook, carried out the sentence so clumsily that the 
victim, turning to the sheriff, exclaimed ''Is this then 
your justice, Mr. Sheriff?" According to another 
account "the priest raised himself and putting out his 
hands cast forward his own bowels, crying ' Miserere 
mei ' " . Father Warf ord says : " There was not a priest 
in the whole West of England, who, to my knowledge, 
was his equal in virtue. 

PoLiJEN, Acts of the English MaHyrs (London, 1891), 261-3.320- 
1; Enghth Martyrs 1584-1603 in Cath. Rec. Soc, (London, 1908). 
288-9, 395; Foster. Alumni Oxonienses (Oxford, 1891); Knox, 
Douay Diaries (London, 1878), paasim; Challonbr, Missionary 
Priests, I, no. 42. JoHN B. WaINEWRIGHT. 

Pilgrimage of Qrace, the name giveji to the reli- 
gious rising in the north of England, 1536. The cause 
of this great popular movement, which extended 
over five counties and found svmpathizers all over 
England, was attributed by Robert Aske, the leader 
of uie insurgents, to "spreading of heretics, suppres- 
sion of houses of religion and other matters touching 
the commonwealth". And in his "Narrative to the 
King", he declared: "In all parts of the realm men's 
heaj^ much grudged with the suppression of abbeys, 
and the first fruits, by reason the same would be the 
destruction of the whole religion in England. And 
their especial great grudge is against the lord Crum- 
well." The movement broke out on 13 Oct., 1536, 
immediately following the failure of the Lincoln- 
shire Rising; and Robert Aske, a London barrister of 
good YorkiSiire family, who had been to some extent 
concerned in the Lincolnshire rising, putting himself 
at the head of nine thousand insurgents, marched on 
York, which he entered. There he arranged for the 
expelled monks and nuns to return to their houses; 
the king's tenants were driven out and religious ob- 
servance resumed. The subsequent success of the 
rising was so great that the royal leaders, the Duke 
of Norfolk and Earl of Shrewsbury, opened negotia- 
tions with the insurgents at Doncaster, where Aske 
had assembled between thirty and forty thousand 
men. As a result of this, Henry authorized Norfolk 
to promise a general pardon and a Parliament to be 
held at York within a year. Aske then dismissed his 
followers, trusting in the king's promises. But these 
promises were not kept, and a new rising took place in 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, and was spreading to 
Yorkshire. Upon this, the king arrested Aske and 
several of the other leaders, who were all convicted 
of treason and executed. The loss of the leaders en- 
abled Norfolk to crush the rising. The king avenged 
himself on Cumberland and Westmoreland by a series 
of massacres under the form of martial law. Though 
Aske had tried to prevent the rising he was put to 
death. Ix>rd Darcy, Sir Henry Percy, and several 
other gentlemen, together with the four Abbots of 
Fountains, Jervaulx, Barlings, and Sawley, who were 
executed at Tyburn, have been reckoned by Catholic 




writers as martyrs for the Faith, and their names in- 
serted in martyroloeies, but they have not been in- 
cluded in the cause of beatification of English martyrs. 

Gasquet, Henry VIII. and the Bngluh Monaeleriea, II (Lon- 
don, 1888), ii-iv, And state papers (Henry VIII.) therein referred 
to; TiBBNBT-DoDD. Chwch History, I (London, 1839); Linqard, 
History ofBngland, V (London, 1883) ; for non-Catholic accounts, 
the stuiaard authorities on the reign of Henry VIII (q. v.), such 
•a Qairdner, Dixon, and the Cambridge Modem History. 

, Edwin Burton. 

Pilgrimages (Mid. Eng. inlgrime, Old Fr. j)degrin, 
derived from Lat. peregrinumj supposed on^n, per 
and €Lger — with idea of wandering over a distance) 
may L^ defined as journeys made to some place with 
the purpose of venerating it, or in order to ask there 
for supernatural aid, or to discharge some religious 

Origin. — ^The idea of a pilgrimage has been traced 
back by some (Littledale in "Encyc. Brit.", 1885, 
XIX, 90; "New Intemat. Encyc", New York, 1910, 
XVI, 20, etc.) to the primitive notion of local deities, 
that is, that the divine beings who controlled the move- 
ments of men and nature could exercise that control 
only over certain definite forces or within set boun- 
daries. Thus the river gods had no power over those 
who kept away from the river, nor could the wood 
deities exercise any influence over those who lived in 
deserts or clearings or on the bare mountain-side. 
Similarly there were gods of the hills and ^ods of the 
plidns who could only work out their designs, could 
only favour or destroy men within their own locality 
(III Kings, XX, 23). Hence, when some man belonging 
to a mountain tribe found himself in the plain and was 
in need of divine help, he made a pilgrimage back again 
to the hills to petition it from his gods, ft is therefore 
the broken tribesmen who originate pilgrimages. 

Without denying the force of this argument as sug- 
gesting or extending the custom, for it has been ad- 
mitted as plausible by distinjguished Catholics (cf . 
Lagrange, "Etudes sur les relig. s^mit., VIII, Paris, 
190^, 295, 301), we may adhere to a less arbitrary solu- 
tion by seeking its cause in the instinctive motion of 
the human heart. For pilgrimages properly so called 
are made to the places where the gods or heroes were 
bom or wrought some great action or died, or to the 
shrines wher^ the deity had already signified it to be 
his pleasure to work wonders. Once theophanies are 
localized, pilgrimages necessarily follow. The Incar- 
nation was boundf inevitably to draw men across 
Europe to visit the Holy Places, for the custom itself 
arises spontaneously from the heart. It is found in all 
religions. The Egyptians journeyed to Sekket's 
shrine at Bubastis or to Ammon's oracle at Thcbesj 
the Greeks sought for counsel from Apollo at Delphi 
and for cures from Asclepius at Epidaurus; the Mexi- 
cans ^thered at the huge temple of Quetzal; the 
Peruvians massed in sun-worship at Cuzco and the 
Bolivians in Titicaca. But it is evident that the reli- 
gions which centred round a single character, be he 
god or prophet, would be the most famous for their 
pilgrimages, not for any reason of tribal returns to a 
central custrict where alone the deity has power, but 
rather owing to the perfectly natural wish to visit spots 
made holy by the birth, life, or death of the god or 
prophet. Hence Buddhism and Mohammedanism are 
especially famous in inculcating this method of devo- 
tion. Huge gatherings of people intermittently all the 
year round venerate Kapilavastu where Gaukama 
Buddha be^an his life, Benares where he opened his 
sacred mission, Kasinagara where he died: and Mecca 
and Medina have become almost bywords in English 
as the goals of long aspirations, so famous are they 
for their connexion with the prophet of Islam. 

Granting then this instinctive movement of human 
nature, we should expect to find that ia Christianity 
God would Himself satisfy the craving He had first 
Himself created. The story of His appearance on 

earth in bodily form when He "dwelt amongst us" 
could not but be treasured up by His followers, and 
each city and site mentioned become a matter of grate- 
ful memory to them. Then again the more famous of 
His disciples, whom we designate as saints, themselves 
bc^an to appeal to the devotion of their fellows, and 
round the acts of their Uves soon clustered a whole 
cycle of venerated shrines. Especially would this be 
felt in the case of the martyrs; for their passion and 
death stamped more dramatically still the exact 
locality of their triumph. Moreover, it seems reason- 
able to suppose that yet another influence worked to 
the same end. There sprang up in the early Church 
a curious privilege, accorded to dying martyrs, of 

nting the remission of canonical penances.. No 
)t it began through a generous acceptance of the 
relation of St. Stephen to St. Paul. But certain it is 
that at an early date this custom had become so highly 
organized that there was a libelluSj or warrant of 
reconciliation, a set form for the readmittance of 
sinners to Christian fellowship (BatifTol, "Etudes 
d'hist. et de thdol. posit.", I, Paris, 1906, 112-20). 
Surely then it is not fanciful to see how from this came 
a further development. Not only had the martyrs in 
their last moments this power of absolving from eccle- 
siastical penalties, but even after their deaths, their 
tombs and the scenes of their martyrdom were con- 
sidered to be capable also — ^if devoutly venerated — of 
removing the taints and penalties of sin. Accordinp;^ 
it came to be looked upon as a purifying act to visit 
the bodies of the saints and above all the places where 
Christ Himself had set the supreme example of a 
teaching sealed with blood. 

Again it may be noted how, when the penitential 
system of the Church, which grouped itself round the 
sacrament of the confessionfu, had been authorita- 
tively and legally organized, pilgrimages were set 
down as adequate punishments inflicted for certain 
crimes. The hardships of the joumev, the penitential 
garb worn, the mendicity it entailecl made a pilgrim- 
age a real and efficient penance (Beazley, "Dawn of 
Modern Geography". II, 139; Fumivall, "The Sta- 
cions of Rome and the Pilgrim's Sea Voyage", Lon- 
don, 1867, 47). To quote a late text, the following is 
one of the canons enacted under King Edgar (959-75) : 
"It is a deep penitence that a layman lay aside his 
weapons ana travel far barefoot and nowhere pass a 
second night and, fast and watch much and pray fer- 
vently, by day and by night and willingly under^^o* 
fatigue and be so squalid that iron come not on hair 
or on nail" (Thorpe, "Ancient Laws", London. 1840. 
411-2; cf. 44, 410, etc.). Another witness to tne real 
difficulties of the wayfaring palmer may be cited from 
"Syr Isenbras", an early EngUsh ballad: — 
"They bare with them no maner of thynge 

That was worth a f arthynge 
Cattell, golde, ne fe; 

But mekely they asked theyre meate 

Where that they myght it gette. 
For Saynct CJharytie." 
(Utterson, "Early Popular Poetry", I, London, 1817. 
83) . And the Earl of Arundel of a later date obtained 
absolution for poaching on the bishop's preserves at 
Hoghton Chace only on condition of a pilgrimage to 
the shrine of St. Richard of Chichester ("Archaeo- 
logia",XLV, 176; cf. Chaucer, "Works", ed. Morris, 
III, 266). And these are but late descriptions of a 

f)ractice of penance which stretches back beyond the 
egislation of Edgar, and the organization of St. Theo- 
dore to the sub-Apostolic age. Finally a last influence 
that made the pifgrima|2;e so popular a form of devo- 
tion was the fact that it contributed very largely to 
ease the soul of some of its vague restlessness in an age 
when conditions of life tended to cramp men down to 
certain localities. It began to be looked upon as a 
real help to the establishment of a perfectly controlled 
character. It took its place in the medieval manuals 


of pgycholo^. So John de Burg in 1386 (Pupilla the twin prince Apostles (In Rom. horn. 32^ iii, 678, 

oculi, fol. LXIII), ''contra acediam, opera laboriosa etc., in P. G., LX). Nor in this is he advocating a new 

bona ut sunt peregrinationes ad loca sancta. " practice, for he mentions without conment how many 

History in General. — In a letter written towards people hurried across the seas to Arabia to see and 

the end of the fourth century by Sts. Paula and venerate the dunghill of Job (Ad pop. Antioch. hom. 

Eustochium to the Roman matron Marcella urging 5, 69, in P. G., XLIX). St. Jerome was cramped by 

her to follow them out to the Holy Places, they insist no such official duties as had kept St. Chrysostom to 

on the universality of the custom of these pilgrimages his diocese. His conversion, following on the famous 

to Palestine: — "Whosoever is noblest in uaul comes vision of his judgment, turned him from his studies of 

hither. And Britain though divided from us yet has- pagan classics to the pages of Holy Writ, and, uniting 

tens from her land of simset to these shrines known to with his untiring energy and thoroughness, pushed him 

her only throu^ the Scriptures.'' They go on to enu- on to Palestine to devote himself to the Scriptures in 

merate the various nationalities that crowded round the land where they had been written. Once there the 

these holy places, Armenians, Persians, Indians, Ethio- actual Gospel scenes appealed with supreme f redmess 

pians, and many others (P. L., XXII; Ep. xlvi, 489- to him. and on his second return from Rome his enthu- 

90). Bat it is of greater interest to note how they siasm nred several Roman matrons to accompany him 

claim for this custom a continuity from Apostolic days, and share his labours and his devotions. Monasteries 

From the Ascension to their time, bishops, martyrs, and convents were built and a Latin colony was estab- 

doctors, and troops of people, say they, had flocked to lished which in later times was to revolutionize Europe 

see the sacred stones of Bethlehem and of wherever by inaugurating the Crusades, 

else the Lord had trod (489). It has been suggested From the Hol^y Land the circle widens to Rome, as 

that this is an exaggeration, and certainly we can offer a centre of pilgnmages. St. Ctrysoetom, as has been 

no proof of any such uninterrupted practice. Yet shown, expressed his vehement desire to visit it. And 

when the first examples begin to appear they are repre- in the early church histories of Eusebius, Zosimus, 

sented to us without a word of astonishment or a note Socrates, and others, notices are frecjuent of the jour- 

of novelty, as though people were already fully accus- neyings of celebrated princes and bishops of the City 

tomed to like adventures. Thus in Eusebius^ " His- of the Seven Hills. Of course the Saxon kings and 

tory'' (tr. Crus6, London, 1868, VI, xi, 215), it is re- royal families have made this a familiar thing to us. 

marked of Bishop Alexander that "he performed a The "Ecclesiastical History" of St. Bede is crowded 

journey from Cappadocia to Jerusalem in consequence with references to princes and princesses who laid aside 

of a vow and the celebrity of the place. " And the date their royal diadems in order to visit the shrine of the 

given is also worthy of notice, a. d. 217. Then again Apostles; and the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" after his 

there is the story of the two travellers of Placentia, death takes up the same refrain. Then from Rome 

John and Antoninus the Elder (Acta SS., July, II, 18), again the shrines of local saints begin to attract their 

which took place about 303-4. Of course with the votaries. In the letter already cited in which Paula 

conversion of Constantine and the visit to Jerusalem and Eustochium invite Marcella to Palestine they 

of the Empress St. Helena the pilgrimages to the Holy argue from the eJready established custom of visiting 

Land became very much more freouent. The story of the shrines of the martyrs: " Martjrrum ubique sepul- 

the finding of the Cross is too well known to be here chra veneramur" (Ep. xlvi, 488, in P. L., XXII). St. 

repeated (cf. P. L., XXVII, 1125), but its influence Augustine endeavours to settle a dispute by sending 

was unmistakable. The first church of the Resurrec- both litigants on a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Felix 

tion was built by Eustathius the Priest Qoc. cit ., 1 164) . of Nola, m order that the samt may somehow or other 

But the flow of pilgrimages b^an in vigour four years make some sign as to which party was telling the truth, 

after St. Helena's visit (Acta SS., June, III, 176; Sept., He candidly admits that he knows of no such miracle 

III, 56). Then the organization of the Church that having been performed in Africa; but argues to it from 

Sartly caused and partly resulted from the Council of the analogy of Milan where God had made known His 

[icsea continued the same custom. pleasure through the relics of Sts. Gervasius and 

In 333 was the famous Bordeaux Pilgrimage (" Pal- Protasius (Ep. Ixxvii, 269, in P. L., XXXIII). Indeed, 

estine Rlgrim Text Society", London, 1887, preface the very idea of relics, which existed as early as the 

and notes by Stewart). It was the first of a whole earliest of the catacombs, teaches the essential worth 

series of pilgrimages that have left interesting and of pilgrimages, i. e., of the journeying to visit places 

detailed accounts of the route, the peoples through hallowed by events in the hves of heroes or of gods 

which they passed, the sites identified with those men- who walked in the guise of men (St. Aug., "Deciv. 

tioned in the Gospels. Another was the still better- Dei", XXII, 769, in P. L., XXXVIII). 

known "Peregrinatio Silvia;" (ed. Barnard, London. At first a mere question of individual travelling, a 

1891, Pal. Pilg. Text Soc.; cf. "Rev. des quest, hist." short period was sufficient to develop into pilgrimages 

1903,367, etc.). Moreover, the whole movement properly organized companies. Even the Pei^grina- 

was enormously increased by the language and tio Silvia" shows how they were being systematixed. 

action of St. Jerome, whose personality at the close The initiators were clerics who prepared the whole 

of the fourth centuiy dominated East and West, route beforehand and mapped out the cities of call. 

protect the 
invented a 
_ ilgrima^e 

in P.'G., LXII). And his personal love of St. Paul for those unable actually to take part in them; it 

would have unfailingly driven him to Ro] " . . ^. . » « . , ., i-^. /i-«._j__i trix-n- 

tomb of the Apostles, but for the burden 

pal office. Hesays (InEphes. hom. 8, ii, ^., _., _., ^^, , „ - .. 

LXII), " If I were freed from my labours and my body The conversion of the Hungarians ainpU&ed this 

were in sound health I would eagerly make a pilgrim- system of halts along the road; of St. Stephen, for 

age merely to see the chains that nad held him captive example, we read that "he made the way very safe for 

and the prison where he lay." While in another pas- all and thus allowed by his benevolence a countless 

sage of extraordinary eloquence he expresses his long- multitude both of noble and common people to start 

ing to gaae on the dust of the great Apostle, the dust for Jerusalem" (Glaber, "Chron.", Ill, C. I. Mon. 

of the fips that had thundered, of the hands that had Germ. Hist., VII, 62). Thus these pious journeys 

been fettered, of the eyes that had seen the Master; gradually hsuxien down and become fixed and definite, 

even as he speaks he is dazzled by the splendour of the They are allowed for by laws, civil and ecclesiaHtical . 

metropolis of the world lit up by the glorious tombs of Wars are fought to insure their safety, crusades are 



begun _. .__ 

S anted free occoas in times a 
y the "Consuetudines" at the c; 
cathedral we see that legislation 



derful storiefl to tell, when they came back. Thus, 4ks 

peace ancl war. the ceDturica pass, we find human nature the same in 

ons of Hereford ila complexity of motives. Its nobleat actions arc 

vas found to be found to be often caused by petty spites or vanity or 

more than one overvau! ting ambition; and even when b^un in good 

pilenmage beyond the seas in his own lifetime. But faith aa a source of devotion, the practices of piety at 

each year three weeks were allowed to enable any th^t times are d^i^ed into causes of vice. So the author 

would to visit shrines within the kingdom. To ao of the "Imitation of Christ" raises bis voice agiunst 

abroad to the tomb of St. Denis, seven weeks of ob- overmuch pi lerim age-making: "Who wander much 

aence was considered legal, eight weeks to the body of are but little hallowed." Note too the words of the 

St. Edmund at Pontigny, sixteen weeks to Rome, or to fifteenth-centurv English Dominican, John Bromyanl 

St. James at Compostella, and a year to Jerusalem ("Summa PrtedLcantium", Tit. Feria n. 6, fol, 191, 

(ArchKol., XXXI, 251-2 noI«s). Lyons, 1522):— "There are some who keep their pil- 

Again in another way pilgrimages were bemg re- pimagcs and festivals not for God but for the devil. 

Earded as part of normal ufe. In the register of the They who sin more freely when away from home or 

InquiBition at Carcassonne (Waterton, "Pietas Man- who go on pilgrimage to succeed in inordinate and 

anaBritannica", 112) we find the four following places fooli^ love — those who spend their time on the road 

noted as beins the centres of the greater pilgrimages in evil and uncharitable conversation may indeed say 

to be imposed as penances for the graver crimes, the ■peregraiamuT a Domino — they make their pilgrimage 

tomb of Che Apostles at Rome, the shrine of St. James away from God and to the devil," 

at Compostella, ^t. Thomas's body at Canterbury, But the most splenetic acorn is t« be found in the 

and the relics of the Three Ktn^ at Cologne. Natu- jHiges of that master of satire^ Erasmus. Big "Reli- 

rally with all this there was a great detd of corruption, gious Pilgrimage" ("Colloquies" ed. Johnson, Lon- 

don, 1878. II, 1-37) 
is a terriDle indict- 
ment of the abuses 
of his day. Exag- 
gerated no doubt m 
its cTipres^ons, yet 
reveahng a sufficient 
modicum of real evil, 
it is a graphic picture 
from the hand of an 
intelligent observer. 
There IS evident sign 
that pilgrimages 
were losing in popu- 
larity, not merely 
because the charity 
of many was growing 
cold, but because of 
the excessive credu- 
lity of-the guardians 
of the shrines, their 
overwrought insist- 
ence on the necessity 
He has a short letter in which he of pilgrimage-making, and the fact that many who 

a BlTHLlHtW 1- 

Even from the ear- 
liest times the Fa- 
thers perceived how 
liable such devotions 
were to degenerate 
into an abuse, St. 
John Chrysostom, so 
ardent in his praise 
of pilgrimages, found 
it necessary to ex- 
plain that there was 
"need for none to 
cross the seas or tare 
upon along journey; 
let each of us at home 
invoke God earnest- 
ly and He will hear 
Antioch. horn, hi, 2, 
49, in P.G., XLIX; 
cf. horn, iv, 6, fiS). 
St. Gregory Naxian- 
len is even stronger 

in his condemnation. . ,_^ ^. 

speaks of those H ho regard it as an essential part of piety journeyed from shrine to shrine neglected their do- 
to visit Jorusalem and see the traces of l.lie Passion of meatic duties. These three evils are quaintly ex- 
Christ. ThiH, he says, the Master has never com- pressed in the above mentioned dialogue, with a 
nianded, though the custom is not therefore without liberty of speech that makes one astonished at Rome's 
merit. But stillheknows that in many cases the jour- toleration in the sixteenth century. With all these 
ney has proved a scandal and caused serious harm, abuses Erasmus saw how the spoiler would have ready 
He witnesses, therefore, both to the custom and the to hand excuses for suppressing the whole System and 
abuse, evidently thinking that the latter outweighed plundering the most attractive treasures. The wealth 
the former (Ep. ii, 1003, in P. G^XLVI). So again might well be put, he suggested, to other uses; but 
St. Jerome writes to Paulinus (Ep. Ixviii in P. L., the idea of a pilgrimage contained in it nothing op- 
XXII) to explain, in an echo of Cicero's phrase, that posed to the enlightened opinions of this prophet of 
it is not the fact of living in Jerusalem, but of living sweet reasonableness". "If any shall do it of their 
there well, that is worthy of praise (579) ; he instancrs own free choice from a great affection to piety, I think 
countless saints who never set foot in the Holy Land; they deserve to be left to their own freedom" (op, 
and dares not tie down to one small portion of the cit,, 35). This was evidently the opinion also of 
Earth Him whom Heaven itself is unable to contain. Henry VIH, for, though in the Injunctions of 1536 
He ends with a sentence that is by now famous, "ct de and 1538 pilgrimages were to be discouraged, yet both 
Uierusolymis et de Britannia a^qualiter patet aula in the bishop's book (The Institution of the Christian 
wtleBtis'' (581). Man, 1537) and the kine's book (The Necessary Doc- 

Another well-quoted passage comes from a letter trine and Erudition of the Christian Man, 1543), it is 
of St. Augustine in which he expounds in happy para- laid down that the abuse and not the custom is repre- 
dox that not by journeying but by loving we draw hensible. What they really attack is the fashion of 
nigh unto God. To Him who is everywhere present "putting differences between image and image, trust- 
and everywhere entire we approach not by our feet ing more in one than in another" (cf. Oairdner, 
but by our hearis (Ep. civ, 672, in P. L., XXXII), "Lollardy and the Reformation" II, London, 1908, 
For certainly pilgrimages were not always undertaken IV, ii, 330, etc.). All this shows how alive Christen- 

for the best of motives. Glaber (ed. Prou, Paris, , 

107} thinks it necessary to note of Lethbald that he 
was far from being one of those who were led to Jeru- 
salem simply from vanity, that they might have won- 

dom has been to evils which Reformers are forever 
denouncing as inseparable from Catholicism. It ad- 
mits the danger but does not allow it to prejudice the 
good use (" Diayloge of Syr Thomas -More", London, 


1620). Before dealing with each pilgrimagi^ in particu- 
IftT one further remark should be made. Though not 
properly included uuder a list of abuses, a custom 
~ must be noted of ^oit^ in search of shrtnes utterly at 
haphazard and without any definite notion of where 
the journey waa to end (Waterton, "Piet. Mar. 
Britt.", London, 1879, III, 107; "Anglo-Sax. Chron.", 
tr. Thorpe in E. S., London, 1861, II, 69; Beazley, 
"Dawn of Mod. Geog.", London, 1897-1906, I, 174-6; 
Tobl. Bibl. Geog. Pal. 26, ed. of 1876). 

History is Pahticplak. — It will be neceKsary to 
mention and note briefly the chief places of Catholic 
pilgrims^, in early days, in the Middle Ages, and in 
modem times. 

Aachen, Rhenish Prussia. — -This celebrated city 
owes its fame as a centre of pilgrimage to the extraor' 
dinary list of precious relics which '' "' 

their authenticity there is no need here to apeak, but 
they include amone a host of others, the swaddling 
clothes of the child Jesus, the loin-cloth which Our 
Lord wore on the Cross, the cloth on which the Bap- 
tist's head lay after his execution, and the Blessed 
Virgin's cloak. These relics are exposed -to public 
veneration every seven years. The number of pil- 
grims in 18S1 was 158,968 (Champagnac, "Diet, dea 
pSlerinages", Paris, 1859, I, 78). 

AUi, Limoux, France, contains a shrine of the 
Blessed Virgin dating traditionally from the twelfth 
century. Trie principal feast is celebrated on 8 Sep- 
tember, when there is still a great concourse of pil- 
grims from the neighbourhood of Toulouse. It is the 
.centre of a confraternity of the Immaculate Heart of 
Wary founded for the converKion of sinners, the mcm- 
bera of which exceed several thousands (Champagnac, 

n, 89). 

ArrJiTojtay, Burgundy, France, an ancient shrine of 
the Blessed Vii^n, dating back to the seventh century. 
It is still a centre of pilgrimage. 

Amorgos, or Morgo, in the Cireek Archipelago, has 
ft quaint picture of the Blessed Virgin painted on wood, 
which is reputed to have been profaned and broken at 
Cyprus and then miraculously rejoined in its present 
shnne. Near by is enacted the pretended miracle of 
the ITme. so celebrated in tlie Archipelago (Cham- 
pagnac, 1, 130). 


eyes of the Madonna were seen filled with teais, which 
was later interpreted to have prefigured the calamities 
that fell on Pius VI and the Church in Italy owing to 
Napoleon. The picture was solemnly crowned by 
PiuH Vll on 13 May, 1814, under the title "R^na 
Sanctorum Omnium (Champagnac, I, 133; Anon., ' 
"P^lerinages aux sanct. de la m^re de Dieu", Pane, 

Ajige», Seine-ct-Oisp, France. — The present chapel 
only dates from 1808; but the pil^im^e is really 
ancient. In connexion with the shnne is a spring of 
miraculous water (Champagnac, I, 146). 

Arcachnn, Gironde, France. — It ia curious among 
the shrines of the Blessed Virgin as eont^ning an 
alabaster statue of the thirteenth century, Pius IX 
granted to this statue the honour of coronation in 
1870, since which time pilgrimages to it have greatly 
increased in number and in frequency. 

ArdiUiers, Saumur, France. — A chapel of the 
Blessed Virgin founded on the site of an ancient 
monastery. It has been visited by famous French 
pilgrims such as Anne of Austria, Louis XIII, Kenn- 
eth Maria, etc. The sacristy was built by Ceeare, 
Duke of Venddme, and in 1634 Cardinal Richelieu 
added a chapel (Champagnac, I, 169). 

ArgenleuU, Seine-et-Oise, France, is one of the 
places which boasts of posseesing the Holy Coat 
of Jesus Christ. Its abbey was also well known as 
having had as abbess the famous H^lolse. Whatever 
may be thought of the authenticity of the relic, the 
antiquity of pilgrimages drawn to its veneration dates 
from its presentation to St. Louis in 1247. From the 
pilgrimage of Queen Blanche in 1255 till our own dair 
there has been an almost uninterrupted flow of visi- 
tor. The present ckAsse woa the gift of the Duchess 
of Guise in 1680 (Champagnac, I, 171-223). 

Aubervilks, Seine, France, an ancient place of pil- 
grimage from Paris. It is mentioned in the Calencurs 
of that diocese under the title of Notre-Dame-des- 
VertuB, and its feast was celebrated annually on the 
second Tuesday in May. An early list of miraculous 
cures performed under the invocation of this Madonna 
was printed at Paris in 1617 (Champagnac, I, 246). 

AurieainUe, Montgomery Co., New York, U. S. A., 
is theeentreofoneof the great pilgrimages of the New 
World. It is the scene of martyrdom of three Jesuit 
missionaries by Mohawk Indians; but the chapel 
erected on the spot has been dedicated to Our Lsidy 
of Martyrs, presumably because the cauac of the 
beatification of the three fathers is as yet uncompleted. 
15 August is the chief day of pilgrimage; but the prac- 
tice of visiting Auriesville increases yearly in fre- 
quency, and lasts intermittently throughout the whole 
summer (Wynne, "A Shrine in the Mohawk Valley", 
New York, 1905; Gerard in "The Month", March, 
1874, 306). 

BaiiJeul-teSoc, Oiae, France, possesses a chapel 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, dating from the rcign 
of Louis XIV. It has received no episcopal authoriia- 
tion, and in fact was condemned by the Bishop of 
Beauvais, Mgr de S^nt-Aignan, 24 February, 1716. 
This was in coneei}uence of the pilgrimaBe whicli 

Strang up, of visitmg a well of medicinal, waters. 
wing to il« health-giving properties, it was called 
Saine-Fontaine, but, ay the superstition of the people, 
who at once invented a legend to account for it, this 
was quickly chained to Sainte-Fonlaine. It is still h 
place of veneration; and pilgrims go t« drink the 
waters of the so-called holy well (Champagnac, 1, 264). 
Bitharram, Baases-Pyr^nSes, France, one of the 
oldest shrines in all France, the very name of which 
datps from the .Saracenic occupation of the country. 
A legend puts back the foundation into the fourth 
century, but this is certainly several hundred years 


too early. In much more recent times a calvaiy, with 
vatioua stations, baa been erected and hae brou^t 

century work and is very well preserved considering 
its great age and the various calamities through which 
it 1^ pa^ed. Pilgrimages to it are organized from 
time to time, but on no veiy considerable scale (Wall, 
"Shrines of BriUsh Sainta'', 83-7). 

Bonaria, Sardinia, ia celebrated for its statue nf Our 
Lady of Mercy. It is of Italiau workmanship, prob- 
ably about 1370, and came miraculously to Bonnria, 
floating on the waters. Every Saturday local pjlgrim- 

Sm were organized; but to-day it is rather om an 
ject of devotion to the fiaherfolk that the shrine is 
popular (Champagnac, I, 1130-1). 

Boulogne, France, has the remains of a Tamous 
statue that has been a centre of pilgrimage for many 
centuries. The early history of the shrine is lost in 
the legends of the seventh century. But whatever 
was the origin of its foundation there has always been 
a close connexion between this particular ahnne and 
Uie seofarinK population on both sides of the Channel. 
In medieval France the pilgrimage to it was looked 
upon as so recognized a lonn of devotion that not a 
few judicial sentences are recorded as having been 
commuted into visits to Notre-Dame-de-Boulogne- 
sur-mer. Besides several French monarchs^ Henry 
III visited the shrine in 1255, the Black Pnnce and 
John of Gaunt in 1360, and later Charles the Bold of 
Bu^undy. So, too, in 1814 Louis XVIII gave thanks 
for Us restoration before this same statue. The devo- 
tion of Our Lady of Boulogne has been in France and 
England increased by the official recognition of the 
Ar^confrat«mity of Our Lady of Compassion, estab- 
lished at this shnne, the object of which is to pray for 
the return •■'"'■' . . .> r, ... ,^ 

pagnac, I, 
18fe, 287). 

Bruge*, Belgium, has its famous relic of the Holy 
Blood which is the centre of much pilgrimage. This 
was brought from Palestine by Thierry of Alsace on 
his return from the Second Crusade. From 7 April, 
1150, this relic has been venerated with muchdevo- 


before he could hope to arrogat« himself full eccle- 
siastical authority. The poetry of Chaucer, the 

wealth of England, the crown jewels of France, and 
marble from ruins of ancient Carthage (a papal gift) 
had glorified the shrine of St. Thomas beyond com- 
pare^ and the pilgrim signs (see below) which are 
continually being discovered all over England and 
even across the Channel (" Guide to MedisDval Room, 
British Museum", London, 1907, 09-71) emphasize 
the popularity of this pilgrima4;e. The precise time 
of the year for vi.^tine Canterburv seems difficult to 
determme (Belloc, ibid., 54), tor Cnaucer says spring, 
the Continental traditions imply winter, anci the chief 
gatherings of which we have any record point to the 
summer. It was probably determined by the feaalfl 
of the saint and the seasons of the year. The place of 
the martyrdom haji onec more become acent re of devo- 

tion. The annua] pilgriniage, attended by the Flemish 
nobility in their quaint robes and thousands of pil- 
grims from other parts of Christendom, takes place 

[» the Monday following the first Sunday 
when the relic is carried in procession. But every 
Friday the relic is less solemnly eicpoeed for the ven- 
eration of'the faithful (Smith, "Bruges", London, 
1901, va»iim; cL "Tablet", LXXXIII, 817). 

Bugloae, Landes, France, was for long popular as 
a place of pilgrimage to a statue of the Ble^ea Viigin ; 
hut it is perhaps as much visited now as the birthplace 
of St. Vincent de Paul. The house where he was bom 
and where he spent his boyhood is still shown (Cham- 
pamac, I, 374-90). 

Canlerhtry, Kent, England, was in medieval times 
t^ most famous of English shrines. First as the 
birthplace of Saxon Chnstianitv and as holding the 
tomb of St. Augustine; secondly as the scene of the 
martyrdom of St. Thomas Becket, it fitly represented 
the ecclesiastical centre of England. But even from 
beyond the island, men and women trooped to the 
ahrineof the "blissful martyr", especially at the great 
pardons or Jubilees of the feast every fifty years from 
1220 to 1520: his death caused hia own city to be- 
come, what Winchester had been till then, the spiritual 

(Sm Htide U Puy, VoL [X 

tion, mainly through the action of the Guild of Ran- 
som (Wall, "Shrines", 152-171; Belloc, op. cit.; 
Danka, "Canterbury", London, 1910). 

Camel, Palestine, has been for centuries a sacred 
mountain, both for the Hebrew people and for Chri»- 
tians. The Mohammedans also regard it with devo- 
tion, and from the eighteenth century onwards have 
joined with Christians and Jews in celebrating the 
feast of Elias in the mountain that bea:s hia name. 

Ceylon may be mentioned as possessing a curious 
place of pilgrimage, Adam Peak. On the summit of 
this mountain is a ccrlain impression which the Mo- 
hammedans assert to be the footprint of Adam, the 
Brahmins that of Rama, the Buddhists that of Buddha, 
the Chinese that of Fo, and the Christians of India 
that of St. Thomas the Apostle (Champagnac, I, 446). 

Charlres is in many respects the most wonderful 
sanctuary in Europe dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, 
as it boasts of an uninterrupted tradition from the 
times of the druids who dedicated there a. statue 
ttirgini pariiurm. This wooden statue is stud to have 
been still existing in 1793, but to have been destroyed 
during the Revolution. Moreover, to enhance the 
sacredness of the place a relic was preserved, presented 
by Charlemagne, viz., the chemiae or veil of the 
Blessed Virgin. Whatever may be the history or 

nuHtnuftts i 

aotbcDticitj' of the refic hoetf, it eatamly is of grest 
aaiiqimf and reamiMcs the vok Dtfw wrm by woiDen 
in the Ea«t. A third xiorce of deviMkn ia the praail 
attne image of the Bleawd Vb^ imnganted with 
gKM pomp in 1&57. The iMlgnmaeEs to thic riuine 
at ChaitTEB have DataraDr beni frequent and of lone 
eoDiinnance. Amongst oibas who hare takea put in 
these viaU of derotioD wtit popes, kings of Fiance 
and RfMdanH, saints like Bernard of Clairranx. An- 
Kfan of CantertNm-. Thomaa Berket, Mticait de Paul, 
uid Franeii de Sales, and the faapkfls Mary QoBEn cf 
t<atts. Thae is, moreover, an annual proeeaaon to the 
dmne on 15 Matrfa iChampagnac, 1, 4S2-flO; Nortb- 
coie. -SHurt. of the Madonna". London, 1S6S, I\', 169- 
77; Chahannes, "liisl. de N.-D.deCharlra", Char- 
tres, 1S73) ■ 

Ckidu4:ir. Sussex. En^aod, had in iu cathedral the 
tomb of ^i . RicturtL iU renowned biabop. The 
throng of pilgmn-i io ibia shrine, made famous bjtbe 
derotioa of Ldward 1, was ao creat that the body w«b 
diananbered ao as to make thlee 
Even then, in 1478, 
Biabap Storey had to 
draw op stringent 
rules to that the 
rrowd should ap- 

aremly mancwr. Each 

at ibe west door in 
the ptesnibed order, 
of which notice had 
to be given by the 
pari^ {wirets in iheir 
churches on the Sun- 
day preceding the 
feast. BeadesSApril. 
another pilgrimage 
wae made on Whii- 
-. Sunday ^WaH, 126- 
31 J. 

Cologne, Rhmish 
Gennany. as a ctly 
(rf pilgrimage centres 
round the shrine of 
(beThreeKin^. The 

leBes are reputed to have been brought by St. Helena 
to Constantinople, to have been transferred tbence to 
Milan, and ei-idently in the twelfth ccnluiy to have 
been carried in triumph by Frederick BarbaroaA to 
CologiK. The iweaent ehdtte is omiaidered the n>ast 
remarkable example extant of the medieval nild- 
smith's art. Tbouf^ of old reckoned as cMie of the 
four greater pilgrimaf^es, it seems to have kwt tbe 
power of attracting huge crowds out of devoticm; 
thou^ many, no doubt, are drawn to it by ita splen- 
dour (Champagnae. I, 482). 

Composldla, Spain, has long beoi famous as con- 
taining tbe shrue of St. JaoKa the Greater (q. v., 
where the authenticity of tbe rehes etc. is discussed 
at some length). In srane senses this was tbe most 
renowned medieval pilgrimage^ and the custom of 
those who bore back with thtm from Galir^ia scallop 
shells as proofs of their journey gradually extended to 
every form trf pilgrima^ce. The old feast-day of St. 
James (5 Augitnj h still celebrated by the boys of 
London with their grottos of oyster shells. TTie 
earUest records of ^-isits paid to this shrine date from 
tbe eighth ceoturv; and even in receat years the 
custom has been enlhumaslically obeer^ed (cf. Rymer, 
"Foedfta". London, 1710, XI, 371. 376, etc), 

Cancepcidn, Chile, has a pilgrimage to a ahnne of 
tbe Blessed \1rgin that is perhaps unique, a rock- 
drawn figure of the Mothered God. It was discovered 
by a chiW in the eighteenth century and was for long 
popular among the Chilians. 

was ocipnaDy venerated ai Villa Vicioaa in Porto^- 
D eaa mae of the neglecl into which it had faDen. a psous 
rfsi^Mid carried it off to Codova. whence the For- 
tngoeseendeavouicdsevaal times to irrov^ it, being 
frustrated each time by a miraculous intaimtian 


Cnep^, Poland, is said l_ 

statoe of the Blened \'irEin bcottgfat to it by St. 
Hyacinth, to which ia times pafi pilgrimages w«e 
often made (Acta SS.. .\ug.. III. 317-11 r- 

Croyfowd. liBOofakahire. En^and. was the centre of 
fn^yh pilgrima — "*" -'--- -' ^ 
pririapaliy to I 
(Wan. 116-8). 

Czentfoaknra. Poland, b tbe moa famous of PoGrii 
riuines dedicated to tbe Mother of God. wbeie a pae- 
ture painted on cypress-wood and sttiibaled to St. 
Luke is pub&cly veneiated. This is reputed to be tbe 

_-.i.^ ■_ jj^,rQjy .A copy of tbe picture 

• ■"-'•■■ ■ -.VtJw 



a so I net 
Down, Ire 

: the I 


a curious Madonna irtuch 

. of Irdand 
in that the botfies of 
Ireland's highest 

"In the to>wn of 
Down, buried in one 

Bridget. Patiiek, 
and the imoub Co- 

Xothing need be said 
here about tbe rriiea 
of these saints; it is 
sufficient roerely to 
hint at the pilgrim- 
ages that m*de this 
a cmtre of devotion 
iWall. 31-2). 
Drumlant, Ire- 
r TMi Holt Bofu land, was at one 

time ceJebrsled as 
containing tbe relics of S. Moedoc in tbe famous Bre«e 
Moedoc. This shrine was in the custody of the local 
priest tin 1846, when it was bi»TO«ed and sold t 
Dubhn jeweller, from whom in turn it was bou^ ~ 
Dr. Petrie. It is now in the museum of tbe I 
Irish Academy iTiVall, 80-3)- 

Dunftrmline, Fife, Scotland, was the reeort of 
couniksB pilgrims, for in the abbey was the tluine of 
St. Maiiaret. She was long regarded as the moot 
popular of Scottish saints and ber tomb was the most 
revered in all that kiiudom. Out of derotkm to her, 
Dunfermline succeetled iooa as being the burial |riac« 
of the kings (WaU. 4S-jOi. 

Durham, EngUnd. pos^^essed many rdica which 
drew to it the de^-otion of mariv ^-isitors. But ila two 
chirf shrineB werr those of Si. CuthbMt and St. Bede. 
The former was eni-losed in a gorgeous reliquary, 
which was put in its finished state by John. Lorf 
Ncvill of Raby, in 1372. Some idea may be had of 
the number of pilgrims from the anMHint put by the 
poorer ones into lie monev-boi thai stood close by. 
TTie year 13S.>-6 jielded £il3 17s, Sd. which would be 
equivalent inourmoney to £12 1 1 13s. 4d. A tli^ute 
rages rouiMi the present relics of St, Cuthbert, and 
there is also some uncertainty about the body of St 
Bede (Wall. 176-207. 110-6t, 

Edmunddmry, Suffolk, England, sheered in its 
abbey church the shrine of St, E^imutMl, Hug and 
martjT, Many roj-al pilgrims from King Canute to 
H«iry VI knelt and made offerings at the tomb of the 
saint; and the comnxMi people crowded there in gr«at 



numbers because of the ext raordinary miracles worked 
by the holy martyr (Wall, 2lti-23; Mackinlay, "St. 
Kdmund King and Martyr", Loodon, 1893; Snead- 
CoK, "Life ot Cardinal Vaughah", London, 1910, II, 

EintUdeln, Schwyz, Switzerland, haa been a place 
of pilgrimage since Leo VIII in 954. The reason of 
this (Kvotion is a miraculous statue of the Blcaaed 
Virgin broi^ht by 8t. Meinrad from Zurich. The 
saint waa murdered in 861 by robbera who coveted the 
rich offerings which already at that early date were 
left by the pilgrims. The principal daya for visiting 
the shrine are 14 Sept. and 13 Oct.; it is calculated 
that the yearly number of pilgrims exceeds 150,000. 
Even I^teatants from the surrounding cantons are 
known to have joined the throng of worshippers 
(Nortbcote, "Sanctuaries", 132-32). 

Elti, Cambridgeshire. England, was the centre of a 
'a the shrine of St. Etheldreda. One of 

.___ .8 still preaerved in a shrine in the (pre- 

Reformation) Catholic church dedicated to her in 
London (Wall, 55-6). 

Ephettu, Asia Minor, is the centre of two devotions, 
one to the mythical Seven Sleepers, the other to the 
Mother of God, who lived here some years under the 
care of St. John- Here also it was that the Divine 
maternity of Our Lady was proclaimed, by the Third 
(Ecumenical Council, a. d. 491 ("P^lcrinages aux 
sanct. de la m6re de Dieu", Paris, 1840, 1 19-32; Cham- 
paoiac, I, 608-19). 

Evreux, Eure, France, has a splendid cathedral 
dedicated to the Blessed Virpn, hut the pilgrimage to it 
dates only from modem times (Champagnac, I, S41). 

Faviert, 8eine-et-Oise, France, is the centre ot a 
pilgrimage to the church of St. Sulpice, where there 
are relics of the saint, St. Louis IX paid his homage 
at the shrine; and even now, from each parish of St. 
Sulpice (a common dedication among French churches) 
deputies come here annually on pilgrimage for the 


GroUafen<Ua, Campagna, Italy, a famous monas- 
tery of the Greek Rile, takes ite name (traditionally) 
from a picture of the Madonna found, protected by a 
grille, in a grotto. It is still venerated in the abbey 
church and is the centre of a local pilgrimage (Cham- 
pagnac, I, 714-15), 

Guadalupe, Estradamura, Spain, is celebrated for 
its wonder-working statue of the Blessed Virgin. But 
it has been outshone by another shrine of the same 
name in Mexico, which has considerably gained in 
importance as the centre of pilgrimage. As a sanc- 
tuary the latter takes the place of one dedicated to an 
old pagan goddees who was there worshipped. The 

three Sundays following tlic feast which o 
August (Champagnac, I, C" -' 
Garaison, Tarbes, Kra 


n ap- 

parition of Our Lady to a shepherdess of twelve years 
old, Agl^se de Sagasan, early m the sixteenth century. 
The sanctuary was dedicated afresh after the Revolu- 
tion and is once more thronged with pilgrims. The 
cUef festival is celebrated on 8 September (Cham- 
pagnac, 1, 95-9). 

Genezzanc, Italy, cont^ns the miraculous picture 
of Our Lady of Good Counsel which is said to have 
been translated from Albania. It has, since its arrival 
25 April, 1467, been visited by popes, cardinals, kings, 
and Dv countless throngs of pilgrims: and devotion to 
the shrine steadily increases (Northcote, "Sanctua- 
ries", 15-24). 

Gla»Umbury, Somerset, England, has been a holy 
place for many centuries and round it cluster legends 
and memories, such as no other shrine in England can 
boast. The Apostles, St. Joseph of Arimathea, Sts, 
Patrick and David, and King Arthur b^n the aston- 
ishing cycle which is continued by names hke St. 
Dunstan, etc. The curious thorn which blossomed 
twice yearly, in May and at Christmastide, also 
proved an attraction for pilgrims, though the stoiy of 
its miraculous origin does not seem to go back much 
before the sixteenui century. A proof of the devotion 
which the abbey inspired is seen in the "Pilgrim's 
Ipn," a building of late fifteenth century work m the 

Grace, Lot-etJ^aronne, France, used to be the seat 
of an ancient statue at the Blessed Virgin which en- 
tered the town in a miraculous fashion. It was en- 
■hrined in a Uttlc chapel perched on the bridge that 
nwns the river Lot. Henoeita old name, NostroDamo 
oel eap del Fount, Even now some pilgrimages are 
msdc to the restored shrine (Champagnac, 1, 702-5). 

etory of the oripn of this shrine (see Guadalcpb, 
Shrine or) is astonishing. 

Hal, Belgium, contiuns a wooden statue of the 
Blessed Virgin which is decorated with a golden crown. 
It has been described by Justus Lipsius in his "Diva 
Vinrr, HntlpnBin" ("Omnin Onpra", Antwerp, 1637, 
, ^ ,..„ . oagc, it has been fa- 
all Europe and has received gifts from many 

was lent for use during the Eucharistie Congress ii 
London in 1909. The miracles recorded are certainly 

HolytBeU, North Wales, still draws large bodies of 
pilgrims by its wonderful cures. It has done so con- 
tinuously for over a thousand years, remaining the one 
active example of what were once very common (Holy 
Wells. Chahners, "Book of Days", II, 6-8). The 
well is dedicated to St. Winefride and is said to mark 
the spot of her martyrdom in 634 (Mahcr, "Holy- 
well m 1894" in "The Month", February, 1895, 

lona, Scotland, though not properly, until recently, 
a place of pilgrimage, can hardly be omitted with 
propriety from this list. The mention of it is sufficient 
to recall memories of its crowded tombs of kings, 
chieftains, prelates, which witness to the honour in 
which is was held as the Holy Island (Trenholme, 
"Story of lona", Edinbutghj 1909). 

JerutaUm, Palestine, was m many ways the origin 

piLQBiMAais 9: 

of all pilgrimttgea. It is the firet spot to which the 
Christiftn turned with longiog eyes. The csj-liest 
recorded pilgrima^ go buck to the third century with 
the mention of Bishop Alexander; then in the fourth 
century came the great impulse given by the Empress 
Helena who was followed by the Bordeaux Pilgrims 
and the"PeregrinatioSiIvi£e"andother8 (cf. AotaSS,, 
June, III, 176; Sept., JII, 56). The action of St, 
Jerome and his anstocrtttic lady friends made the 
custom fashionable and the Latin colony was estab- 
lished by them which made it continuous (Gregory of 
Tours. "Hist. Franc", Paris, 1886, ed. by Omont, 11, 
68; V, 181; etc.). So too comes the visit of Arculf, 
cited by St. Bede ("Eccl. Hist.",.V, xv, 263, ed. Giles. 
London, 1847) from the writings of Adamnan; of 
Cadoc the Welsh bishop mentioned below (cf. Si. 
Andreios); of Probua sent by Gregory I to establish a 
hospice in Jerusalem (Acta SS,, March, II, § 23, 150, 
158a, etc.)- There are also the legendary accounts of 
Kin^ Arthur's pilgrimage, and that of Charlemagne 
(Pans, "Romania , 

same custom in the 
tenth century (Beaz- 
ley, II, 123), but 
there a a lull in 
these visits to Jeru- 
salem till the elev- 
enth century. Then, 
at once, a new stream 
begins to pou^ over 
to the East at times 
in small numbers, as 
Foulque of N'eira in 
1011, Meingoz took 
with him only Simon 
the Hermit, and Ul- 
ric, later prior of Zell, 
was accompanied by 
one who could chant 
the psalms with him; 
at times also in huge forces as in]026undcrRichardII 
of Normandy, in 1033 a record number (Glabcr, Paris, 
1886,IV,6,l06,ed.Prou), in 1035 anotherundcr Robert 
the Devil (ibid., 128). and most famous of all in 1065 
that under Gunther, Bishop of Bamberg, with twelve 
thousand pilgrims (Lambert of GersReld, " Mon. Germ. 
Hist", Hanover, 1844, V, 169). This could only lead 
to the Crusades which stamped the Holy Land on the 
memsry and heart of Christendom. The number who 
"Itm. Cambriie", Ilxiii, 147, in R. S,, ed. Dimock, 
1868); and many who could not go themselves left 
instructions for their hearts to be buried there (cf. 
Hovenden, "Annals", ed. Stubbs, 1869, in R. S., II, 
279; "Chron. de Froisaart", Bouchon, 1853, Paris, 
1853, I, 47; cf. 35-7). So eager were men to take the 
Cross, that some even branded or cut its mark upon 
them {"Miracula s. Thonuc", by Abbot Benedict, ed. 
Giles, 186) or "with a sharpe knyfe he share, A crosse 
upon his shoulder bare" ("Syr Isenbros" in Utterson, 
"Early Pop. Poetry", London, 1S17, 1, 83). From 
the twelfth century onwards the flow is uninterrupted, 
Russians (Beailey, II, 156), Northerners (II, 174), 
Jews (218-74), etc. And the end is not yet {"Itinera 
hieroBolymitana SEeculi IV-VIII", ed. Geyer in the 
"Corp. script, eccl. lat.", 39, Vienna, 1898; Palestine 
Pilg. Text Soc., London, 1884 sqq.i "Deutsche Pil- 
gerreisen nach dem heiligen Lande , II, Innsbruck, 
1900, etc.; Br^hier, "L'.5glise et TOrient au moyen- 
Sge", Pans, 1907, 10-15, 42-50). 

Kavdaer, Guelders, is a daughter-shrine to the 
Madonna of Luxemburg, a copy of which was here 
enshrined in 1642 and continues to attract pilgrims 
(Champognac, I, 875). 

! piiaiuBaAau 

La Quercia, Viterbo, Italy, is celebrated for its 

Suoint shrine. Within the walls of a church built by 
ramante is a tabernacle of marble that enfolds the 
wonder-working image, painted of old by Batiste 
Juzzantt and hung up for protection in an o(^. A p«t 
of the oakstill survives within the shrine, which boasts, 
as of old, its pilgrims (Mortier, "Notre Dame de la 
Querela", Florence 1904). 

La SaUUe, Dauphiny, France, is one of the places 
where the Blessed Virgin is said to have appeared in 
the middle of the nineteenth centuiy. This is no place 
to discuss the authenticity of the apparition. As a 
place of pilgrimage it dates from 19 Sept., 1846, imme- 
diately after which crowds began to flock to the shrine. 
The annual number of visitors is computed to be about 
30,000 (Northcotc, "Sanctuaries", 178-229). 

La fiarle, Huv, Bel^um, boasts a shrine of the 
Blessed Virgin that dominates the surrounding coun- 
try. Perched on the top of a hill, past a long avenue of 
waysidechapels, is the statue found by chance in 1621. 
Year by year during 
May countless pil- 
grims organised in 
parishes climb the 

creasing numbers 
N.-D. de la Sarte", 
Huy, 1871). 

f.aus, Hautes- 
Alpes, France, Is one 
of the many seven- 
shrines of the Blessed 
Virgin. There is the 
familiar story of an 
apparition to a shep- 
herdess with a com- 
mand to found a 
church. So popular 
this shrinp b«- 

!> tha 

the I 

pilgrims is said to be close o 
pilgrimage times are Pentecost 
tol^r (Northcotc, "Sanctuaries 
L« Puy, Haute-ljiire, France, 
of any of the Blessed Virgi 

nual number 
L 80,000. The chief 
and throughout Oc> 
, 146-59). 

. boasts the earliest 
apparitions. Its 

legend bc^ns about the year 50. After the Crusades 
had commenced, Puy-Notre-Dame became famous as 
a sanctuary of the Blessed Vii^n throughout aU 
Christendom. Its great bishop, A»lhemarof Montheil, 
was the first to take the Cross, and he journeyed to 
Jerusalem with Godfrey de Bouillon as legate of the 
Holy See. The " Salve Redna" is by some attributed 
to him, and was certainly often known as the "Anthem 
of Puy". Numberless French kings, princes, and 
nobles have venerated this sanctuary; St. Louis IX 
presented it with a thorn from the Sacred Crown. 
The pilgrimages that we read of in connexion with this 
shrine must have been veritable pageants, for the 
crowds, even as late as 1853, exceeded 300,000 in num- 
ber (Northcotc, "Sanctuaries", 160-9). 

Lichfield, Staffordshire, England, is one of the placea 
of pilgrimage which has ceased to be a centre of devo- 
tion; for the relics of St. Chad, cast out of their tomb 
by Protestant fanaticism, have now found a home in 
a Catholic church (the Birmingham cathedral), and 
it is to the new shrine that the pilgrims turn (Wall, 

Liet»e, Picardy, France, was before the rise of 
Lourdes the most famous centre in France of pilgrim- 
age to the Blessed Virgin. The date of its foundation 
is pushed back to the twelfth century and the quaint 
story of its origin connects it with Christian captives 
during the Crusades. Its catalogue of pilgrims reads 
like an "Almanach de Gotha"; but the numberlesi 




unnamed pilgrims testify even more to its popularity. 
It is still held in honour (Champagnac, I, 91^22). 

Ldna)ln, Lincolnshire, England, in its splendid ca- 
thedral guarded the relics of its bishop, St. Hugh. At 
theentombment in 1200, two kings and sixteen bishops, 
at the translation in 12ii80, ohc king, two queens, and 
many prelates took part. The inflow of pilgrims was 
enormous every year till the great spoliation under 
Henry VIII (Wall. 130-40). 

Loges. Seine-et-Oise, France, was a place much fre- 
cHientea by pilgrims because of the shrine of St. 
Fiacre, an Irish solitary. In 1615 it became, after a 
lapse of some three centuries, once more popular, for 
Louis XIII paid several visits there. Among other 
famous worshippers were James II and his queen from 
their place of exile at St.-Germain. The chief day of 
pilgrimage was the feast of St. Stephen, protomartyr 
(26 December). It was suppressed in 1744 (Champa- 
gnac, I, 934-5). 

Loreto, Ancona, Italy, owin^ to the ridicule of one 
half of the world and the devotion of the other half, is 
too well-known to need more than a few words. Nor 
is the authenticity of the shrine to be here at all dis- 
cussed. As a place of pilgrimage it will be sufficient to 
note that Dr. Stanley, an eyewitness, pronounced it to 
be "undoubtedly the most frequented shrine in Chris- 
tendom" (Northcote, "Sanctuaries", 65-106; Dolan 
in "The Month", August, 1894, 545; cf. ibid., Febru- 
ary, 1867, 178-83). 

LourdeSf Pyr6n6es, France, as a centre of pilgrimage 
is without a rival in popularity throughout the world. 
A few statistics are all that shall be recorded here. 
From 1867 to 1903 inclusively 4271 pilgrimages 
passed to Lourdes numbering some 387,0(X) pilgrims; 
the last seven years of this period average 150 pilgrim- 
ages annually. Again within thirty-six years (1868 to 
1904) 1643 bishops (including 63 cardinals) have vis- 
ited the grotto; and the Southern Railway Company 
reckon that Lourdes station receives over a million 
travellers every year (Bertrin, "Lourdes", tr. Gibbs, 
London, 1908; "The Month", October, 1905, 359; 
February, 1907, 124). 

Luxemburg possesses a shrine of the Blessed Virgin 
under the title of "Consoler of the Afflicted". It was 
erected by the Jesuit Fathers and has become much 
frequented by pious pilgrims from all the country 
round. The patronal feast is the first Sundav of July, 
and on that day and the succeeding octave the chapel 
is crowded. Whole villages move up, beaded by their 
parish priests; and the niunber of the faithful who 
frequent the sacraments here is sufficient justification 
for the niunerous indulgences with which this sanc- 
tuary is enriched (Champagnac, I, 985-95). 

Lyons f Rhdne. France, boasts a well-known pilgrim- 
age to Notre-Dame-de-Fourvi^res. This shrine is 
supposed to have taken the place of a statue of Mer- 
cury in the forum of Old Lugdunum. But the earliest 
chapel was utterly destroyed by the Calvinists in the 
sixteenth century and again during the Revolution. 
The present structure dates from the reinauguration 
by Piua VII in person, 19 April, 1805. It is well to 
remember that L^ons was ruled by St. Iremeus who 
was famed for his devotion to the Mother of God 
(Champagnac, I, 997-1014). 

MalaecOt Malay Peninsiila, was once possessed of a 
shrine set up by St. Francis Xavier, dedicated under 
the title Our Lady of the Mount. It was for some 
vears after his death (and he was buried in this chapel, 
before the translation of his relics to Goa, cf. "The 
Tablet;^ 31 Dec., 1910, p. 1055), a centre of pilgrim- 
age. When Malacca passed from Portuguese to Dutch 
rme, the exercise of the Catholic religion was forbidden, 
and the sanctuary became a ruin (Champagnac, I, 

Mantua, Lombardy, Italy, has outside the city 
walls a beautiful church, S. Maria delle Grazie, dedi- 
cated by the noble house of Gonzaga to the Mother of 

God. It enshrines a picture of the Madonna painted 
on wood and attributed to St. Luke. Pius II, Charles 
V, the Constable of Bourbon are among the many 
pilgrims who have visited this sanctuanr. The chief 
season of pilgrimage is about the feast of the Assump- 
tion (15 August), when it is computed that over one 
hundred thousand faithful have some years attended 
the devotions (Champagnac, I, 1042). 

MariaSleiny near Basle, Switzerland, is the centre 
of a pilgrimage. An old statue of the Blessed Virgin, 
no doubt the treasure of some unknown hermit, is 
famed for its miracles. To it is attached a Benedictine 
monastery — a daughter-house to Einsiedeln (Cham- 
pagnac, I, 1044). 

Mariazelly Styria, a quaint village, superbly situated 
but badly built, possesses a tentn-centurv statue of 
the Madonna. To it have come almost all the Hab&- 
burgs on pilgrimage, and Maria Theresa left there, 
after her visit, medallions of her husband and her 
children . From all the country round , from Carinthia, 
Bohemia, and the Tyrol, the faithful fiock to the shrine 
during June and July. The Government used to de- 
cree the day on which the pilgrims from Vienna wore 
to meet in the capital at the old Cathedral of St. 
Stephen and set out in ordered bands for their four 
days' pilgrimage (Champagnac, I, 1045-7). 

MaraeilleSf France, as a centre of pilgrimage has 
a noble shrine, Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde. Its chapel, 
on a hill beyond the city, dominates the neighbourhood, 
where is the statue, made by Channel in 1836 to take 
the place of an older one destroyed during the Revolu- 
tion (Champagnac, I, 1055). 

MauriaCf Cantal, France, is visited because of the 
thirteenth-century shrine dedicated to Notre-Dame- 
des-Miracles. The statue is of wood, auite black. 
The pilgrimage day is annually celebratea on 9 May 
(Champagnac, I, 1062).. 

Messina, Sicily, the luckless city of earthquake, has 
a celebrated shrine of the Blessed Virgin. It was 
peculiar among all shrines in that it was supposed to 
contain a letter written or rather dictated by the 
Mother of God, congratulating the people of Messina 
on their conversion to Christiamty. During the 
destruction of the city in 1908, the picture was 
crushed in the fallen cathedral (Thurston in "The 
Tablet", 23 Jan., 1909, 123-5). 

Montaigu, Belgium, is perhaps the most celebrated 
of Belgian shrines raised to the honour of the Blessed 
Virgin. All the year round pilgrimages are made to 
the statue; and the number of offerings day by day 
is extraordinary. 

MorUmarlre, Seine, France, has been for centuries a 
place of pilgrimage as a shrine of the Mother of God. 
St. Ignatius came here with his first nine companions 
to receive their vows on 15 Aug., 1534. But it is 
famous now rather as the centre of devotion to the 
Sacred Heart, since the erection of the National 
Basilica there after the war of 1870 (Champagnac, I, 

MonlpeUier, Herault, France, used to possess a 
famous statue of black wood — Notre-DamcKies- 
Tables. Hidden for long within a silver statue of the 
Blessed Virgin, life-size, it was screened from public 
view, till it was stolen by the Calvinists and has since 
disappeared from history. From 1189 the feast of 
the Miracles of Mary was celebrated with special 
Office at Montpellier on 1 Sept., and throughout an 
octave (Champagnac, I, 1147). 

Mont Sl'Michd, Normandy, is the quaintest, 'most 
beautiful, and interesting of shrines. For long it was 
the centre of a famous pilgrimage to the ^at arch- 
angel, whose power in times of war and distress was 
earnestly implored. Even to-day a few bands of 
peasants, and here and there a devout pilgrim, come 
amid the crowds of visitors to honour St. Michael as 
of old (Champagnac, I, 1151). 

Montserratj Spain, lifts iteelf above the surroimding 


country in the same way as it towers above other stolenwiththeothertreasuresbyHenryirs turbulent 

Spanish centres of pilgrimage to the Blessed Virgin, eldest son, Henry Court Mantel (Drane, '*Hist. of 

Its existence can be traced to the tenth century, but St. Dominic", London. 1891,302-10; Laporte, ''Guide 

it was not a centre of much devotion till the thir- du pdlerin k Rocamaaour", Rocamadour, 1862). 

teenth. The present church was only consecrated on • RocheviUey Toulouse, France. — The legend of its 

2 Feb., 1562. It is still much sought after in pilgrim- origin fixes the date of its apparition of the Blessed 

age (Champagnac, I, 1152-73). Virgin as 1315. Long famous, then long neglected, it 

Naples, Italy, is a city which has been for many has once more been restored. During the octave of 

centuries and for many reasons a centre of pilgrimage, the Nativity of Our Lady (8-15 Sept.) it is visited by 

Two famous shrines there are the Msbdonna del quite a large body of devout pilgnms (Qiampagnac, 

Carmine and Santa Maria della Grotta (Northcote, II, 101). 
''Sanctuaries'', 107-21; see also Januarius, Saint). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, contains a sanctuary dedi- 

Oostacker, Ghent. Belgium, is one of the famous cated to Our Lady of Travel. This statue is in a 

daughter-shrines ol Lourdes. Built in imitation of convent of nuns situated iust outside the city, on 

that sanctuary and having some of the Lourdes water the east of the bay. It is devoutly venerated by the 

in the pool of the grotto, it has almost rivalled its pious people of Brazil, who invoke the protection of 

parent m the frequency of its cures. Its inauguration the Blessed Virgin on their journeys (Champagnac, 

began with a body of 2000 pilgrims, 29 July, 1875, II, 517-8). 

since which time there has been a continuous stream Rome, Italy, has had almost as much influence on 

of devout visitors. One has only to walk out there the rise of Christian pilgrimages as the Holy Land, 

from Ghent on an ordinary afternoon to see many The sacred city of the Christian world, where lay the 

worshippers, men, women, whole parishes with theu* bodies of the twin prince Apostles, attracted the love 

cur6s, etc. kneeling before the shrine or chanting of every pious Chnstian. We have quoted the words 

before the Blessed Sacrament in the church (Scheer- of St. Chrysostom who yearned to see the relics of St. 

linck, "Lourdes en Flandre'', Ghent, 1876). Paul; and his desire has been expressed in action in 

Oxford, England, contained one of the premier every age of Christian time. The early records of 

shrines of Britain, that of St. Frideswide. Certainly every nation (of the histories of Eusebius, Zosimus, 

her relics were worthy of grateful veneration, espe- Socrates, Bede, etc. passim) give name after name of 

daily to Oxford dwellers, for it is to her that the city bishop, kin^, noble, priest, layman who have jour- 

and university alike appear to owe their existence, neyed to visit as pilgrims the limina Apostolorvm. 

Her tomb (since restored at great pains, 1890) was Full to repletion as the city is with relics of Christian 

the resort of many pilgrims. Few English kings cared holiness, the "rock on which the Church is built '' has 

to enter Oxford at all; but the whole university, twice been the chief attraction; and Bramante has well 

a year, i. e. mid-Lent and Ascension Day, headed by made it the centre of his immortal temple. Thus St. 

the chancellor, came in solemn procession to offer Marcius came with his wife Martha and his two sons 

their gifts. The Catholics of the city have of late all the way from Persia in 269; St. Patemus from 

years reorganized the pilgrimage on the saint's feast- Alexandria in 253; St. Maiuiis from Africa in 284. 

day, 19 Oct. (Wall, 63i-71). Again Sts. Constantine and Victorian on their arrival 

Padua, Italy, is the centre of a pilgrimage to the at Rome went straight to the tomb of St. Peter, where 

relics of St. Antnony. In a vast choir behind the sane- soldiers cau^t them and put them to death. So also 

'tuary of the church that bears his name is the treasury St. Zoe was found praying at the tomb of St. Peter and 

of St. Anthony; but his body reposes under the high martyred. Even then in these early days the practice 

altar. Devotion to this saint has increased so enor- of pilgrimages was in full force, so that the danger of 

mously of late years that no special days seem set death did not deter men from it (Barnes, "St. Peter in 

apart for pilgrimages. They proceed continuously all Rome", London, 1900, 146). Then to overleap the 

the year round (Ch6ranc6, "St. Anthony of Padua", centuries we find records of the Saxon and Danish 

tr. London, 1900). kings of England trooping Romewards, so that the 

Pennant MelangeU. Montgomery, Wales, to judge very name of Rome has become a verb to express the 

from the sculptured tragments of stone built into the idea of wandering (Low Lat., romerus: Old Fr., 

walls of the church and lych gate, was evidently a romieu; Sp., romero; Port., romeiro; A. S., romaign; 

place of note, where a shrine was built to St. Alel- M. E., romen; Modem, roam). And of the Irish, 

angell, a noble Irish maiden. The whole structure as the same uninterrupted custom has held good till our 

restored stands over eight feet high and originally own day (Ulster Archaeolog. Jeur., VII, lS8-42). Of 

stood in the Cell-yrBedd, or Cell of the Grave, and the other nations there is no need to speak, 
was clearly a centre of pilgrimage (Wall, 48). It is curious, however, to note that though the chief 

Poniigny, Yvonne, France, was for many centuries ahrine of Rome was undoubtedly the tomb of the 

a place of pilgrimage as containing the shrine of St. Apostles — to judge from all the extant records — ^yet 

Edmund of Canterbury. Special facilities were al- the pilgrim sign (see below) which most commonly be- 

lowed by the French king for English pilgrims. The tokcn^ a palmer from Rome was the "vemicle" or 

Huguenots despoiled the shrine, but the relics were reproduction of St. Veronica's veil. Thus Chaucer 

saved to be set up again in a massive chdsse of eigh- (Bell s edition, London, 1861, 105) describes the 

teenth-century workmanship. In spite of the troubles pardoner:— 

in France the body remains in its old position, and is "That strait was comen from the Court of Rome 
even carefully protected by the Government (Wall, A vemicle had he served upon his cappe". 

171-5). However, there was besides a medal with a reproduc- 

Puche, Valencia, Spain, is the great Spanish sane- tion of the heads of Sts. Peter and Paul and another 

tuary dedicated to Our Lady of Mercy, in honour of with the crossed keys. These pilgrimages to Rome, of 

whom the famous Order of Mercy came into being which only a few early instances have been given, have 

through Spanish saints. The day of pilgrimage was increased of late years, for the prisoner of the Vatican, 

the feast of Our Lady of Mercy, 24 Sept. (Champa- who cannot go out to his children, has become, since 

gnac, II, 488-92). 1870, identified with the City of the Seven Hills in a 

Rocamadour, Lot, France, was the centre of much way that before was never for long experienced. Hence 

devotion as a shrine of the Blessed Virgin. Amongst the pope is looked upon as embodying in his person 

its pilgrims may be named St. Dominic; and the the whole essence of Rome, so that to-day it is the 

heavy mass of iron hanging outside the chapel wit- pope who is the living tomb of St. Peter. All this has 

nesses to the legendary pilgrimage of Roland, whose nelped to increase the devotion and love of the Cath- 

good sword Durendal was deposited there till it was olic world for its central city and has enormously 


multipbed the annuat number of pilgrima. Within 
the city iteeU, mention muel juat he made of the relc- 
braled pilgrimage to the seven churches, a devotion 
HO dear to the heart of St. Philip (Capecelatro, "Life 
of St. Philip", tr. Pope, London, 1894, I, 106, 238, 
etc.). Hia name recalls the great work he did for the 
pilgriraa who came to Rome. He established his Con- 
gregation of the TrinitA dei Pellegrini (ibid., I 138-54), 
the whole work of which was to care for and look after 
the thronging crowds who came every year, more espe- 
cially in the years of jubilee. Of course, many auch 
hospices already existed. The English College had 
ori^nally been a home for Saion pilgrimsj and there 
were and are many othere. But St. Philip gave the 
movement a new impetus. 

St. Albant, Hertford, Engiandj was famous over 
Europe in the Middle Ages. This is the more curious 
as the sainted martyr was no prieat or monk, but a 
simple layman. The number of roj'al pilgrims prac- 
tically includes the whole list- of iLnglish kings and 
Sieens, but especially devoted to the shrine were 
enry III, Edward I, Edward II, Richard II. During 
the last century the broken pieces of the demolished 
shrine (to the number of two thousand fragments) 
were patiently fitted together, and row enable the 
present generation to picture IJie beauty it presented 
to the pilgrims who thronged around it (Wall, II, 

Si. Andreirs, Fife, Scotland,— Though more cele- 
brated as a royal burgh and as the seat of Scotland's 
moat ancient university, its earher renown came to it 
u a centre of pitgrimc^. Even as far back as the 
year 500 we find a notice of the pilgrimages made by 
the Welsh bishop, Cadoc. He went seven times to 
Rome, thrice to Jerusalem, and once to iSt. Andrews 
(Acta SS., Jan., 111,219). 

St. David's, Pembrokeshire, Wales, was so cele- 
brated a place of pilgrimage that William I went there. 
Immediately after the conquest of England, The im-" 
portance of this shrine and the reverence in which the 
relics of St. David were held may be gathered from 
the papal Decree that two pilgrimages here were equal 
to one to Rome (Wall, 91-5). 

Ste Anne d'Aurau, Vonnes, Brittany, a centre of 
pilgrimage in one of the holiest cities of the Bretons, 
oelebratea for its ■pardons in honour of St. Anne. The 
priociDal pilgrimages take place at Pent«cost and on 

Ste Anne de Beauvri, Quebec, Canada, has be- 
come the most popular centre of pilgrimage in all 
Canada within quite recent years. A review, or pious 
magazine, "Les Annaies de la Bonne S. Anne", has 
been founded to increase the devotion of the people: 
•nd the zeal of the Canadian clet^ has been di^tayea 
in organizing parochial pilgrimages to the ahnne. 
The Euchoristic Congress, held at Montreal in 1910, 
also did a great deafto spread abroad the fame of 
this sanctuary. 

Sainte-Baume. — S. Maximin, Toulouse, France, is 
the centre of a famous pilgrimage to the sui>po8ed 
relics of St. Mary Magdalene. The historical evidence 
agunst the authentication of the tombs is extraordi- 
narily strong and has not been really seriously answered. 
The pilgrima^, however, continue; and devout 
irorshippera visit the shrine, if not of, at least, dedi' 
cated to. St. Mary Magdalene. The arguments 
against tne .tradition have been marshalled and fully 
set out by Mgr Duchesne (" Pastes ^piscopaux de 
I'ancienne Gaul", Paris, 1S94-19(XI) and appeared 
in English form in "The Tablet", XCVl (1900), 88, 
282, 323, 305, 403, 444. 

St. Patriek'M PurgatoTy, Donegal, Ireland, has been 
the centre of a pilgrimage from far remote days. The 
legends that describe its foundation are full of Dan- 
t^ue episodes which have won for the shrine a place 


dramatized by CalderAn, is referred to by Erasmus, 
and its enstence seems implied in the remark of Ham- 
let concerning the ghost from purgatoryr "Yes by St. 
Patrick but there is, Horatio" (Act 1, sc. V). Though 
suppressed even before the Reformation, and of course 
during the Penal Times, it is atill extraordinarily popu- 
lar with the Irish people, for whom it is a real peni- 
tential exercise. It seems the only pilgrimage of mod- 
em times conducted like those of the Middle Ages 
(Chambers, "Bookof Days", London, I, 725-8; Leflie 
in "The Tablet", ISIO). 

SaTOf/oesa, Aragon, Spain, is celebrated for its 
famous shrine dedicated to the Blessed Virpn under 
the title Nuestra Seflora del Pilar. Tradition asserts 
that the origin of this statue goes back to the time of 

St. James, when, in the lifetime of the Mother of 
God, it was set up by order of the Apostle. This was 
approved by Callistus III in 1456. It is glorious on 
account of the many miracles performed there, and is 
the most popular of all the shrines of the Blessed 
Virgin in the Peninsula and the most thronged with 
pilgrims {Acta SS,, July, VII, 880-900). 

Savona, Genoa, Italy, claims to possees the oldest 
sanctuary dedicated to the Blessed Virgin in all Italy, 
for to it Constantine is said to have gone on pilgrim- 
age. The statue was solemnly crowned by Pius VII, 
not while spending his five years of captivity in the 
city, but later, i. e., on 10 May, 1815, assisted Dy King 
Victor Emmanuel and the royal family of Savoy 
(Champa«nae,'fl, 852-7). 

"■ ■ " ' " da. has a stai. _. 

s found by 
ime strange 
e time after 

enshrines a statue of the Blessed Viigin in a chapel 
of jasper, ornamented with magnificent and unique 
treasures. Ttis centre of devotion to the Blessed 
Virgin which draws to it annually a great number of 
pilgrims, is due to the tradition -of the apparition to 
bt. lldephonsus (Champagnac, II, 944-6), 

Toi\jia, Syria, was in the Middle Ages famous for a 




shrine of the Blcesed Virgin, which claimed, to be the 
mo6t ancient in Christendom. There is a quaint story 
about a miracle there told by Joinville who made a 
pilgrimage to the shrine, when he accompanied St. 
Louis to the East (Champagnac, II, 951). 

TourSf Indre-et-Loire, France, has long been cele- 
brated for the tomb of St. Martin, to which countless 
pilgrims journeyed before the Revolution (Goldie in 
*'The Month", Nov., 1880, 331). 

Trier f Rhenish Prussia, has boasted for fifteen cen- 
turies of the possession of the Holy Coat. This relic, 
brought back by St. Helena from the Holy Land, has 
been the centre of pilgrimage since that date. It has 
been several times exposed to the faithful and each 
time has drawn countless pilg^ms to its veneration. 
In 1512 the custom of an exposition taking place every 
seven years was begun, but it has been often inter- 
rupted. The last occasion on which the Holy Coat 
was exhibited for public veneration was in 1891, when 
1,900,000 of the faithful in a continual stream passed 
before the relic (Clarke, "A Pilgrimage to the Holy 
Coat of Treves", Ix>ndon, 1892). 

TuriUf Piedmont, Italy, is well known for its 
extraordinarv relic of the Holy Winding-Sheet or 
Shroud. Whatever may be said against its authen- 
ticity, it is an astonishing relic, for the impression 
which it bears in negative of the body of Jesus Christ 
could with difficulty have been added by art. The 
face thereon impr^sed agrees remarkably with the 
traditional portraits of Christ. Naturally the exposi- 
tions of the sacred relic are the occasions of numerous 
pilgrimages (Thurston in "The Month", January, 
1903, 17; February, 162). 

VaUcmbrosay Tuscany, Italy, has become a place 
of pil^mage, even though the abbey no longer con- 
tains its severe and picturesque throng of monks. Its 
romantic site has made it a ceaseless attraction to 
minds like those of Dante, Ariosto, Milton, etc.j and 
Benvenuto Cellini tells us that he too made a pilgnmage 
to the shrine of the Blessed Virgin there to thank her 
for the many beautiful works of art he had composed; 
and as he went he sang and prayed (Champagnac, 
II, 1033-7). 

WaUingham, Norfolk, England, contained England's 
greatest shrine of the Blessed Virgin. The chapel 
dates from 1061, almost from which time onward it 
was the most frequented Madonna sanctuaiy in the 
island, both by foreigners and the English. Many of 
the English kings went to it on pilgrimage; and the 
destruction of it weighed most heavily of all his mis- 
deeds on the conscience of the dying Henry VIII. 
Erasmus in his " ReUgious Pilgrimage " ("Colloquies ", 
London, 1878, II, 1-37) has given a most detailed 
account of the shrine, though his satire on the whole 
devotion is exceptionally caustic. Once more, annu- 
ally, pilgrimages to the old chapel have been revived; 
and the pathetic '' Lament of Walsingham" is ceasing 
to be true to actual facts ("The Month", Sept., 1901, 
236; Bridgett, "Dowry of Mary", London, 1875, 

Westminster y London, England, contained one of the 
seven incorrupt bodies of samts of Endand (Acta SS., 
Aug., I, 276), i. e., that of St. Edwara the Confessor, 
the only one which yet remains in its old shrine and is 
still the centre of pilgrimage. From immediately after 
the king's death, his tomb was carefully tended, espe- 
cially by the Norman kings. At the suggestion of St. 
Thomas Becket a magnificent new shrine was pre- 
pared by Henry II in 1163, and the body of the saint 
there translated on 13 Oct. At once pilgrims began to 
flock to the tomb for miracles, and to return thames for 
favours, as did Richard I, after his captivity (Radulph 
Coggeshall, "Chron. Angl." in R. S., ed. Stevenson, 
1875, 63). So popular was this last canonized English 
king, that on the rebuilding of the abbey by Henry 
III St. Edward's tomb really overshadowed the pri- 
mary dedication to St. Peter. The pUgrim's sign was 

a king's head surmounting a pin. The step on which 
the shrine stands was deeply worn by the kneeling 
pilgrims, but it has been relaid so that the hollows are 
now on the inner edge. Once more this sanctuary, too, 
has become a centre of pilgrimage (Stanley, '' Mem. of 
Westminster", London, 1869, passim; Wall, 223-35). 
Garb. — In older ages, the pilgrim had a special garb 
which betokened his mission. This has been prac- 
ticaUy omitted in modem times, except among the 
Mohammedans, with whom ihram still distinguishes 
the Hailed and Hadj from the rest of the people. As 
Tar as one can discover, the dress of the medieval 
pilgrim consisted of a loose frock or long smock, over 
which was thrown a separate hood with a cape, much 
after the fashion of the Dominican and Senate habit. 
On his head, he wore a low-crowned, broad-brimmed 
hat, such as is familiar to us from the armorial bear- 
ings of cardinals. This was in wet and windy weather 
secured under his chin by two strings, but strings of 
such length that when not needed the hat could be 
thrown off and hang behind the back. Across his 
breast passed a belt from which was suspended his 
wallet, or script, to contsun his relics, food, money, and 
what-not. In some illuminations it may be noted as 
somehow attached to his side (cf . blessing infra) . In one 
hand he held a staff, composed of two sticks swathed 
tightly together by a withy band. Thus in the grave 
of Bishop Mayhew (d. 1516), which was opened a 
few years ago m Hereford cathedral, there wajs found 
a stock of hasel-wood between four and five feet long 
and about the thickness of a finger. As there were 
oyster shells also buried in the same grave, it seems 
reasonable to suppose that this stick was the bishop's 
pilgrim staff; but it has been suggested recently that 
it represents a crosier of a rou^kind used for the 
burial of prelates (Cox and Harvey, "Church Furni- 
ture", London, 1907, 55). Occasionally these staves 
were put to uses other than those for which Uiey were 
intended. Thus on St. Richard's day, 3 April, 1487, 
Bishop Storey of Chichester had to make stringent 
regulations, K)r there was such a throng of pilgrims 
to reach the tomb of the saint that the struggles for 
precedence led to blows and the free use of the staves 
on each other's heads. In one case a death had re- 
sulted. To prevent a recurrence of this disorder, ban- 
ners and crosses only were to be carried (Wall, 128). 
Some, too, had bells in their hands or other instruments 
of music: "some others pilgrimes will have with them 
baggepipes; so iJiat everie towne that they came 
through, what with the noice of their singing and with 
the sound of their piping and with the jangling of 
their Canterburie bells, and with the barking out of 
dogges after them, that they make more noice then if 
the King came there away with all his clarions and 
many other minstrels" (Fox, "Acts", London, 1596, 

This distinctive pilgrim dress is -described in most 
medieval poems and stories (cf. "Renard the Fox", 
London, 1886, 13, 74, etc.; "Squyr of Lowe Degree", 
ed. Ritson in "Metrical Romancers", London, 1802. 
Ill, 151), most minutely and, of course, indirectly, and 
very late by Sir Walter Raleigh: — 

"Give me my scallop^eU of quiec. 

My staff of faith to walk upon, 
My scrip of joy, inmiortal diet, 

My bottle of Salvation, 
My gown of glory (hope's true gage), 

And then Til take my pilgrimage." 
(Cf. Fumivall, "The Stacions of Rome and the Pil- 
grim's Sea Voyage".) In penance they went alone 
and barefoot, ifiieas Sylvius Piccolomini tells of his 
walking without shoes or stockings through the snow 
to Our Lady of Whitekirk in East Lothian, a tramp 
of ten miles; and he remembered the intense cold of 
that pilgrimage to his life's end (Paul, "Royal Pil- 
grimages in Scotland" in "Trans, of Scottish Eccle- 
siological Soc.", 1905), for it brought on a severe 


attack of gout (Boulting, ".I^acaa Sylvius", l-"n(lon, 
1908, 60). 

Pilgrim Signs. — A last part of the pil^rim'B atlire 
must De mentioned, the famous pilgrim sigfis. These 
were badges sewn on to the hat or hung rovnd the neck 
or pinned on the clothes of the pilgrim. 
"A boUe and s, haggp 

He bar by hia ayde 

And hundred ampulles; 

On hia hat seten 

SigDes of Synfty, 

And Shellea of Galice, 

And many a coache 

On his cloke, 

And keys of Rome, 
— And the Vemycle bi-fore 

For men sholde kaowe 

And se bi hise sigites 

Whom he sought badde" 


Peter and Paul or the keys or tho vemicle (this last 
also might mean Genoa where there was a rival shrine 
of St. Veronica'a veil}; to St. James of Corapostella 

the scallop or oyster shell: to Canterbuir, a bell or 
the head of the saint on a brooch or a leaden ampulla 
filled with water from a well near the tomb tinctured 
'with an infinitesimal drop of the martyr's blood ("Mat. 
for Hist, of Thomas Beckett", 1878 in R. S., II, 269; 
III, 152, 187); to Walsingham, the virgin and child; 
to Amiens, the head of St. John the Baptist, etc. 
Then there was the horn of St, Hubert, the comb of 
St. Blaise, the axe of St. Olave, and so on. And when 
the tomb was reached, votive offerings were left of 
jewels, models of limbs that hod been miraculously 
cured, spears, broken fetters, etc. (Rock, "Church of 
our Fathers", London, 1852, HI, 463). 

Effects, — Among the countless effecte which pil- 
grimages produced the following may be set down; — 

ro«fM. — Matthew Paris notes ("Chron. major." 

(Piers Plowman, ed. Wright, London, 185G, I, 109). 
There are several moulds extant in which these signs 
were cast (cf. British Museum; Mus^ de Lyon; 
Muafe de Cluuy, Paris; etc.), and not a tew signs 
themselves have been picked up, especially in the oeds 
of rivers, evidently dropped by the pilgrims from the 
ferry-boals. These signs protected the pilgrims from 
assault and enabled them to pass through even hostile 
ranks ("Paston Letters", I, 85; Forgews, "Coll. de 
plombs histories", Paris, 1863, 52-80; "Archawl. 
Jour.", VII, 400; XIII, 105), but as the citation from 
Piers Plowman shows, they were also to show " whom 
he sought hadde". Of course the cross betokened the 
cnieoder (though one could also take the cross against 
the Moors of Spain, Simeon of Durham, "Hist, de 
gestia regum Anghie , ed. Twywien, London, 1652, I, 
249), and the colour of it the nation to which he be- 
longed, the English white, the French red, the Flemish 
green (Matthew Paris, "Chron. majora", ed. Luard, 
London, 1874, 11,330, an. 1199, in R.S.); the pilgrim 
to Jerusalem had two crossed leaves of palm (hence 
the name "palmer"); to St, Catherine's tomb on 
Mount Sinai, the wheel; to Rome, the heads of Sis. 
XII.— 7 

in R. S., I, 3, an. 1067) that in England (and the saxne 
thing really applies all over Europe) there was hardly 
a town where there did not lie the bodies of martyrs, 
confessors, and holy virgins, and though no doubt in 
very many coses it was the importance of the towns 
that macle them the chosen resting-places of the 
saint's relics, in quite as man^ others the importance 
of the saint drew so many religious pilgrims U> it that 
the town sprang up into real significance. So it has 
been not«d that Canterbury, at least, outshone Win- 
chester, and since the Reformation has once more 
dwindled into insignificance. Bury Saint Edmunds, 
St. Albans, Walsingham, Compostella, Lourdes. La 
Sdette have arisen, or grown, or decayed, accordinglv 
as. the popularity among pilgrims began, advanced, 

Roads were certainly made in many cases by the 
pilgrims. They wore out a path from the sear<!oaBt 
to Canterbury and joined Walsingham k) the great 
centres of Enf;lish life and drove trucks and paths 
across the Syrian sands fo the Holy City. And men 
and women for (heir soul's sake made benefactions so 
as to level down and up, and to straighten out the 


wandering ways that led Trom port h) sanctuary and 
from ahrine to Hhrine (Digby, "Compitum", Loodon, 
1851,1,408). ThuB theylioped to get tbor share also 
in the merits ot the pilgrim. The whole subject has 
been iUuminat«d in a particular instance by a mono- 
graph of Hilaire Belloc in the "Old Road (London, 

GeoffrajAy too sprang from the same source. Each 
pilgrim who wrote an account of his travels for the 
instruction and edification of his fellows was uncon- 
sciously laying the foundations of a new science; and 
it is astonishing how very early theee written accounts 
begin. The fourth century saw them riae, witnessed 
tbe publication of many "Peregrinationea" (cf. 
Palestine Pil)?. Text Soc., jXMsim), and started the 
fashion of writing these day-to-day descriptions of the 
countriee through which they journeyed. It is only 
fait to mention with en)ecial praise the names of the 
Dominicans lUcoldo da Monte Cruce (1320) and 
Burchard of Mount Sion (Beazley, II, 190, 383), the 
latter of whom 
has given meas- 
urements of sev- 
eral Biblical sites, 
J,he accuracj^ of 
'which is testified 

we know that 
Roger ot Sicily 
caused the famous 
work "The Book 
of Roger, or the 
Debght of whoso 
loves to make the 
Circuit of the 
Worid" (1164) to 
be compiled, from 
information gath- 
ered from pilgrims 
and merchants, 
who were made to appear betore a select committee of 
Arabs (SvmondB,"8ketchesinltaly",Leiprig, 18S3, 1, 
249) ; ana we even hearof amedieval Continental guide- 
book to the great shrines, prefaced by a list of the 
most richly indulgenced sanctuaries and containing de- 
tails of where money could be changed, where inns 
and hospitals were to be found, what roaas were safest 
and best, etc. ("The Month". March, 1909, 295; 
"Itineraries of William Wey",ea. for Roxburgh Club, 
London, 1857; Thomas, De paasagiis in Teiram 
Sanctam", Venice, 1879; Bounardot and Longnon, 
"Le stunt voyage dc Jh6rusalem du Seigneur d'Au- 
glure", Paris, 1878). 

Cruiadet also naturally arose out of the idea of 
pilgrimages. It was these various peregrinaliones 
made to the Sepulchre of Jesus Chnst that at all 
familiarised people with the East. Then came the 
huge columns of devout worshippers, pawing larger 
and larger, becomins more fully organized, and well 
protected oy armed oands of disciphned troops. The 
most famous pilgrimage of all, that of 1065, which 
Bumbered about 12,000, under Gunther, Bishop of 
Bamberg, assisted by the Archbishop of Maim, and 
the Bishops of Ratisbon and Utrecht, was attacked by 
Bedouins after it had left Ctesarea. The details of 
that Homeric struggle were brought home to Europe 
(Lambert of Gersfield, "Mon. Germ. Hist.", 1844, V, 
]S9) and at once gave rise the Crusades. 

MiraeU Ptayi are held to be derived from returning 
pilgrims. This theory is somewhat obscurely worked 
out by P^re Menestncr ^lepr&entations en musique 
snc. et modemes; cf. ChampaKnac, I, 9). But he 
bases his conclusions on the idea that the miracle plays 
benn by the story of the Birth or Death of Christ 
and holds that the return to the West of those who 
bad visited the scenes of the life of Christ naturally 


led tkem to reproduce these as best they could for 

thar less fortunate brethren (St. Aug., "Deciv. Dei" 
in P. L., XXXVIII, 764). Hence the miracle plays 
that deal with the stoiy of Christ's Passion were im- 
ported for the benefit of those who were unftble to 
visit the very shrines. But the connexion between 
the pilgrimages and these plays comes out much more 
clearly when we realize that the scene of the martyr- 
dom of the saint or some legend concerning one of his 
miracles was not uncommonly acted before his shrine 
or during the pilgrimage that was being made to it. 
It was performed in order to stimulate devotion, and 
to teach the lessons of his life to those who probably 
knew little about him. It was one way and the most 
effective way of seeing that the reason for visiting the 
shrine was not one of mere idle superstition, but that 
it had a purpose to achieve in the moral improvement 
of the pilgrim. 

InUmational Communiealu/m owed an enormous 
debt to the continual interchange of pilgrims. Pi]< 
grimagea and wars were practically the only reasons 
that led the people of one country to visit that of 
another. It may safely be hazarded that an exceed- 
int^y large proportion of the foreigners who came to 
En^and, came on pumose to venerate the tomb of 
tbe "Holy blissful Martyr", St. Thomas Becket. 
Special enactments allowed pilgrims to pass unmo- 
lested through districts that were in the throes of war. 
Again facilities were granted, as at Pontigny, for 
strangers to visit the shrines of their own saints in 
other lands. The result of this was naturally to in- 
crease communications between foreign countries. 
The matter of road-making has been already alluded 
to and the establishment of hospices along the lines 
of march, as the ninth-century monastery at Mont 
Cienis, or in the cities most frequented by pilgrims, 
fulfilled the same purpose (Acta 88., March, II, 150, 
157; Glaber, "Chron.^' in Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script, 
VII, 62). Then lastly it may be noted that We have 
distmct notices, scattered, indirect, and yet all the 
more convincing, that pilgrims not unfrequently acted 
as postmen, carrying letters from place to place as 
they went; and that people even waited with their 
notes written till a stray pilgrim should pass along the 
route (Paston Letters, II, 62). 

Religiout Orders began to be founded to succour the 
pilgrims, and these even the most famous orders of the 
medieval Church. The Knights Hospitallers, or 
Knights of St. John, as their name implies, had as their 
office to guard the straggling bands of Latin Chris- 
tians; the Knights oF Rhodes had the same work to 
carry out; as i& had the Knights Templars. In fact 
the seal of these last represented simply a kni^t 
rescuing a helpless pil^m (compare also the Trimt& 
dei Peregrini of St. Philip). 

Scandah effected by this form of devotion are too 
obvious and were too often denounced by the saints 
andjjther writers from St. Jerome to Thomas a Kem- 
pis to need any setting out here. The "Canterbury 
Tales" of Chaucer are sufficient evidence. But the 
"Colloquy" of Erasmus briefly mentions the more 
characteristic ones: (i) excessive credulity of the 
guardianof theshrine; (ii) insistence upon the obUga- 
tion oF pilgrimages as though they were necessary tor 
salvation; (iii) the neglect on the part of too many of 
the pilgrims of their own duties at home in order to 
spend more time in passing from one sanctuary to 
another; (iv) the wantonness and evil-living and esdl- 
speaking indulged in by the pilgrims themselves in 
many cases. Not as though these abuses invalidated 
the use of plumages. Erasmus himself declares that 
they did not; but they certainly should have been 
more stringently and rigorously repressed by the 
church rulers. The dangers of these scandals are evi- 
dently reduced to a minimum by the speed of modem 
travel: yet from time to time warnings need to be !»■ 
peated lest the old e^-ils should return. 




Blbssino. — ^To complete this article, it will be well 
to give the following blessingB taken from the Sarum 
Miflsal (London, 1868, 595-6). These should be com- 

fiared with Mohammedan formularies (ChampagnaCi 
I, 1077-80, etc.):— 

Blessing of Scrip and Staff, 

f. The Lord be with you. 

I^. And with thv spirit. 
Let us pray. Lord Jesus Christ who of Thy un- 
speakable mercy at the bidding of the Father and by 
the Co-operation of the Holv Ghost wast willing to 
come down from Heaven and to seek the sheep that 
was lost by the deceit of the devil, and to carry him 
back on Thy shoulders to the flock of the Heavenly 
Country; and didst commend the sons of Holy 
Mother Church by prayer to ask, by holy living to 
seek, bv persevering to knock that so they may the more 
speedily find the reward of saving life; we humbly 
call upon Thee that Thou wouldst be pleased to bless 
these scrips (or this scrip) and these staves (or this 
staff) that whosoever for the love of Thy name shall 
desire to wear the same at his side or hang it at his 
neck or to bear it in his hands and so on his pilgrimage 
to seek the aid of the Saints with the accompaniment 
of humble prayer, being protected by the guardian* 
ship of Thy Right Handmajr be found meet to attain 
unto- the joys of the everlasting vision through Thee, 
Saviour of the World, Who livest and reignest in 
the unity of the Holy Spirit, God for ever and ever. 

Here lei the scrip be sprinkled with Holy Water and 
let the Priest put it round each pUgrinCs neck^ saying: 
In the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ receive this 
scrip, the habit of thy pilgrimage, that after due chas- 
tisement thou mayest be found worthy to reach in 
safety the Shrine of the Saints to which thou desirest 
to go; and after the accomplishment of thy journey 
thou mayest return to us in health. Through, etc. 

Here let him give the Staff to the PUgrinij saying: 
Receive this staff for thy support in the travail and 
toil of thy pilgrimage^ that thou mayest be able to 
overcome all the hosts of the enemy and reach in 
safety the Shrine of the Saints whither thou desirest 
to go; and having obediently fulfilled thy course 
. mayest return again to us with joy. Throujji, etc. 

The Blessing of the Cross for one on a pilgrimage to 

^. The Lord be with you. 

IJ. And with thy spirit. 
Let us pray. God, whose power is invincible and 
pity cannot be measured, the aid and sole comfort of 
pilgrims; who givest unto Thy servants armour which 
cannot be overcome; we beseech Thee to be pleased 
. to bless this dress which is humbly dcvotc<i to Thee, 
that the banner of the venerated Cross, the figure 
whereof is upon it^ may be a most mighty strength to 
Thy servants against the wicked temptations of the 
old enemy: a defence by the way, a protection in Thy 
house, ana a security to us on every side. Through, 

Here lei the garment marked with the Cross he 
sprinkled with Holy Water and given to the pilgrim , the 
priest sayinq: 

Receive this dress whereupon the sign of the Cross 
of the Lord Our Saviour is traced, that through it 
safety, benediction and strength to journey in pros- 
perity, may accompany thee to the Sepulchre of Him, 
who with Uod the Father and the Holy Ghost, liveth 
and reigneth one God, world without end. Amen. 

Marx, D<u WaUfahren in der katholUchen Kirehe (Trier, 1842); 
8mnr and CHAMrAONAC, Didionn. det pilerinagea (Paria, 
185G); Rock, The Church of Our ^aihert (London. 1852); Ls 
Rot. Uiti. det p^er. d9 la aainU Vierge en France (Paris, 1875) ; 
Watsbton, Pidae Mariana Britannica (London, 1879); Cham- 
BKm, Book of Dayt (Tx>ndon, a. d.): JufWERANO. tr. Smith. Eng- 
h»h Wayfaring Life in the Middle Age* (I^oodon, 1892) ; Itintrairea 
/rancdM Xb-XlIJ' siieUm, ed. Michelant and Raynaud 
(1882—); PaUfftine Pilgrim Text Society (London. 1884—); 
DnUeche Pilgerreieen nach dem heiligen Land§ (Innabruek. 19(X)) ; 

Bbaslet, Davm of Modem Geography (London, 1897-1006); 
Wall. Shrinee of British Sainta (London, 1905); BrArieh. 
Vigliee et VOrieni au mayen-dge (Paria, 1907); Camm, ForgoOen 
Shrinee (London, 1910); Revue de VOrient laiin (Paria, 1893—); 
Meeeenaer of the Sacred Heart (New York, 1892-9), paeeim. 

Bbde Jarrett. 

Piligrim, Bishop of Passau, date of birth unknown; 
d. 20 May, 991. He was educated at the Benedictine 
monastery of Niederaltaich, and was made bishop in 
971. To him are attributed some, if not all, of the 
"Forgeries of Lorch", a series of documents, espe- 
cially Bulls of Popes Symmachus, Eugene II, Leo VII, 
and A^apetus II, fabricated to prove that Passau was 
a contmuation of a former archdiocese named Lorch. 
By these he attempted to obtain from Benedict VI 
the elevation of Passau to an archdiocese, the re- 
erection of those dioceses in Pannonia and Moesia 
which had been suffragans of Lorch, and the pallium 
for himself. While Piligrim was ambitious^ he also 
had at heart the welfare of the captive Christians in 
Hungary and the Christianization of that country. 
There is extant an alleged Bull of Benedict VI granting 
Piligrim's demands; but this is also the work of Pili- 
grim, possibly a document drawn up for the papal 
signature^ which it never received. Apart from these 
forgeries, common enough at the time, Piligrim .was 
a good and zealous bishop, and converted numerous, 
heathens in Hunsary, built many schools and churches, 
restored the Rule of St. Benedict in Niederaltaich, 
transferred the relics of St. Maximilian from Getting 
to Passau, and held synods (983-91) at Ennsburg 
(Lorch), Mautem, and Mistelbach. In the "Niebel- 
ungenlied" he is lauded as a contemporary of the 
heroes of that epic. 

DOmmlsr, Piligrim ton Paeeau und das Erzbislhum Lorch 
(Leipsis, 1854); Idem in Berliner Sitzungsberichte (1898), 758-75; 
Uhurz, Die Urkundenfdlschung zu Passau im srhnten Jahrhundert 
in MilUieilungen des InstUtUs fUr dslerreichuiche Oeschichtsfor- 
sehung. III (Vienna, 1882), 177-228; Idkm. »M</.. supplementary 
vol.. II (1888), 548 sq.j Hxuwibsbr, Sind die Bischdfe ton Passau 
Nachfolger der BisehOfe ton Lorehf^ in Theologisch-praktisehe 
Monats-Schnfl, XXI (Paaaau, 1910). 13-23, 85-90; MittbrmOl- 
LEB, War Bischof Piligrim ton Passau ein UrkundenfdUchert in 
Der Katholik, XLVII (Maini, 1867), 337-62. 

Michael Ott. 

Pillar of Cloud (Pillar of Fire), a cloud which 
accompanied the Israelites during their wandering. 
It was the same as the pillar of fire, as it was luminous 
at night (cf. Ex., xiv, 19, 20, 24; Num., ix, 21, 22). 
The name "pillar'' is due to the columnar form which 
it commonly assumed. It first appeared while the 
Israelites were marching from Socoth to Etham, and 
vanished when they reached the borders of Chanaan 
(Ex., xiii, 20-22; xl, 36). It was a manifestation of 
God's presence among His people (Ex., xiv, 24 sqq.; 
xxxiii, 9; Num., xi, 25; xii, 5; Deut., xxxi, 15; Ps. 
xcviii. 7). During encampment it rested over the tab- 
ernacle of the covenant, after it was built, and before 
that time probably over the centre Of the camp. It 
rose as a signal that camp was to be broken, and during 
the march it preceded the people, stopping when they 
were to pitch their tents (Ex., xl, 34, 35; Num., ix, 17 
sqq.; Deut., i, 33). At the crossing of the Red Sea 
it rested between the Israelites and the Eg3rpjLians, 
being bright on the side of the former and dark on 
the other (Ex., xiv, 19, 20). During the marches it lit 
the way at night, and by day protected the people 
from the heat of the sun (Num., x, 34; Deut., i, 33; 
II Esd., ix, 12: Wis., x, 17; xviii, 3; Ps. civ, 39). 
It may be doubted whether it covered the camp by 
day, as many commentators maintain. Num., x, 34, 
speaks only of the march, and Wis., xix, 7, does not 
necessarily refer to the whole camp. St. Paul (I Cor., 
X, 1, 2, 6) considers it as a type of baptism, and the 
FatheiB regard it as the figure of the Holv Ghost 
leading the faithful to the true Promise<l Land. The 
rationalistic explanation which sees in the pillar only 
a torch carried on a pole, such as is used even now by 




Cftravans in Arabia, fails to take the data of the Bible 
into consideration. 

Paus, in VioouBonx, Did, de la Bib,, s. v. Colonne de NttSe; 
and oomznentarieB on the texts cited. 

F. Bechtel. 

Pima Indians, an important tribe of southern Ari- 
zona, centring along the Middle Gila and its affluent, 
the oalt River. Linguistically they belong to the 
Piman branch of the widely-extended Shoshonean 
stock, and their language, with dialectic variation, is 
the same as that spoken also bv the Pdpago and ex- 
tinct Sobaipuri of southern Arizona, and by the 
Nevome of Sonora, Mexico. In Spanish times the 
tribes of the Arizona group were known collectively 
as Pimas Altos (Upper Pima), while those of Sonora 
were distinguished as Pimas Bajos (Lower Pima), the 
whole territory being known as the Pimeria. The 
tribal name Puna is a corruption of their own word 
for "no", mistaken by the early missionaries for a 
proper name. They call themselves, simply 'Aatam, 
people", or sometimes for distinction 'Aatam- 
akimtllt, "river-people". Notwithstanding their im- 
portance as a tribe, the Pima have not been prominent 
m history, owing to their remoteness from military 
and missionary activity during the Spanish period, 
and to their almost unbroken peaceable attitude 
towards the whites. It was at one time claimed that 
they were the authors of the ruined pueblos in their 
country, notably the celebrated Casa Grande, but 
later investigation confirms the statement recorded 
by Father Garcds as early as 1780 that they were built 
by a previous people connected with the Hopi. 

The real history of the Pima may be said to 
begin with the German Jesuit missionary explorer. 
Father Eusebio Kino (Kiihn), who in 1687 estab- 
lished a mission headquarters at Dolores, near the 
present Cucurpe. northern Sonora, Mexico, from 
which point until his death in 1711 he covered the 
whole Pimerfa in his missionary labours. In 1694, led 
by Indian reports of massive ruins in the far north, he 
penetrated alone to the Gila, and said Mass in the Casa 
Grande. In 1697 he accompanied a military explora- 
tion of the Pima country, under Lieutenant Bemal 
and Captain Mange, baptizing nearly a hundred In- 
dians. In 1701 he made the earliest map of the Gila 
region. He found the Pima and their cousins the 
Pdpago most anxious for teachers. "They were, 
above all, desirous of bein^ formed into regular mis- 
sion communities, with resident padres of their own; 
and at many rancherlas they built rude but neatly 
cared-for churches, planted fields, and tended herds 
of live stock in patient waiting for missionaries, who, 
in most cases, never came" (Bancroft). From 1736 
to 1750 Fathers Keller and Sedelmair several times 
visited the Pima, but no missions were established in 
their country, although a number of the tribe attached 
themselves to the Pdpago missions. The revolt of the 
southern tribes in 1750 caused a suspension of the 
work, but the missions were resumed some years 
later and continued under increasing difficulties until 
the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767, at which time 
the whole number of neophytes in Arizona, chiefly 
P^pago, was about 1200. In the next year the Ari- 
zona missions were turned over to Franciscans of the 
College of Queretaro, who continued the work with 
some success in spite of constant inroads of the 
Apache. Although details are wanting, it is probable 
that the number of neophytes increased. The most 
noted of these later workers was Father Francisco 
Garc^s, in charge of the Pdpago at San Xavier del Bac 
(1768-76). In 1828, by decree of the revolutionary 
government of Mexico, all the missions were confis- 
cated, the Spanish priests expelled, and all Christian- 
izing effort came to an end. 

About 1840 the Pima were strengthened by the 
Maricopa from the lower Gila, who moved up to 

escape the attacks of the Yuma, the common enemy 
of both. Both tribes continue to live in close alliance, 
although of entirely different language and origin. 
Their relations with the United States Government 
began in 1846, when General Kearney's expedition 
entered their territory^ and met with a friendly recep- 
tion. Other expeditions stopped at their villages 
within the next few -years, all meeting with kind treat- 
ment. With the influx of the California gold hunters 
about 1850 there set in a long period of demoraliza- 
tion, with frequent outrages by the whites which 
several times almost provoked an outbreak. In 1850 
and 1857 the hostile Yuma were defeated. The 
Apache raids were constant and destructive until the 
final subjugation of that tribe by the Government. 
In all the Apache campaigns since 1864 the Pima 
have served as willing and efficient scouts. In 1857 a 
non-resident agent was appointed, and in 1859 a 
reservation was surveyed for the two tribes, and 
$10,000 in goods distributed among them as a recog- 
nition of past services. In 1870 the agency was estab- 
lished at Sacaton on the reservation, since which time 
they have been regularly under Government super- 
vision. The important problem of irrigation, upon 
which the future prosperity of the tribes depends, is 
now in process of satisfactory solution by the Govern- 
ment. As a body the Indians are now civilized, in- 
dustrious as farmers and labourers, and largely Cnris- 
tian, divided between Presbyterian and Catholic. 
Presbyterian work was begun in 1870. The Catholics 
re-entered the field shortly afterwards, and have now 
a nourishing mission school, St. John Baptist, at Gila 
Crossing, built in 1899, in charge of Franciscan 
Fathers, with several small chapels, and a total Cath- 
olic population of 600 in the two tribes, including 
fifty Maricopa. The 5000 or more Pdpago attached 
to the same agency have been practically all Catholic 
from the Jesuit period. 

In their primitive condition the Pima were agricul- 
tural and sedentary, living in villages of lightly-built 
dome-shaped houses, occupied usually by a single 
family each, and cultivating by the help of irrigation 
large crops of com, beans, pumpkins, and native cot- 
ton, from which the women spun the simple clothing, 
consisting of a breech-cloth and head-band for the 
man, and^ short skirt for the women, with sandals or 
moccasins for special occasion and a buckskin 6hirt 
in extreme cold weather. They also prepared clothing 
fabrics from the inner bark of the willow. The heav- 
ier labour of cultivation was assumed by the men. 
Besides their cultivated foods, they made use of the 
fruit of the sagnaro cacliiSj from wnicb also they pre- 
pared the intoxicating iizwirij and the mesquite bean, 
oesides the ordinary game of the country. They 
painted and tattooed their faces and wore their hair 
at full length. The women were not good potters, but 
they excelled as basket makers. Their arms were the 
bow, the club, and the shield, fighting always on foot. 
Their allies were the Pdpago and Maricopa, their 
enemies the Apache and Yuma. The killing of an 
enemy was followed by an elaborate purification cere- 
mony closing with a victory dance. There was a head 
tribunal chief, with subordinate village chiefs. Po- 
lygamy was allowed, but not frequent. Descent was 
in the male line. Unlike Indians generally, they had 
large families and welcomed twins. Also unlike their 
neighbours, they buried in the ^und instead of cre- 
mating their dead. Deformed infants were killed at 
birth, as were also in later times the infants bom of 
white or Mexican fathers. They had, and stiU re- 
tain, many songs of ceremony, war, hunting, gaming, 
love, medicine, and of childhood. 

According to their elaborate genesis myth, the 
earth was formed by "Earth Doctor", who himself 
evolved from a dense cloud of darkness. He made the 
plants and animsds, and a race of never-dying humans, 
who by their increase so crowded the earth that hf 




destroyed his whole creation and made a new world 
with a new race subject to thinning out by deatli. 
Another hero god is "Elder Brother'^ and prominent 
place is assigned to Sun, Moon, Night, and Coyote. 
The myth also includes a deluge story. Althougn the 
linguistic relations of the Pima are well known, all 
that is recorded in the language is comprised chiefly 
in a few vocabularies, none exceeding 200 words, sev- 
eral of which in manuscript are in the keeping of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology. (See Kino; PX- 


BANCRorr, HUiL AritoAa and New Mexico (San Francisco, 
1889); Idem, Hist, Mexican States and Texas (2 vols., San Fran- 
cisco. 1886); Bartlkit, Personal Narrative XX of Boundary 
Commission (2 vols., New York, 1854) ; Browne, Adventures in the 
Apache Country (New York, 1869) ; Catholic Indian Missions, Bu- 
reau of, annual reports of Director of (Washington) ; Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, annual reports of (Washington) ; Diary and Itin- 
erary of Francisco Garci», ed. Cones (2 vols., New York, 1900) • 
Documerdos para Historia de MSxico (20 vols., Mexico, 18.53-57), 
includes Bebnal, Rdaeidn de la Pimeria, Manob. Hist. Pimeria, 
etc.; Emery, Notes of a Military Reconnaissance (Washington, 
1848); RuMELL, The Pima Indians in Twenty-sixth Rept. Bur. 
Am, Bthndogy (Washington, 1908) ; Whipple, RejA. of Expedi- 
tion from San Diego to the Colorado (one of official Pacific Railroad 
Repts., Ex. Doc. 19. 31st Ong., 2nd sess., Washington, 1891). 

James Mooney. 

Pinarai titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. 
Pinara was one of the chief cities of the Lycian con- 
federation. The Lycian hero, Pandarus, was held there 
in great honour. It was supposed to have been 
founded by Pinarus, who embarked wifh the first Cre- 
tans. According to another tradition, it was a colony 
of Xanthus and was first called Artvmnessus! As 
in Lycian Pinara signifies ''round hill , the city being 
built on a hill of this nature would have derived its new 
name from this fact. It is now the village of Minara or 
Minareh in the vilayet of Koniah. It contains magnif- 
icent ruins: walls, a theatre, an acropolis, sarcophagi 
and tombs, rare inscriptions (often Lycian)^ and the 
remains of a church. Five bishops of Pinara are 
known: Eustathius, who signed the formula of Aca- 
cius of Csesarea at the Council of Selencia in 359: 
Heliodorus, who signed the letter from the bishops ot 
Lycia to the Emperor Leo (458) ; Zenas, present at the 
Trullan Council (692); Theodore, at the Council of 
Nicsea (787); Athanasius, at the Photian Council of 
Constantinople (879). 

Lb Quien, Oriens ehrist., I, 975; Smith. Diet, of Greek and 
Roman geog., a. v.; Fellows, Lyeia^ 139; Spratt and Forbes, 
Travels in Lycia, I, 1 sqq. 

S. P^TRIDfes. 

^ Pinar del Rio, Diocese of (Pinetensis ad Flu- 
men), in Cuba, erected by the Brief "Actum prae- 
clare'' of Leo XIII, 20 Feb., 1903. The boundaries 
of the diocese are those of the civil province; it oc- 
cupies the western part of the island and has an area 
of 2867 square miles. Its first bishop was Braulio de 
Ome y Vivanco, consecrated at Havana, 28 October, 
1903, died the following year. The present bishop is 
Manuel Ruiz y Rodriguez, consecrated at Cienfuegos, 
11 June, 1907. The diocese contains 27 parishes with 
19 secular priests. There is a boys' school con- 
ducted by the Piarist Fathers, and a girls' school 
under the care of religious women. 

Fermin Fraga Barro. 

Pindamonte, Ippolito, an Italian poet of noble 
birth, b. at Verona, 13 Nov., 1753; d. there, 18 Nov., 
1828. He received his training at the Collegio di San 
Carlo in Modena. As a result of much travelling in 
Italy and foreign lands he ac€]uired a wide acquaint- 
ance, and formed close relations with many men of 
letters. He witnessed the beginnings of the Revolu- 
tion in Paris, and poetized thereupon in his "Fran- 
cia". Thence he went to London, Berlin, and Vienna. 
In 1791 he returned to Verona, with health impaired 
and saddened at the failure of his hopes for the regen- 
eration and aggrandizement of Italy, and devoted his 

last years to study and religious practices. The chief 
l>ootical works of Pindemonte are the "Poesie" and 
" Prose campestri", the "Sepolcri" and his version of 
the Odyssey. The **Poesie and "Prose campestri" 
were published between 1788 and 1794; the most ad- 
mired portions are those entitled "Alia Luna", "Alia 
Salute , "La Melanconia", and "La Giovinezza". 
They evince his reading of the English descriptive 

f)oets. The " Sepolcri " is in the form of a letter and is 
argely a. response to the similarly named poem of 
Foscolo, with whose views, respecting the patriotic 
and other emotions evoked by the aspect of the tombs 
of the well-deserving, he sympathizes: he rebukes 
Foscolo, however, for having neglected to recount, 
among the other emotions, that of the comfort brought 
to us by religious considerations. The influence of the 
English poet Gray is noticeable in this work. Upon 
his version of the Odyssey he seems to have laboured- 
fifteen years, and is quite faithful to the letter and 
spirit of the original. It appeared in print in 1822. 
His lesser work sinclude among others several trag- 
edies, the "Ulisse", the "Geta e Caracalla", the 
"Eteocle e Polinice", and especially the "Arminio". 
composed in 1804 and revealing the influence exerted 
upon him by the Ossianic matter. In prose he pro- 
duced the "Clementina", and a short story, "Aba- 
ritte", which imitates Johnson's "Rasselas". He left 
a large correspondence exchanged with noted persons 
of his time and a few minor documents. 

Poesie originali di I. Pindemonte (Florence, 1858-9) ; Odissea, 
ed. LoNZoaDS, Sansoni; Torraca, /. Sepolcri di I. Pindemonte 
in Discussioni (Leghorn, 1888); Montanarx, Staria delta vita de 
opere di I. P. (Venice, 1855); Zanblla, /. Pindemonte e (^ 
IngUsi in Paralleli letterari (Verona, 1885). 

J. D. M. Ford. 

Pineda, John de, b. in Seville, 1558: d. there, z7 
Jan., 1637. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1572, 
taught philosophy and theology five years in Seville 
and Cordova, and specialized in Scripture, which he 
taught for eighteen years at Cordova, Seville, and 
Madrid. He held the posts of Provost of the pro- 
fessed house and rector of the college of Seville. 
He was consultor to the Spanish Inquisition, and, in 
this capacity, visited the chief libraries of Spain. The 
result of his visits was the "Index Librorum Prohi- 
bitorum" (1612), which won the appreciation of the 
Inquisition and of the chief inquisitor, Cardinal 
Sandoval, Archbishop . of Toledo; it was re-edited 
(1632) for Cardinal Zapata. His learning is evidenced 
by the nineteen printed works and six <nanuscript8, 
chiefly on exegetical subjects, which remain to us of 
his writings: (1) VCommentariorum in Job Libri 
tredecim" (Madrid, 1597-1601). Each chapter is 
paraphrased and fully commented upon. Th^ two 
folios were often re-issued in Madrid, Cologne, Se- 
ville, Venice, and Paris. Seven indexes served as 
guides to the student. Both Catholic and Protestant 
exegetes still praise this colossal storehouse of erudi- 
tion. The archaeology, textual criticism, comparison 
of various interpretations, use of historical data from 
profane writers, all show Pineda to have been far 
ahead of his time in scientific criticism of the Bible; 
(2) "Praelectio sacra inCanticaCanticorum" (Seville, 
1602), issued as a greeting to Cardinal de Guevera, 
Archbishop of Seville, on the occasion of his visit to 
the Jesuit college there; (3) "Salomon praevius, sive 
de rebus Salomonis regis libri octo" (fol., pp. 587; 
Lyons, 1609; Mainz, 1613). The life, kingdom, wis- 
dom, wealth, royal buildings, character, and death 
of Solomon are treated in scholarly fashion; five in- 
dexes are added as helps to the student. (4) "De C, 
Plinii loco inter erumtos controverso ex Hb. VII. 
Atque etiam morbus est aliquis per sapientiam mori". 
Considerable controversy resulted from his interpreta- 
tion of Pliny (see Sommervogel, infra). (5) "Com- 
mentarii in Ecclesiasten^ liber unus" (fol., pp. 1224; 
Seville, 1619), appeared m various editions, as did the 




oommentary on Solomon. The fame he won by his 
erudition and sanctity is attested in many ways. On 
a visit to the University of Evora he was greeted by a 
Latin speech, and a memorial tablet was set up with 
the legend: Hie Pineda fuit. What astounos one 
most in the writings of this exegete of the old school 
is his vast ki^owledge not merely of Latin, but of 
Greek and Hebrew. 

NiBBBMBBBO. VoTonet Jlutire* de la C. de J., VII (Bilbao, 
1801), 195; SoMMBBVOOEL. Bihliothigue J. (Pftris, 
1896), VI. 796; IX. 772; Ouilhbbmy. Mtnotoge de la C. de J, 
AMMutanee d'Btpagne, I (Paris, 1902), 178. 

Wauter Drum. 

Pinerolo, Diocese of (Pinerouensis), in the 
province of Turin, in Piedmont, Northern Italy, 
suffragan of Turin. In the Middle Ages the city of 
Pinerolo was one of the keys of Italy, and was there- 
fore one of the principal fortresses of the dukes of 
Savoy. It is now the seat of a military school. Those 
of its churches deserving mention are the cathedral 
(which dates from the nmth century, and has a beau- 
ful campanile) and San Maurizio. a beautiful Gothic 
church, from the belfiy of whicn there is a superb 
view of the Alps and of the sub-Alpine plain. The 
earliest mention of Pinerolo is in the tenth century; 
it belonged to the Marca di Torino (March of Turin) 
and was governed by the abbots of Pinerolo, even 
after the city had established itself as a commune 
(1200). From 1235, however, Amadeus lY of Savoy 
exercised over the town a kind of protectorate which, 
in 1243, became absolute, and was exercised there- 
after either by the house of Savoy, or of Savoy- 
Acaia. When the French invaded Piedmont (1536), 
Pinerolo fell into their hands and they remained in 
possession until 1574. However, by the treaty of 
Q^erasco it again fell to France (1630), and it re- 
mained under French rule until restored by the treaty 
of Turin to Savoy. The latter -state, at the same time, 
withdrew from the league ag^nst Louis XIV. Piner- 
olo was originally an abbey nullius. It was founded 
in 1064 by Adelaide, Princess of Susa, and was made 
a diocese, in 1748, at the request of Charles Emman- 
uel, its first prelate being G. B. d'Orli^. In 1805, 
conformably with the wi«i of Napoleon, the diocese 
was united with that of Saluzzo, but, in 1817, was 
re-established as an independent see. Within its' 
territory is the famous fortress of Fenestrelle. It has 
58 parishes. 16,200 inhabitants, 3 religious houses of 
women, ana 3 educational institutes for girls. 

Cappbllbtti, L9 Chieae d* Italia (Venice, 1857); Cabititi, 
Storia di Piner^ (Pinerolo, 1893). U. BeNIQNI. 

Pingr6, Alexandre Gut. b. in Paris 11 September, 
1711; d. 1 May, 1796. He was educated in Senlis 
at the college of the Genovefan fathers. Regulars 
of the Order of St. Augustine, which he entered at 
sixteen. In 1735 he was made professor of theolo^ 
there. About 1749 he accepted the professorship 
of astronomy in the newly-foimded academy at 
Rouen. Already famous for detecting an error of 
four minutes in Lacaille's calculation of the limar 
eclipse of 23 December, 1749, in 1753 he further di»- 
tinguished himself by the observation of the transit 
of Mercury and was consequently appointed corre- 
sponding member of the Academic des Sciences. 
Later he was made librarian of Ste-Genevi^ve and 
chancellor of the university. He built an observatory 
in the Abbey of Ste-Genevidve and there spent forty 
years of strenuous labour. He compiled in 1753 the 
first nautical almanac for the year 1754, and subse- 
Quently for 1755-57, when Lalande was charged with 
tne publication. ^Mripe had calculated for his 
treatise, ''L'art dij^^^B les dates'', the eclipses of 
the first nineteen^^^Bries of the Christian era; 
Pixin^in a seeonrl^^Bn took up his calculations 
a^^^Kded thoi '^^Hten centuries hafore Christ. 
I^^Whe join* ^^^uccessful i Ion to the 

IsT ^odngu» ^ twific to 0I the transit 

of Venus on 6 June, 1761. More satisfactory re- 
sults were obtained from an expedition to the French 
Cape on Haiti where the next transit was observed 
on 3 June, 1769. About 1757 he became engrossed in 
the history of comets, and in his '^Com^tographie ou 
Traits historique et thdorique des com^tes ' (2 vols., 
Paris, 1783-4), the material contained in all the 
ancient annals and more recent publications is me- 
thodically arranged and critically sifted. In 1756 he 
published a "Projet d'une histoire d'astronomie du 
dix-septidme si^le'', completed in 1786. Through 
Lalande's influence the National Assembly granted 
three thousand francs to defray the expenses of pub- 
lication, but it proceeded slowly and at Pingr6's 
death was discontinued. In 1901 the whole work was 
re-ed7ted by Bigourdan under the title: "Annales 
celestes du dix-septidme si^cle". Pingr6 also pub- 
lished ''Manuale Astronomioon libri quinaue et 
Arati Phenomena, cum interpretatione Galuca et 
notis" (2 vols., 1786), and numerous astronomical 
observations in the ''Mtoioires de I'lnstitut'' (1753- 
87), in the ''Journal de Tr^voux", in the ''Phil. 
Trans." etc. 

In encyclopedic works it is oommonljr asserted 
that Pinn^ took an active part in Jansenistic quar- 
rels, and nence was relegatea to provincial towns and 
colleges. Consequently he is often said to have fallen 
a victim to Roman intolerance. The fact is that during 
his earlier career Pingr6 seems to have been imbued 
with Jansenistic views, as is borne out by the "Nou- 
velles Eccl^dastiques", the great Jansenist organ. 
In 1737 Mgr de Salignac, Bishop of Pamiers, active 
against Jansenism, summoned Pingr6, who was 
severely rebuked and finally had to submit to an 
examen by some Jesuit fathers. He expressed him- 
self willing to condemn the five propositions, de centr 
et d'eepritf at the same time maintaining that he 
could not condemn them as propositions of Jansenius. 
as they were not to be found in nis works. (It should 
be remembered that in 1653 and 1656 the popes had 
declared repeatedlv that the propositions were de 
facto contained in tne " Augustinus".) In 1745 a gen- 
eral chapter of the fathers of Ste- Genevieve was 
convened; by order of the king Father Chambroy 
was elected superior general. Strict orders had been 
issued to the superiors of the conventual establish- 
ments that only such members should be deputed as 
were willing to subscribe to the papal Bulls and espe- 
ciiJly "Umgenitus". This measure excited opposi- 
tion. Father Pingr6, then living at Senlis, and some 
of his fellow religious entered a vehement protest 
against the proceedings of the chapter. Father 
Scoffier, one of the most determined opponents of 
the election, was removed from Senlis. A similar 
disciplinary punishment was inflicted on Pingr6, 
then professor of theology. According to an in- 
troductory notice prefac^ to the memoirs of the 
Jansenist Abb6 Arnauld d'Andilly, in the collection 
"M6moire8 sur Thistoire de France de Michaud et 
Poujoulat" (2nd series, IX), Pingr^ is their editor 
(Leaden, 1756). He was therefore an active Jan- 
senist, at least until 1747; his influence, however, 
never became serious nor lasting. In the ecclesiasti- 
cal history of the eighteenth century, especially in 
the "M^moires pour servir k Thistoire eccl^astique 
pendant le 18^ si^le^of Picot, his name is not men- 

Pbont, Noiiee »ur la tie el lea ouvragee d^ Alexandre Otn Pinifr% 
in Mtmoirtede Vlnetilut^ I; Lalandb, Hiel. de VAetronomie now 
1790, pp. 773-8; Dblambbb. Hitt. de VAetronomie au XVIII', 
aikcU, pp. 064-87; Ventbnat, Notice eur la tie du eiloyen Pingrk, 
lue d la eianee publique du Lyote dee Arte in Magaein Bneydth' 
Mique, I, 342; 7ViM« raieonnie el alphabHitue du noutellee 
SceUeiaeHquee devuie 1798 juegu'en 1760 indutieemenit (1767), 
B. vv. Pingri; Salionae; Cnanoinee Riguliere de Sie-Qenenkee. 

J. Stein. 

Pinna da l6ncarn>gao» Matthsxts, writer and 
theologian, b. at Rio de Janeiro, 23 Aug., 1687; d. 



there, 18 Dec., 1764. On 3 March, 1703, he bei^anie a pa^e of hiH book, several limm shipwrecked, taken 

Benedictine at the Abbey of Nossa Senhora do Mont- Tirisoncr many times and Kold as a elave. He was the 

Rerrate at Rio de Janeiro, where he also studied the nrat to make known tite natural richea of Jaijan, and 

humanities and philoeopt^' under the learned Joa£ founded the first settlement near Yokohama^ in 1548. 
da Natdvidade. After Btudying 

I the monastery of 
Bahis^e was ordiuned priest 24 
March, 1708, and appointed pro- 
feaaoF of philosopny and the- 
ok)gy. Along with Caspar da 
Madre de Deua (d. about 1780), 
Antonio de SSo Bernardo (d. 
1774) and a tew others, he was 
the most learned Benedictine of 
his province and his contempo- 
raries considered him the great- 
est theolo^an in Brazil. He was 
likewise highly esteemed for his 
piety and charity towards the 

rr, the mck, and the neglected. 
1726 he was elected abbot of 
the monastery at Rio de Janeiro, 
but BOon after his election in- 
curred the displeasure of Luiz 
Vahia Monteiro, the Governor of 
Brazil, who banished him from 
his monastery in 1727. Soon 
afterwards he escaped to Portu- 

e1, became very mfluential at 
lurt and was restored to his 

In 1558, tired of wandering, he 
returned to Portugal where he 
married, settling in the town of 
AIniada. The first account of 
his travels is to be found in a 
collection of Jesuit letters pub- 
lished in Venice in 1565, but the 
beat is his own " Peregrina^&o ", 
the first edition of which ap- 
peared in Lisbon in 1614. The 
work is regarded as a classic in 
Portugal, where Pinto is consid- 
ered one of their beat prose writ- 

. . In other , _. 

been enthusiastically read by 
some, by others characterized M 
a highly coloured romance. But 
it has an clement of sincerity 
which is convincing, and its sub- 
stantial honesty is now generally 
admitted. It is probable that, 
having written it from memory, 
he put down his impressions, 
rather than events as they actu- 
ally occurred. The ^anish 
edition by Francisco de Uerrara 
appeared in 1620, reprinted in 
1729. He held the office of abbot repeatedly there- 1627, 1645, 1664. The French translation is by 
aftCT, both at Rio de Janeiro (1729-31 and 1739) Figmer (Paris, 1628, and 1630). There are three 
and at Bahia in 1746. In 1732 he was elected pro- English editions by Cogan (London, 1663, 1692, and 
vincial abbot, in which c^>acity he visit«d even the 1891), the last abridged and illustrated. 
most distant monasteries 

, Spello 

of Bracil, despite the great 
difficulty of travel. He 
was again elected provin- 
cial a^tin 1752, but this 
tjme he declined the hon- 
our, preferring to spend 
his old age in prayer and 
retirement. His works are; 
ms" (Lisbon, 1729), an 
extenmve treatise on grace 
and freewill against Ques- 
nel, Baius, Jansenius, etc. : 
" Viridario Evangelico '* 
(Lisbon, 1730-37), four 
volumes of sermons on 
the Gospels; "Theologia 
Scholasti ca Dogmstica", 
in six volumes, which he 
did not comDlet« entirely 
nor was it pul>lished. 

i>i<<iini> da Uotlnra dt tf. S, 
do ManUttrait do Rio dt Jannro, 
prncrvHl in MS. M the Monu- 
Itry Library of K>o dn Juieini, 
8B-7*, 312-18; Rawi OalvIo, 
Aptmtantnif hutoricoa tabre 
a Ordtm Btiudirfino tm atntral, 
4 nt parliciWdr MOtm o iioit&iro 
dt N. a. dc MonirrrsU do Rio 
dt Janriro id Rttilla Trimtntat 

t KftiHvrapAico do Bratit (Kio 
de Jueira. 1872). 240 eq. 

Michael Utt. 

Pinto, FehnXo Men- ^- ? 

DBS, Portuguese traveller, 
b. at Montemor-o-Velho near Coimbra, . 
Almada near Lisbon, 8 July, 1583. After serving 
" e to the Duke of Coimora, he went to the Es 

Mtndtt Pifito, tt. (London. 


Pinturioohlo ( Bernab- 
DINO Di Bbtto, Bumamed 
PiNTOHiccHio), b. at Ve- 
rona, about 1454; d. at Si- 
ena, 11 December, 1513. 
di Lorenzo; and his fellow 
students, perhaps because 
of his great facility, sur- 
named him Fintuncchio 
(the dauber). Pinturic- 
chio did an immense 
amount of work. His 
principal easel pictures 
are: "St. Catherine" 
(National Gallery, Lon- 
don); a "Madonna" (Ca- 
thedral of Sanaeverino), 
with the prothonotary, 
liberato Bartello, kneel- 
ing; "PortrMt of aChild" 
(Dresden Gallery): 
"Apollo and Marsyas 
(the Louvre), attributed 
to Perugino, Francia, and 
even Raphael; the ''Ma- 
donna enthroned between 
saints", an altar-piece 
(Pinacotheca of Perugia); 
the "Madonna of Monte- 
oliveto" (communal palace 
Coronationofthe Virgin' (Pin- 
acotheca oflhe Vatican); the "Return of Ulyaaea" 
(NationalGallery,London); the"A8centofCalvary' , 

imhio, Appuuunento Borfii. Rome 

1509; d. at ofSanGimignano); 

laiim in 1537, and, for twenty-one yeara, travelled, a splendid miniature (Borromeo Palace, Milan). He 
chiefly in the Far East. In the course of his adven- waachiefly afreacoist,followingprincipally theproceas 
turoua career at sea, he was, as he tells on the title of distemper (fe>np«ra). There are frescoes of his in the 

Siatine Chapel, in the decoration of which he as^sted 

critics ^rec in recognizing cuj his two frescoes in Ihc 
Sistine Chapel, the "Baptiam of Jeaus" and "Moses 
journeying to Ecypt". The Bufalini commiBBioned 
nim to paint the life of St. Bemardine for the chapel 
at the Ara C<Eli ; but his chief work was the decoration 
of the Boi^a apartment entrusted to him by Alexander 
VI. His compoeitions begin in the Hall of Mysteries, 
ao called because it contains the "Annunciation", the 
"Visitation", the "Crib", the "Resurreclion", the 
"Pentecost", the "Ascension"; that of the "Resur- 
rection" contains a splendid portrait of Alexander 
VI. In the Hall of Saints, the most beautiful of all, 
he has outlined with much grace and brilliancy the 
histories of various martyrs: St, Susanna, St. Bar- 
bara, Disputation of St. Catherine, Visit of St. 
Anthony to St. Paul the Hermit, and the Martyr- 
dom of St. Sebastian, The next hall is devoted 
to the representation of the Liberal Arts. Critics 
generally deny that the decoration of the last two 
rooms is the work of Pinturicchio, but the three 
large rooms which he certainly decorated form an 
exquisite museum. Following the Sienese school 
Pinturicchio enlivened his paintings by making use of 
sculptured reliefs glistening with gold which he mixed 
with his frescoes. In 1501 he decorated the chapel of 
the Blessed Sacrament in St. Mary Major at Spello. 
On the ceiling he painted four Sibyls and on the walla 
the Annunciation, the Adoration of the Shcfiherds and 
the Arrival of the Magi, and Jeeus in the midst of the 
Doctors. He had a special love for these pictures for 
in them he placed his own portrait. In 1502 Cardinal 
Francisco Rccolomini commissioned him to depict the 
life of his uncle, Pius II, in ten large compositions on 
the side walls of the Piccolomini library at Siena. 
These frescoes are fifteenth-century tableaux m^ants in 
which people of all conditions are repreeented. Above 
the altar erected at the entrance to the Library is seen 
the Coronation of Pius III. Pinturicchio, again sum- 
moned to Rome by Julius II, painted on the ceiling 
of the choir of Sta Maria del Popolo splendid Sibyls 
and Doctors of the Church, in stucco frames separated 
by graceful arabesques, 

Cbowe and Catau^abelle, a neifl hxBtory of painting in Itaiy. 
Ill (London. 1806). 256; BnncEBAH&T and Bode, Lr Ciarnnt. 
tr, GtRAHD, II (Puis, 1892), 688-81 : Ehhle and Stevchson, Oii 
aSradudtt PinturicMw ntll' apparMmmlo Borgia (Itomp. ISB7); 
BniHAHH, PinUirierhiB (BielelEld, 1898): BotER d'Aoeh, Pin- 
twiahto in Siena (Berlin, 19031: Ricci. Pinlnrvxhio. tr. mCo 
Frencb (Farii. 19031 : Bohtaib, Piilii.ncdtiB a tScnlt ambrienne 
in Exmriiona qfMiIioum rf liufrairu (Paris, 1903). 2dc) Hries, 1- 
89: GamH. Pintunahiii (Farii. 19061: Ptmii, Pinturicchio in 
Hill, dif Arid' AndrtUichtl. IV Ipnia, 19091,317-29, 

Gaston Sort a is. 

Plnsftn, MartIn Alonso, Spanish navigator and 
companion of Columbus on his first voyage to the New 
World, b. at Palos de Moguer, 1441; d. there at the 
convent of La RSbida, 149a. Sprung from a family of 
seamen, he became a hardy sailor and skilful pilot. 
According to Parkman and other historians, he sailed 
under Cousin, a navigator from Dieppe, to the eastern 
coast of Africa, whence they were carried far to the 
south-west. Tney there discovered an unknown land 
and a mighty river. Pinzfin's conduct on this voyage 
was so mutinous that Cousin entered a complaint to 
the admiralty on their return home, and hod him dis- 
missed from the maritime service of EHeppe. Re- 
turning to Spiun Pinz6n became acquainted with 
Columbus through Fray Juan Perez do Marchina, 
prior of the convent of La R&bida, and became an 
enthusiastic promoter of the scheme of the great 
navigator. Other historians account differently for 
the oripn of Pinzfin's interest in Columbus's project. 
According to these, he heard of the scheme several 
years after he had retired from active life as a sailor, 
and established with his brothers a shipbuilding firm 


in his native town. During a visit to Rome he learned 
from the Holy Office of the tithes which had been pud 

from the beginning of the fifteenth century from a 
country named Vinland, and examined the charts of 
the Norman explorers. On his return home he sup- 
ported the cl^ms of Columbus, when his opinion was 
sought by Queen Isabella's advisers concerning the 
proposed voyage. It was he who paid the one-eighth 
of the expense demanded from Columbus as his share, 
and built the three vessels for the voyage. Through 
his influence also Columbus securfed the crews for the 
transatlantic journey. Pinz6n commanded tne 
"Pinta", and his brother Vicente Yaflei the "Nifia". 
On 21 November, 1492, he deserted Columbus off 
Cuba, hoping lo be the first to discover the imsginary 
ifllancl of Osabequo, He was the first to discover 
Haiti (Hispaniola), and the river where he landed 
(now the Porto Caballo) was long called after him 
the River of Martin Alonso, He carried off thence 
four men and two girts, intending to steal them as 
slaves, but he was compelled to restore them to their 
homes by Columbus, whom he rejoined on the coast 
of lleiti on 6 January, 1493. It was during tlus 
absence that the flagship was driven ashore, and 
Columbus compelled to take to the "NiHa". In' 
excuse for his conduct, Pinzdn afterwords alleged 
stress of weather. Off the coast of the Azores he 
again deserted, and set sul with all speed for Spun, 
hoping to be the first to communicate the news of the 
discovery. Driven by a hurricane into the port of 
Bayonne in Galicia, he sent a letter to the king asking 
for an audience. The monarch refusing to receive 
anyone but the admiral, Pins6n sailed for Palos, which 
he reached on the same day as Columbus (15 March, 
1403), Setting out immediately for. Madrid to make 
a fresh attempt to see the king, he was met by -a 
messenger who forbade him to appear at court, .4iiger 
and jeiuousy, added to the privations of the voyage, 
undermined hie health, and led to his death a few 
months later, 

eapecislly Ascensio, Marffn Aloma Pintin. ctladia'liitUrue 
(Madrid. ISS2): Fehhahdei Dduo, Colin, Fim6n (Mudiid. 

1883). Thomas Kennedy. 

Fiombo, Sebastian del, more correctly known as 
Sebastian Luciani, Venetian portrait painter, b, at 

Venice, 1485; d, ii " ' 

de! Rombo, from 
the office, con- 
ferred upon him 
by Clement VII, 
of keeper of the 
leaden seals. He 
was a pupil of 
Giovanni Bellini, 
and later on of 
Giorgione, His 
first idea was to 
becomea religious 

and it is probable 
that he t«ok minor 
orders and had 
every intention of 
proceeding to the 
priesthood, but he 
was strongly in- 
terested in music, 
devoted consider- 
able timeto study- 
ing that art, and in so doing became acquainted with 
Giorgione, a clever musician, who it appears induced 
him to delay hia procedure towards theprieathood and 
give some attention to painting. It was on Giorgione's 
recommendation that he entered the studio of Bellini 
and, later, worked with (Jionfione in his own studio. 
From the time of his acquaintance with him, we hear 

PI0NIU8 11 

no more of his intention to embrace on ecclcaiastical 
career. Hie earlier paintingB were executed in Venice, 
but he was invited to Rome by Agostino Chigi, who 
was then building the Farnesina Palace, and some of 
the decoration ofthe rooms was put in the handa of 
Luciani. Hia work attracted the attention ot Michcl- 
angelo, and the two men became warm fnenda A 
little later Raphael saw hia work and praised it 
highly, but they were never friends because of the 
(eolouay existing between Michelangelo and Raph,M>l 
and the friendship between Luciam and Michel 

35 PIOHim 

•was marked by vigour of colounng, sweetneas, and 
grace; his jMrtraits are exceedingly true and lifelike, 
the draperies well painted, and well drawn, but the 
feature of his work is the extraordinary quality of his 
colour and the atmosphere with all the delicate 
subtleties of colour value which it gives. Iij many of 
bis pictures the colouring is as clear and fresh to-day 
as tt n as when it was first painted, and this more espe> 
Pially applies to the carnations, in other men's work 
the first to fade. After the death of Ri^hael, he 
was regarded as the chief painter in Rome, and it 
was then that he acquired nia position as keeper of 
the lead seals, an office which was lucrative and im- 
|)<>rtant, and which enabled him to have more leisure 
tliun hitherto had been at his disposal. His death 
took place at the time that he was painting the chapel 
of the Chi^i family, a work which was to be finished 
]>% Salviati. His pictures can be studied in Florence, 
Madrid, Naples, Parma, St, Petersburg, and Tra- 
\esio three of his most notable portraits being those 
at Naples and Parma, and the fine portrait of Cardi- 
nal Pole, now at St. Petersburg. 

betV/LaxKi'tLiTttoflhrPaiiUert. viuiaua cdiliona; aiulkwock 
by Claddio Tolomsi. dtod t^ Limi, uid knowa u Piituri di 

Gbobob Chaklj:s Wil 

GallfliT, Londoa 

Michelangelo. Their grandeur of composition 
could have come from no other artist of the time, 
but their magnificence of colour has nothing to do 
with the great sculptor, and is the result of Luciani's 
genius. A special event in Luciani's career is con- 
nected with the commission ^ven to Raphael to 
paint the picture of the Transfiguration. Cardinal 
de' Medici, who commissioned the picture, dcHJred 
at the same time to give an altar-piece to his titular 
cathedral at Narbonne, and commissioned a painting 
to be called the "Raising of Lazarus", and to be of 
the same size as Raphael s "Transfiguration". The 
two works were finished at about the same time, and 
were exhibited. It was perfectly evident that Luciani 
owed a great deal to the inSuence and the assistance 
of Michelangelo, but the colouring was so magnifi- 
cent, and the effect so superb, that it created great 
excitement in Rome; notwithstanding that the 
"Transfiguration" by Raphael was regarded as the 
greater picture, Luciani s work was universally 
admired. The picture is now in the English National 

Luciani punted a great many portraits, one of 
Cardinal de' Medici, another of Aretino, more than 
one portrait of members of the Doria family, of the 
Famese. and of the Gonzaga families, and a clever 
one ot Baccio BandinelU the painter. His painting 

Ploniui, Saint, martyred at Smyrna, 12 March, 
250. Pionius, with Sabina and Aselcpiades, was ar- 
rested on 23 February, the anniversary ot St. Poly- 
carp's martyrdom. They had passed the previous 
nigbt in prayer and fasting, Knon-ing of his impend- 
ing arrest, Pionius hod fastened fetters round the 
necks of himself and his companions to sif^ify that 
they were already condemned. People seeing them 
led off unbound might suppose that they were pre- 
pared, like BO many other Christians in Smyrna, the 
Dishop included, to sacrifice. Early in the morning, 
after they had partaken of the Holy Bread and of 
water, they were conducted to the forum. The place 
was thronged with Greeks and Jews, for it was a great 
Sabbath and therefore a general holiday in the city— 
an indication of theimportanceof the Jews in Smyrna. 
Pionius harangued the multitude. He begged the 
Greeks to remember what Homer had said about not 
mocking the corpse of an enemy. Let them refrain 
therefore from mocking those Christians who had 
apostatized. He then turned to the Jews and quoted 
Moses and Solomon to the same effect. He ended 
with a vehement refusal to offer sacrifice. Then fol- 
lowed the usual interrogatories and threats, after 
which Pionius and his companions were relegated to 
prison, to await the arrival of the proconsul. Here 
they found other confessors, among them a Montanist. 
Many pagans visited them, and Christians who had 
sacrificed, lamenting their fall. The latter Pionius ex- 
horted to repentance, A further attempt before the 
arrival of the proconsul was made lo force I^onius and 
his companions into an act of apostasy. They were 
carried off to a temple where every effort was made to 
compel them to participate in a sacrifice. On 12 
March, Pionius was brought before the proconsul who 
ffrst tned persuasion and then torture. Both having 
failed, Pionius was condemned to be burnt alive. He 
suffered in company with Metrodorus, a Marcionite 
priest. His feast is kept by the Latins on 1 Feb.; by 
the Greeks on 11 March. The true day of his martyr- 
dom, according to the Acts, was 12 March, Eusebius 
("H,E.", IV, xv; "Chron,", p. 17, ed, Schoene) places 
the martyrdom in the reign of Antoninus. His mis- 
take was probably due to the fact that he found the 
martyrdom of Pionius in a volume containing the 
Acts of Martyrs of an earlier date. Possibly his MS, 
lacked the chronological note in our present ones. 
For the Life of Polycarp by I^onius, see Poltcarp, 
Saint. Did Pionius before his martyrdom celebrate 
with bread and water? We know from St. Cyprian 
(Ep. 63) that this abuse existed in his time. But note 


!1) the bread is spoken of as Holy, but not the water; ' pledged the revenue from tobacco for the payment of 

2) it is imUkely that Pionius would celebrate with that amount ''to carry on the objects to which said 

ooJy two persons present. It is more likely therefore fund is destined''. 

that we have here an account, not of a celebration, By the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo^ 2 Feb., 1848, 

but of a private Communion (see Funk, ''Abhand- Upper Cahfomia was ceded to the United States by 

lungen'', I, 287). Mexico, and all claims of citizens of the United States 

.. ?*% A®^ ^^ Pionius exiat in two Latin trandatiomi, one pub- against the Republic of Mexico which had theretofore 

mArchivfur siatuche PhUoiogie, XVIII (Berlin. 1896), reprinted After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (and mdeed 

in hiB Acta tnartyrum teiecta (perXin, 1902) a,nd in Ksorr, Auige- for some years before) Mexico made no payments 

:SZ."tCl^Z^JS^yj^'a^ P^.cL^n^.f l^a"^;,^ for the benefit of the mksions The archbishop and 

Zabn, Forachungen xur Oeach. de* neuteH. Kanon», IV. 271 aqq. blshopS of Callfonua claimed that, as Citizens of the 

J. F. Bacchits. United States, they were entitled to demand and re- 
Pious BequastB. See Lbgacibs. "^^^ ^I?°? T"^^ ^^' ^® benefit of the missions 
<r«vuo «#vHuvov0. kjcc JJJUUAV.XAO. within their dioceses a proper proportion of the sums 

Pious Fund of the Califomias, The (Fondo which Mexico had assumed to pay in its legislative 

PiADOso DE LAS CaufCrnias). had its origin, in 1697, decree of 24 October, 1842. By a convention between 

in voluntary donations made oy individuals and reli- the United States and Mexico, concluded 4 July, 1868. 

Sious bodies in Mexico to members of the Society of and proclaimed 1 February, 1869, a Mexican and 
^ esus, to enable them to propagate the Catholic Faith American Mixed Claims Commission was created to 
in the territory then known as California. The early consider and adjudge the validity of claims held by 
contributions to the fund were placed in the hands of citizens of either country against the Government of 
the missionaries, the most active of whom were Juan the other which had ansen between the date of the 
Maria Salvatierra and Francisco Eusebio Kino. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the date of the 
later and larger donations took the form of agreements convention creating the commission. To this com- 
by the donors to hold the property donat^ for the mission the prelates of Upper California, in 1869, pre- 
use of the missions and to devote the income therefrom sented their claims against Mexico for such part of 
to that purpose. In 1717 the capital sums of prac- twenty-one years* interest on the Pious Fund (accrued 
tically ail of the donations were turned over to the between 1848 and 1869) payable under the terms of 
Jesuits, and from that year until the expulsion of the the Santa Ana decree of October, 1842, as was prop- 
members of the Society of Jesus from Mexico the erly apportionable to the missions of Upper Califor- 
Pious Fund was administered by them. In 1768, with nia (Lower California having remained Mexican 
the expulsion of all members of the Society from Span- territory). 

ish territory by the Pragmatic Sanction of Charles III Upon the submission of this claim for decision the 
of Spain, the Crown of Spain assumed the administra- Mexican and American commissioners disagreed as 
tion of the fund and retained it until Mexican inde- to its proper disposition, and it was referred to the 
pendence was achieved in 1821. During this period umpire of the commission. Sir Edward Thornton, then 
(1768-1821) missionary labours in Caufomia were British Ambassador at Washington. On 11 Nov., 
divided, the territory of Upper California being con- 1875, the umpire rendered an award in favour of the 
fided to the Franciscans, and that of Lower Calitomia archbishop and bishops of Califomia. By that award 
to the Dominicans. Prior to the expulsion of the the value of the fund at the time of its sale under the 
Jesuits thirteen missions had been founded in Lower decree of 1842 was finally fixed at $1,435,033. The 
California, and by the year 1823 the Franciscans had annual interest on this sum at six per cent (the rate 
established twenty-one missions in Upper California, fixed by the decree of 1842) amounted to $86,101.98 
In 1821 the newly established Government of Mexico and for the twenty-one years between 1848 and 1869 
assumed the administration of the fund and continued totalled $1,808,141.58. The umpire held that of this 
to administer it imtil 1840. amount one-half should equitably be held apportion- 
In 1836 Mexico passed an Act authorizing a petition able to the missions in Upper Califomia, located in 
to the Holy See for the creation of a bishopric in Cali- American territory, and therefore awarded to the 
fomia, and declaring that upon its creation 'Hhe United States for tne account of the archbbhop and 
property belonging to the Hous Fund of the Califor- bishops of California, $904,070.79. This judgment 
nias shall be placed at the disposal of the new bishop was paid in gold by Mexico in accordance with the 
and his successors, to be by tnem managed and em- terms of the Convention of 1868. in thirteen annual 
ployed for its objects, or other similar ones, always instalments. Mexico, however, ttien disputed its ob- 
respecting the wishes of the founders''. In response ligations to pay any interest accruing after the period 
to this petition, Gregory XVI, in 1840, erected the covered by the award of the Mixed Claims Commis- 
Califormas into a diocese and appointed Francisco sion (that is, after 1869), and diplomatic negotiations 
Garcia Diego (then president of the missions of the were opened by the Government of the United States 
Califomias) as the first bishop of the diocese. Shortly with the Government of Mexico, which resulted, after 
after his consecration, Mexico delivered the properties some years, in the signing of a protocol between the 
of the Pious Fimd to Bishop Diego, and they were, two Governments, on 22 May, 1902, by which the 
held and administered by him imtil 1842, when (jeneral question of Mexico's liability was submitted to the 
Santa Ana, President of Mexico, promulgated a decree Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague. This 
repealing the above-quoted provision of the Act of was the first International controversy submitted to 
1836, and directing that the Grovemment should again that tribunal. By the terms of the protocol the 
assume charge of the fund. The properties of the Arbitral Court was to decide first whether the liability 
fund were surrendered under compulsion to the Mexi- of Mexico to make annual payments to the United 
can Government in April, 1842, and on 24 October of States for the account of the Roman Catholic prelates 
that year a decree was promulgated by General Santa of Califomia had been rendered res judicata by the 
Ana directing that the properties of the fund be award of the Mixed Claims Commission and, second, 
sold, and the proceeds incorporated in the national if not, whether the claim of the United States, that 
treasury, and further providing that the sale should Mexico was bound to continue such payments, was 
be for a sum representing the annual income of the just. 

properties capitalized at six per cent per annum. The On 14 October. 1902, the tribunal at The Ha^e 

decree provided that "the public treasury will ac- made an award adjudging that the liability of Mexico 

knowledge an indebtedness of six per cent per annum was established by the principle of res judicaUij and 

on the total proceeds of the sales "i and specially by virtue of the arbitral sentence of Sir Eklward 


Thornton, as ximpire of the Mixed Claims Commis- the constitution and rules for the society, which PiuE 

sion: that in consequence the Mexican Government IX approved ad tempua^ 1846. According to them, 

was Dound to pay to the United States^ for the use of the members of the societv should, after two years 

the Roman Catholic archbishop and bishops of Cali- novitiate, promise four things, poverty, chastity, 

fomia, the sum of $1,420,682.67, in extinguishment of obedience, and refusal of any ecclesiastical di^ty, 

the annuities which had accrued from 1869 to 1902, except bv obedience to the Holy See. Pope Pius X 

and was under the further obligation to pay "per- approved ad experiendum the newly-revised rules 

petually'' an annuity of $43,050.99, in money having and constitutions, December, 1903, for six years, and 

Iega]<;urrency in Mexico. The Government of Mexico gave the final approbation on 5 Nov., 1909. The 

has since the date of The Hague award complied with mother-house is in the Via Pettinari 57, Rome, at- 

its provisions, and annually pays to the Government tached to the church of San Salvatore. Pallotti sent 

of the United States, in Mexican silver, for the use of his first missionary fathers to London in 1844, to 

the Catholic prelates of California, the sum adjudged take care of Italian emigrants in the Sardinian Ora- 

to be due from it as a "perpetual " annuity . torv. Rev. D. Marquese Joseph Fa& di Bruno 

TraMcnjdof Re<^ of Proceedings More the Mexican and built the church of St. Petcr in Hatton Garden 

cStfU^So. 4^5^.ilm«w D^STJTovSimgtoii. 1902)1 Dtp/omirfti ^^^^ j? ^^^ principal church of the Italians in Lon- 

Correepondenee Relative to " The Pioue Fund of the Catifomiae'* don. He was One of the generals of the SOCiety, and 

(WMhington. 1902); United Stateeve. Mexieo, . . .Senate wrote "Catholic Belief", a clear and concise exposi- 

M^) • '^"'' "^ (Washington, ^j^^ ^f CathoUc doctrine, especially intended for nwi- 

Garret W. McEnebnst. Catholics. Over one million copies of this book were 

sold, and it was translated into Italian by the author. 

Pious Society of Ml8Sion8, The, founded by Yen. Under his eeneralate, the society extended its activ- 

Vincent Mary Pallotti in 1835. The members of the ity beyond Home, Rocca Priora, and London to other 

society are generally called Pallottini Fathers. Its ob- countries. He received from Leo XIII the church of 

ject is to preserve the Faith among Catholics, espe- S. Silvestre in Capite in Rome for the use of the Eng- 

cially among emigrants, who are exposed to many lish-speaking colonv there. In Masio in northern 

grave dangers, and to propaeate the Faith among Italy, he established an international college, a mission 

non-Catholics and infidels. The Society of Missions at Hastings, England, and in London (St. Boniface's) 

embraces three classes: (1) priests, clerics, and lay- for the German colony; in Limburg, Ehrenbreitstein, 

brothers; (2) sisters, who help the priests in their mis* and Vallemdar there are flourishing colleges for the 

sionary works as teachers and catechists, and who missions in Kamerun, West Africa. These missions 

care for the temporal necessities of their churches and have now a vicar Ai)ostolic and 12 houses, with 70 

houses; (3) affiliated ecclesiastics and lay people. The schools belonging to it. In South America there are 

sisters live a community life, and follow the Rule of establishment at Montevideo, Mercedes; Saladas, 

St. Francis. They dedicate themselves to the spiritual and Suipacha; 14 missions of the society in Brazil em- 

and temporal welfare of their sex. They are espe- brace a territory three times the size of the State of 

cially engaged in missionary work among the emigrants New York. Rev. Dr. E. Kimer started the first Ital- 

in Amenca, and the infidels in Africa and Australia, ian Mission in New York City in 1883, afterwards one ' 

The third class consists of both the secular and regu- in Brooklyn, N. Y., Newark, N. J., Hammondton, N. 

lar clergy and the laity who are affiliated with the J., and Baltimore, Md. In North America the Pallot- 

Society of Missions and help by their prayers, works, tini Fathers have at present over 100,000 Italian em- 

and financial aid the propagation of the Faith. igrants under their spiritual care. The society, in 

The founder prescribed that his society should be a the year 1909, was divided into four provinces, the 

medium between the secular and the regular clergy. Italian, American, English, and German. 
He desired to foster the work of the Catholic Apos- John Vogel. 

^^^J^c^ffiL'^rtrS'^wrh'KS: ,^^^; See TKKH.aN., Skzze, ^. P.pkh.o. 

gurated in 1836) and the feast of Epiphany in Rome (see ^i«>cb8B op. 

Pallotti, Vincent Mary. Venerable). He gave to Piranesi, Giambattibta, an Italian etcher and 

his society the name of ''Catholic Apostolate,i^ter- engraver^ b. at Venice, 1720; d. in Rome, 9 Nov., 

wards chan^^ by Pius IX to the Pious Society of 1778. His uncle Lucchesi gave him lessons in drawing. 

Missions'*. The word Pious is to be taken in the sense until in 1738 his father, a mason, sent him to Rome to 

ol the Latin pia, i. e., devoted or dedicated to God. study architecture under Valeriani and en^ving 

On 9 Jan., 1835, Pallotti conceived the plan of his in- under Vasi. He did not return except for a brief visit 

stitute and submitted it to the Apostolic See, and re- to his family. In 1741 he brought out a work on 

ceived the reauired approbation through the cardinal arches, bridges, and other remains of antiquity, a 

vicar, Odescalchi, on 4 April, 1835, as again by an- notable monument of black and white art; thereafter 

other rescript on 29 May, and finallv by Pope Gregory he opened a gallery for the sale of prints, chiefly his 

XVI on 14 July of the same year. Nearly all rehgious own. He was a rapid and facile worker and etched 

orders and communities favoured the newly-created more than 2000 larse plates, full of detail, vigour, and 

institute with a share in all their spirktual works and brilliancy. As a rule he drew directly on copper, and 

indulgences. In the first years of its existence the hence his work is bold, free, and spinted to a marked 

Pious Society of Missions had among its affiliated degree; his shadows are luminous, but at times there 

members, twentv-five cardinals, many bishops, Ro- is too much chiaroscuro. The result is a dramatic 

man princes, and reh^ous communities and societies, alternation of black and white, and of light and shade, 

as also men known in that time as great apostles, whichdeservedly wonforhim thenameof ^'theRem- 

Blessed Caspar del Buffalo, the founder of the Con^re- brandt of architecture ". 

gation of the Most Precious Blood and Maria Clausi of Skilful and artistic printing lent an added charm to 

the Order of St. Francis of Paula. For a time the So- his proofs, and the poor impressions that exist in west- 

ciety of the Propagation of Faith in Lyons feared that em Europe come mm plates that were captured by 

the new society would interfere with its special work. British warships during the Napoleonic wars. Some 

Pallotti satisfied the Holy See that the purpose of his of the etchings in his twenty-nine folio volumes are on 

society was different from that of the Propagation, double-elephant paper, ten feet in length. While he 

As the name, "Catholic Apostolate'', occasioned ob- achieved a work of magnitude in pictorial records of 

jecttons in some quarters, it was changed to the Roman monuments of antiquity and of the Renais- 

' Pious Society of Missions''. sance, and gave immense archaeological, antiquarian. 

At the Camaldolese convent near Frascati, be wrote and topographical value to this work, the artistic 

quality always predominates. He was fond of peo- 
pling hU ruina with Calbt-like figures, and "like Callot 
makes great use of the swelliug line" (Hind). His 
plates ultimately came into the possession of the pope. 
Although not eminent aa an architect he repaired 
among other edifices the church of S. Mana del 
Popolo, and the Priory of Malta, in which is a life-size 
statue to his memory. Piranesi married a peasant, 
and his children, Francesco tfnd Laura, were of great 
assistance to him towards the end of his laborious life. 
Laura's touch strongly resembles (hat of her father. 
He was decorated with the Order of Christ and was 
made a member of the London Society of Antiquaries, 
His works are: "Ro- 
man Antiquities" 
(220 plates); Views 
Antique Statues, 
Vases and Busts (350 
plates) ; Magnifi- 
cence of the Romans 
(47 plates). 

ffrannff and Etching (Lod- 

dDD, leOS): HUHEEM, 

Promenadu of an /mpr»- 
BOnii< (New York, IBIO). 

Leiqh Hunt. 

Plrhlng, Ernri- 

cvB, b. at Sigarthin, 

near Passau, 1606: 

d. between 1678 and 

1681. At the ageof T« Ti:«pt« of Cos. 

twenty- " 

■ by Giu 

tered the Society of Jesus, where he gave instruction 
in the Sacred Sciences. He tauEht canon law and 
Scripture for twelve years at DilUn^en, where he was 
still living in 1675. His "Jus canomcum in V libros 
Decretalium distributum" (5 vols., Dillingen, 1674- 
77;4vols.,pillingen, 1722; 5vob.,Venice, 1759) marks 
a progress in canonical science in Germany, for al- 
though he maintains the classical divisions of the 
"Corpus Juris", he gives a complete and synthetic 
explanation of the canonical legislationof the matters 
which he treats. He published also, under the form of 
theses, seven pamphlets on the titles of the first book 
of the Decretals, which were resumed in his "Jus 
Canonicura " ; and an "Apologia" against two ser- 
mons of the Proteetont Balduinus (Ineolatadt, 1652; 
Munich, 1653). After his death one of his colleagues 
published a "Synojisis Pirhiagana", or rSsum6 of his 
"Jus Canonicum" (Dillingen, 1695; Venice, 1711). 

C.dl /. (IJ^E, 1872), II, 19M: SCHDLTE, Did Gncb. drr QuilUn 
M. LilrratMrlti tanmitchtn RediH (Stullcart, 1S80). III. U3. 

A. Van Hove. 

PirUuinMr, Cbahitas, Abbess of the Convent of 
St. Clara, of the Poor Clares, in Nuremberg, and sis- 
ter of the celebrated Humanist Willibald Pirkhcimer, 
b. in Nuremberg, 21 March, 1466; d. there 19 
August, 1532. At the age of twelve she obtwned 
a remarkable spiritual formation in the cloister of St. 
Clara. It is not known when she entered the religious 
life. She found a friend in Apollonia Tucher, whom 
her nephew, Christoph Scheurl, entitles "The crown 
of her convent, a mirror of virtue, a model of the sis- 
terhood," and who became prioress in 1494. She also, 
toward the end of the century, became a friend of the 
cousin of Apollonia, the provoat, Sixtus Tucher. This 
rriendahip finds expression in thirty-four letters of 
Tucher addressed to the two nuns, treating principally 

of spiritual subjccta and of the contemplative life. 
Cnaritas, who in 1500 was a teacher and perhaps 
also mistress of novices, was chosen on 20 Decem- 
ber, 1503, aa abbess. The first twenty years of her 

tenure of office she passed in the peace of contemplati vi; 
life. She was able to read the Latin authors, and 
thereby acquired a clasuc style. The works of 
the Fathers of the Church, especially of St. Jerome, 
were her favourite reading. In her studies her 
brother Willibald was her guide and teacher. He 
dedicated to her in 1513 his Latin translation of 
Plutarch's Treatise "On the Delayed Vengeance of 
the Deity" and praises in the preface her education 
and love for study, against which Charitas, "mote 
disturbed than astonished", protested, claiming that 
' ' "" '" the friend of learned 
I his sisters, Charitas 
and Clara, who since 
1494 had also been a 
PoorClare, the works 
of St. Fulgentius,and 
in 1521 he translated 
for them the sennona 
of St. Gregory of 
Nasiansus. Several 
of Pirkheimer's hu- 
manist friends be- 
came acquainted 
with the highly cul- 
tivated abb^. Con- 
rad Celtes presented 
her with his edition 
of the works of the 
nun Hrotfivit (Ros- 
witha) of Gander- 
sheim, and his own 
poems, and, in a eu- 
logy, praises her as a 
. rare adornment of 

uatiiBiE riciDHi jjjg Qgrman Father- 

land. Charitas thanked him, but advised him frankly 
to rise from the study of pagan writiitgs to that 
of the Sacred Books, from earthly to heavenly 
pursuits. Christoph Scheurl dedicated t^i her in 
1506 his "militates misso;" (Uses of the Mass); in 
1515 he published the letters of Tucher to Chantaa 
and Apollonia. She was highly esteemed by Georg 
Spalatm, Kiliam I^eib, Johannes Butibach, and the 
celebrated painter, Diirer. But all the praise she re- 
ceived excited no pride in Charitas; she remained 
simple, affable, modest and independent, uniting in 
perfect harmony high education and deep piety. It 
was thus she resisted the severe temptations which 
hung over the last ten years of her life. 

When the Lutheran doctrines were brought into 
NuremberK, thepeaceof the convent ceased. Charitas 
had already made herself unpopular by a letter Ui 
£mser(1522) In which she thanked him for his valiant 
actions as "The Powerful Defender of the Christian 
Faith". Since 1524 the governor had sought to re- 
form the cloister and to acquire poeeeesioD of its 
property. He assigned to the convent of the Poor 
Clares Lutheran preachers to whom the nuns were 
forced to listen. The acute and bigoted inspector, 
NUtzel, tirelessly renewed his attempts at perversion, 
while outside the people rioted, threw stones into 
the church and sang scandalous songs. Three nuna, 
at the request of their parents and in spite of their re- 
sistance, were taken out of the convent by violence. 
On the other hand Melanchthon, during hie residence 
in Nuremberg in 1525, was very friendly to them, and 
the diminution of the persecution is attributable to 
him. Nevertheless, the convent was deprived of the 
care of souls, was highly taxed and, in fine, doomed to 
a slow death. With constant courage and resourceful 
superiority, Charitas defended her rights against the 
attacks and wiles of the town-council.thc abusive words 
of the preachera, and the shameful slanders of the peo- 
ple. Her memoirs illuminate this period of sufTerin^ 
as far aa 152H. Her last experience of earthly happi- 
ness was the impressive celebration of her jubilee at 




Easter, 1529. At last a peaceful death freed her from 
bodily sufferings and attacks of the enemies of her 
convent. Her sister, Clara, and her niece, Katrina, 
daughter of WiUibald, succeeded her as abbess. The 
last abbess was Ursula Muffel. Towards the end of 
the century the convent was closed. 

Chabitas PiRKHKiif er, Denkwardigketlen, ed. HOfler (Bam- 
berg, 1852); Loose, Aus ^dem Leben der Charitaa Pirkheimer 
(Dreaden, 1870); Binder, Charitaa Pirkheimer (2nd ed., Frei- 
burg. 1878). * 


become Lutheran. This affected him deeply and aided 
in extinguishing his enthusiasm for the Reformation. 
His last literary labour^ which he addressed to the 
council in 1530, was on behalf of the convent; this 
was the '^Oratio apologetica monialium nomine'', a 
master-piece of its kind. 

Pirkheimer, Opera (Frankfort, 1610); Roth, WiUibald Pirk- 
heimer (Halle, 1887); Haqen, Pirkheimer in aeinem VerhdUnie 
turn Humaniemut wtd zur Reformation (Nuremberg, 1882); 
Drews, Pirkheimer* Stellung zur Reformation (Leipug. 1887); 
Reimann, Pirkheimer^udien (Berlin, 1900). 

Klemens Loffler. 

Pirkheimer, Willibald, German Humanist, b. at 
Eichstatt, 5 I)ecember, 1470; d. at Nuremberg, 22 Piro TndianB, a tribe of considerable importance 
December, 1530. He was the son of the episcopal ranging by water for a distance of three nundred 
counciUor and distinguished lawyer, Johannes Pirk- miles along the upper Ucayali (Tambo) River, and 
heimer, whose family came from Nuremberg, which its affluents, the Apurimac and Urubamba, Depart- 
Willibald regarded as his native place. He studied ment of Loreto, in northeastern Peru. Their chief 
jurisprudence, the classics, and music at the Universi- centre in the last century was the mission town of 
ties of Padua and Pavia (1489-95). In 1495 he mar- Santa Rosa de los Piros, at the confluence of the 
ried Crescentia Rieter (d. 1504), by whom he had five Tambo and Urubamba (8anta Ana). To the Qui- 
daughters. From 1498 to 1523, when he voluntarily chua-speaking tribes of Peru they are known as 
retired, he was one of the town councillors of Nurem- Chontaquiro, nearly equivalent to ''Black Teeth'', 
berg, where he was the centre of the Humanistic from their former custom of staining their teeth and 
movement, and was considered one of the most dis- gums with a black dye from the chonta or black-wood 
tinguished representatives of Germany. His house palm (pcperonia tinctorioidea). They are also known 
stood open to everyone who sought intellectual iita- as Simirinches. They belong to the great Arawakan 
provement, and was celebrated by Celtis as the gath- linguistic stock, to which also belong the warlike 
cring place of scholars and artists. His large corre- Campa of the extreme upper Ucayali and the cele- 
spondence shows the extent of his literary connexions, brated Moxos (q. v.) of Bolivia, whose main territory 
In 1499, with the aid of a capable soldier, he led the was about the lower Orinoco and in the West Indies. 
Nuremberg contingent in the Swiss war, his classical The Piro excel all the other tribes of the Ucayali both 
history of which appeared in 1610 and won for him the in strength and vitality, a fact which may be due to 
name of the German Xenophon. Maximilian ap- the more moderate temperature and superior health- 
pointed him imperial councillor. He owes his fame, fulness of their country. As contrasted with their 
to his many-sided learning, and few were as widely neighbours they are notably jovial and versatile, but 
read as he in the Greek and Latin literatures. He i^ressively talkative, inclined to bullying, ana not 
translated Greek ^classics, e. g., Euclid, Xenophon, always dependable. They are of quicK intelligence 
Plato, Ptolemy, Plutarch, Lucian, and the Church and have the Indian gift for languages, many of them 
Fathers into Latin. Like Erasmus, he paid less atten- speaking Quichua, Spanish, and sometimes Portu- 
tion to a literal rendering than to the sense of his trans- guese, in addition to their own. Like most of the tribes 
lations, and thus produced works which com- of the region they are semi-agricultural, depending 
pared with the best of the translated literature of that chieflv upon the plantain or banana and the maguey 
period. He also wrote a work on the earliest history (manniot)^ which produce abundantly almost without 
of Germany, and was interested in astronomy, math- care. The preparation from these of the intoxicating 
ematics, the natural sciences, numismatics, and art. masalo or cnicha, to which they are given to excess, 
Albert Dfirer was one of his friends and has painted forms the principal occupation of the women in all 
his characteristic portrait. He defended Reuchlin in the tribes of the Ucayali country. They also make 
the latter's dispute with the theologians of Cologne, use of fish and the oil from turtle eggs. Their houses 

At the beginning of the Reformation he took sides are light, open structures thatched with palm leaves, 
with Luther, whose able opponent, Johann Eck, he with sleeping hammocks, hand-made earthen pots, 
attacked in the coarse satire " Eckius dedolatus'^ (Eck .and the wooden maaato trough for furniture. Their 
planed down). On behalf of Luther he also wrote a dress is a sort of shirt for the men and a short skirt 
second bitter satire, in an unprinted comedy, called for the women, both of their own weaving from nathre 
''Schutzschriff . Consequently his name was in- cotton and dyed black. They wear silver nose pen- 
eluded in the Bull of excommunication of 1520, and dants and paint their faces black. The men aresplen- 
in 1521 he was absolved ''not without painful personal did and daring boatmen, in which capacity their ser- 
humiliation'', was required to acknowledge Luther's vices are in constant requisition. In their primitive 
doctrine to be heresy, and denounce it formally by condition the Piro used the bow, lance, and blowgun 
oath. Nevertheless, up to 1525 his sympathies were with poisoned arrows. They were polygamists and 
with the Reformation, but as the struggle went on, made constant raids upon the weaker tribes for the 
like many other Humanists, he turned aside from the purpose of carrying on women. They buried their 
movement and drew towards the Church, with which dead, without personal belongings, in canoes in the 
he did not wish to break. In Luther, whom he had at earthen floor of the house. Their principal divinities 
first regarded as a reformer, he saw finally a teacher of were a benevolent creative spirit or hero-god called' 
false doctrines, "completely a prey to delusion and led Huyacali, and an evil spirit, Saminchi, whom they 
by the evil fiend". Luther's theological ideas had greatly feared. They had few dances or other cere- 
never been matters of conscience to him, hence' the monies. 

results of the changes, the decay of the fine arts, the The first missions on the upper Ucayali were under- 
spread of the movement socially and economically, taken in 1673 under Fr. Biedma, of the Franciscan 
the reUgious quarrels, and the excesses of zealots Convent of the Twelve Apostles in Peru, who had 
repelled him as it did his friend Erasmus who was in already been at work on the Huallaga since 1631. In 
intellectual 83rmpathy with him. His sister, Charitas, 1674 the warlike Campa attacked and destroyed the 
was the Abbess of the Convent of St. Clara at Nurem- mission established among them and massacred four 
berg, where another sister, Clara, and his daughters, missionaries together with an Indian neophyte. In 
Katharina and Crescentia, were also nuns. From 1687 Fr. Biedma himself was killed by the Piro. 
1524 they were troubled by the petty annoyances and Others were murdered or sank under the climate until 
"efforts at conversion" of the city council that had in 1694, when Frs. Valero, Huerta, and Zavala were 

nsA 1] 

killed, the UcayttU missionH were abandoned. They 
were renewed arter some years with a f^r degree ot 
success, but in 1742 were again wiped out and all the 
mifliioiiaiies brutally butchered in a terrible riaing 
headed by tha Campa, under the leaderahip of an 
apofitat« Indian, Juan Santoe, who took the name of 
Atahualpa, cbuming to be a descendant of the last of 
the Idcos. In 1747 Fr, Manuel Albaran, descending 
the Apurimac, was killed by the Piro. In 1767 another 
genertd rising resulted in the death of all but one of 
sixteen missionaries of the Franciscan collie of 
Ocopa, Peru, which had taken over the work in 1754. 
In 17W the Franciscans again had eighteen missions 
in operation in the upper Ucayali and Huallaga 
region, with a total population of 3494 souls. In 1704 
an attempt to gather the Piro into a mission was de- 
feated by an epidemic, which caused them to scatter 
into the forests. In 1799 (or 1803-R^moDdi) the 
attempt was successfully carried out by Fr. Pedro 
Garcia at the mission ofNuestra Seflora del Pilar de 
Bepuano. In 1815 the principal and last mission for 
the tribe was established by Fr. Manuel Plaza under 
the name of Santa Rosa de Lima de los Piros. After 
the revolution, which made Peru a separate govern- 
ment, the missions were neglected, most of the mis- 
uonaries were withdrawn, the neophytes sought em- 
ployment at the river porta or in the rubber forests, 
or rejoined their wild kindred, and in 1835 only 
one mission station, Sarayacu, remained upon the 
Ucayali. The Piro, however, still r^k among the 
imiwrtant tribes, although, on account of their wan- 
dering habit, their true number is unknown. Hervas 
dves the IHro language three dialects, and states that 
Ft. Enrique Richter (o. 1685) prepared a vocabulary 
and catechism in it and in several other languages. 
Castelnau and Marcoy also give vocabularies. 

Bhintoh. Thi Amerian Race (^few York, 1891) ; Cashlnau. 
BrptdHian daru Ua parlUa cmiraitt de t'Amirigut du &vd, IV 
(e vol!., Parii. 1850-1); Gkus. Indiana o/ Peru in SmWumiaH 
*«(./«■ IST7(WMhi^aton, 18T8); Hibhdon, JBipJorodon o/Di( 
ValUv of In Amaim <WuiuDi(OD. IBS3): Hibtk. Coldlofa dt 
lot Lmauat, I (Mulnd. 1800); Labrm Aonrt In 3ai«itti Gmg- 
iloQ.. VI (Ediaburfh. 1890) : Mibehxu. fribu in tht Valley of 
llu Amaian in Jour. AniK. 7nX., XXIV (London. IS95); MiscOT. 
Voyoft d traKTi I'^m^ruiu du Sud (2 vola., Puii, 1869); Ob- 
DIHAIKI, Lu Sauwaga du PIrou in Htrut iT BAnoffraphie. VI 
IViiiM, 1887); Orivh, Tlie Ande, and lie Amaian (3rd «d.. New 
York. 1ST6): Ruuokdi, Apiiniu lO&ra In Prirrincia lUoral dl 
IitrtU (Limm. 1882). in piin Cr. by BoLUfST in Anihropalaoiair 
Beiitit. I (London, 1803) ; Rklits. SouIA America. I (New York. 
ISM): SwrTH AND Lowe. Jimmev Jrom Lima la Pard (London, 

1880)- Jaueb Moonet. 

Pisa, Abcbdiocesk of (Pia«), in Tuscany, central 
Italy. The cityissituatcdontheAmo.aixmilee from 
the sea, on a fertile plain, while the neighbouring moun- 
tains yield marble, alabaster, copper, and other min- 
eral products; mineral waters abound in the province. 
The famous duomo, or cathedral, begun (1063) by 
Buschetto and consecrated by Gelasius II (1118), is a 
ba^ca in the shape of a Latin cross, with five naves, 
the columns 'of which are of oriental granite. The 
upper portion of the fai;ade is formed by five rows of 
columns, one above the other; the bas-reliefs of the 
four bronie doors were executed by Domenico Parte- 

K' mi and Augusto Serrano, afl«r the designs of Giam- 
lo^a and others. The cupola was painted by 
Orazio Riminaldi and Michele CinKanelli; the altars 
are all of Luna marble. Among the notable objects 
in this cathedral are the octagonal pulpit, the um of 
St. Ranieri, and the lamp of Possenti da Pietrasanta, 
under which GaUleo studied the isochronistn of the 
pendulum. In front of the duomo is the baptistery, a 
round structure, with a cupola surmounted by a statue 
ot St. John the Baptist; it was erected in 1152. Be- 
side the duomo is the celebrated leaning campanile. 
The campoaanlo (begun in 1278, completed in 1464) 
is a real museum of painting and of medieval sculp- 
ture; its architect was Giovanni Pisano, by whom also 
are six statues placed over one of the entrances. The 
freecoea are by Giotto, Orcagna, Benozio Goiioli, 

Spinelto Aretino, Simone Memmi, and I^etro Laurati. 
It cont^ns the tomb of the Emperor Henry VII. 
Other churches are Santa Maria della Spina (1230; 
1323); San Nicola, dating from about 1000; the 
church of the Knights of S, Stefano (1555), a work of 
Vasari; S. Francesco (thirteenth century); S. C^te- 
rina (1353), which belongs to the seminary and con- 
tains the mausoleums of Bishop Saltarelli and of 
Gherardo Compagni; S. Anna has two canvaasee by 
Ghirlandajo; S. Michele (1018); S. Frediano (ninU> 
century); S. Sepolcro (1150); 8. Paolo (805T) called 
the old duomo; S. Pietro in Grado, which dates from 
the fifth century, and was restored in the ninth. The 
episcopal re^dence, of the twelfth century, has im- 
portant archives. Other buildings of interest are the 
Loggia dei mercanti, by Bountalenti, and the univer- 
sity (1105-1343), witn which were united several 
coUeges, as the Puteano, Ferdinando, Vitt«riano^ and 
Rjcci. Outside the city are the Certosa di Calci, the 
Bagni di Pisa,"ancient baths which were restored by 
Countess Matilda, and the Villa Reale diS. Rossore. 
Pisa is the ancient PJam, in antiquity held to bd & 

colony of Pisie in Elis. Later, it probably belonged 
to the Etruscans, though often troubled by the Ligu- 
riana. The people devoted themselves to commerce 
and to piracy. From 225 b. c., they were in amicable 
relations wiUi the Romans, who used the port of Piss 
in the Punic War, and against the Ligunans, in 103. 
By the Julian law, if not earlier, the town obtained 
Roman citizenship. Little mention is made of it in 
the Gothic War. In 553 it submitted to Narses, of its 
own accord; after the Lombard invasion, it seems to 
have enjoyed a certain independence, and it was not 
until the eighth century that Pisa had a Lombard dux, 
while, in the ninth century, it alternated with Lucca 
as the seat of the Marquis of Tuscany. The war be- 
tween Pisa and Lucca (1003) was tne first war be- 
tween two Italian cities. In 1005, the town was sacked 
by the Saracens, under the famous Musetto (Mugheid 
al Amen), who, in turn, was vanquished by tJie Pisana 
and Genoese, in Sardinia. In ICuO, the Pisans block- 
aded Carthage; and in 1050, Musetto having again 
come to Sardinia, they defeated him with the assist- 
ance of Genoa and of the Marquis of Lunipana; but 
the division of the conquered island became a source 
of dissension between the allied cities, and the discord 
was increased when Urban II invested the Pisans with 
the Btuerainty of Corsica, whose petty lords (1077) 
had declared thdr wish to be fiefs only of the Holy See. 
In 1126, Genoa opened hostilities by an assault on 
Porto I^sano, ana only through the intervention of 
Innocent II (1133) was peace re-established. Mean- 
while, the Pisans, who for centuries had had stations 
in Calabria and in Sicily, had extended their com- 
merce to Africa and to Spain, and also to the Levant. 

^ ..... , - „ - -,- ..,-., ;, name imkoown, takeo pruoDer by 

for tike tnuuportatioD of crusaders in 1099. aad there* ChaflemagQeattheBi^eof I'avia (774); Oppiio (1039), 

after people of all nations were to be found in their the founder of the Camaldolit« convent of S. Michele; 

city. In 1063 they had made an attempt againat l*ndulfu8(1077),8entbyGr^oryVIl8fllegatetoCor- 

Palerroo, and in 1114 led by the consul, Auo Marig- nca; GeraiduH (1080), an able controveraiuiat against 

nani, conquered the Balearic Islands. Pisa supported the Greeks; Diabertus (10S5), the firat archbishop, to 

t^ emperors at an early date, and Henry IV, m 1084, whom Urban II gave the sees of Coraica as suffragans 

confirmed its statutes and its maritime rights. With in 1099, the firat Lulin Patriarch of Jeruaalem^ Pietro 

its fleet, it supported the expedition of Lotbair II to Moriconi (1105), In 1121, on account of thejealou^ 

Calabria, dratroyiiiK in 1137 the maritime cities of of Genoa, the bishops of Corsica were made unmedi- 

Ravello, La Scala, b Fratta, and above all, Amalfi, ately dependent upon the Holy See, but Honorius II 

which then lost ita commercial standing. The Piaans (1126) restored the former status of Pisa as their met- 

alsogave their SMistanceto Henry IV in the conquest ropolitan; in 1133, however. Innocent II divided them 

of Sicily, and as reirard lost the advantages that they between PiaA and Genoa which was then made an 

had then enjoyed. archdiocese. Thereafter, Pisa received for sufi'ragana 

The reprisalB of Innocent III in Sardinia led the alao Populonis and two sees in Sardinia. Other 

I^aans to espouse the cause of Otto IV and that of bixhops were: Cardinal Uberto Lanfranchi (1132), 

Frederick II, and Pisa became the head and refuge of who often served as pontifical l^ate; Cardinal Vil' 

the Ghibelhnea of Tuscany, and, accordingly, a fierce lano Gaetani (1145), compelled to flee from the city 
enemy of Florence. The victory of Montaperti (1260) 
marks the culmination of I^san power. Commercial 
jealousy, political hatred, and the fact that I^sa ac- 
corded protection to certain petty lords of Corsica, 
who were in robeUion against Genoa, brought about 
another war, in which one hundred and seven Genoese 
ships defeated one hundred and three ships of the 
Pisans, at La Meloria, the former taking ten thousand 

gisoners. All would have been bst, if Ugolino della 
herajdesca, eapUano del popoU) and podeatA, had not 
rvidently taken chanre of the Government. But as 
had protected the Guelphs, Archbishop Ruggieri 
degli Ubaldini took up arms against him, and shuthim 
up (1288) in the tower of the Gualandi, where with his 
sons he starved to death (Inferno, XXXIII, 13). At 
the peace of 1290, I^sa was compelled to resign its 
ri^ts over -Corsica and the possession of Sassari in 
Sardinia. The Pisans hoped to retrieve themselves by 
inviting Henry VII tc establish himself in their city, 
ottering tiitn two million florins for his war against 
Florence, and their fleet for the conquest of Naples; 
but his death in 1313 put an end to these hopes. 
Tbeceupon they elected (1314) Uguccione della Fa- on account of hia fldelity to Aleicander III (1167); 
giuola of Lucca as their lord; but they rid themselves Lotario Rosari (1208), dso Patriarch of Jerusalem 
of him in the same year. At the approach of Louis the (1216); Federico Visconti (1254), who held provincial 
Bavarian, they besought that prince not to enter synods in 1258, 1260, and 1262; Oddone della Sala 
Pisa; but Castruccio degli AntelmmelU incited Louis (1312) had litigations with the republic, and later be- 
to besiege the city, with the result that Pisa surren- came Patriarch of Alexandria; SLmoneSaltorelli; Gio- 
dered in 1327, and paid a large sum of money to the vanni Scarlatti (1348), who had been legate to Armenia 
victor. In 1329 Louis resided there again, with the and to the emperor at Constantinople; Lotto Gomba- 
antipope, Pietro di Corvara, Internal dissensions and corta (1381), compelled to flee, after the death of his 
the competition of Genoa and Barcelona brought brotherKetro,tyrantofPisa(1392);AlamannoAdinari 
about the decay of Pisan commerce. To remedy (1406), a cardinal who had an important part in the 
financial evils, the duties on merehandise were in- concihahulumof Pisa and in the Council of Constance; 
creased, which, however, produced a neater loss, for Cardinal Francesco Salviati Riario (1475), hung at 
Florence abandoned the port of Pisa. In 1400 Florence in connexion with the conspiracy of the 
GaleaizoVisconti bought PisafromGherardoAppiani, Paz»i; in 1479 he was succeeded by his nephew, 
brd of the city. In 1405, GabrielcM. Visconti having Rafaele Riario, who narrowly escaped being a victim 
Kipulated the sale of Pisa to the Florentines, the of the same conspiracy; Cesare Riario (1499); Cai^ 
Pisans made a supreme effort to oppose that humilia- dinal Scipione Rebita (1556); Cardinal Giovanni de' 
tion; the town, however, was taken and its principal Medici (1500), a son of Coeimo; Cardinal Angelo 
citiieae exiled. The expedition of Charles VIII re- Niccolini (1564); Carlo Antonio Pozii (1582), founder 
stored its independence (^1494-1509) ; but the city was of the Puteano college, and author of works on canon 
unable to rise agun to its former prosperity. Under and on civil law; Giulio de' Medici (1620), served on 
Cosiniode' Medid, there were better tmiea, especially missions for the duke, founded the seminary, intro- 
for the university. duced wise reforms, and evinced great charity during 
Among the natives of Pisa were: B. Pellegrino the pest of 1629; Cardinal Scipione Pannocchieschi 
(seventh century); B. Chiara (d. in 1419), and B. (1636): Cardinal CosimoCorsi (1853-70). Important 
Pietro, founder of the Hermits of St. Jerome (d. in councils have been in 1135, against Anacletus II and 
1435); B. Giordano da Pisa, O.P. (d. in 1311); and the heretic Enrico, leader of the Petrobrusiani in 
Gregory X. Connected with the church of San Pietro 1409, which increased the schism by the deposition of 
in Grodo there is a legend according to which St. Peter Gregory XII and of Benedict XIlI, and by the elec- 
landed at Pisa, and left there his disciple St. Pierinus. tion of Alexander V; in 1511, brouriit about by afew 
The firat known bishop was Gaudentius, present at the schismatic cardinals and French bishops at the mstigs- 
Council of Rome (313), Other bishops were St. Senior tion of Louis XII against Julius II. 
(410), who consecrated St. Patrick; Joannes (493); L^om, Pescia, Pontremoli, and Volterra are the 
one, name unknown, who took part in the schism of suffragans of Pisa; the arehdiocese has 136 parishes; 


















190,000 inhabitants; 10 religious houses of men. and 
29 of women; 6 educational establishments for boys, 
and 13 for girls; 1 Catholic daily paper. 

CAPPELLBTTr, Lc ChiMe (T Italia, XVI; Tronci, Annuali Pisani 
CPisa, 1868-71); dal Bosoo, DisMertanoni tulla Horia piaana 
(Pisa, 1761-68) ; Chzrone Epidaubico, Navioatione e eommereio 
vitano (Piaa, 1797); Fbdeli, / documenti porUificit riguardarUi 
V Univerntd di Piaa (Piaa, 1908) ; Supimo. Fmo in Italia Ariialiea, 
XVI (Bergamo. 1905). 

U. Benigni. 

University op Piba. — In the eleventh century 
there were many jurisconsults at Pisa who lectured 
on law; prominent among them were Opitone and 
Sigerdo. There also was preserved a coidex of the 
Pandects, dated, it was said, from Justinian. Four 

Srofessors of the Law School of Bologna, Bulgarus, 
»urgundius, Uguccione, and Bandino, successors of 
Imerius, were trained here; Burgundius acquired 
renown by his translation of the Pandects and of 
Greek works on medicine. Gerardo de Fasiano, Lam- 
bertuccio Arminsochi, Zacchia da Volterra, Giovanni 
Fagioli, Ugo Benci, Baldo da Forli, and Giovanni 
d'-fiidrea taught at Pisa in the thirteenth century. In 
the same century medicine also was taught; the most 
famous professor was Guido of Pisa, who afterwards 
went to Bologna (1278). In 1338, as Benedict XII 
had placed Bologna under interdict, R^nieri da Forli 
and Bartolo removed to Pisa with a large following. 
The Stvdium of Pisa is mentioned in the communal 
documents of 1340. In 1343 Clement VI erected a 
8tv4ium generalef with all the faculties, including 
theology; and Charles IV confirmed it in 1355. 

The university, however, did not flourish. From 
1359 to 1364 it was closed, and was only reopened by 
Urban VI. Meantime, however, the teaching of law 
was not discontinued. In 1406 Pisa fell into the power 
of the Florentines who suppressed the university. In 
1473 Lorenzo de' Medici with Sixtus IV's approval 
closed the University of Florence and reopenea Pisa. 
For its endowment the goods of the Church and clergy 
were put under contriJSution to such an extent that 
Paul III in 1534 recalled the concessions of his pred- 
ecessors. The most celebrated teachers of this first 
epoch were the jurisconsults Francesco Tigrini, Baldo 
degli Ubaldi, Lancellotto Decio, Francesco Alcolti, 
Baldo Bartolini, Giasone del Maino, Bartolommeo 
and Mariano Socini; the physicians, Guido da Prato, 
Ammanati, Ugolino da Montecatini, Alessandro Ser- 
moneta, Albertino da Cremona, Pietro Leoni, and 
Cristoforo Prati; the Humanists, Bartolommeo da 
Pratorecchi, Ix)renzo Lippi, Andrea Dati, Mariano 
Tucci; the theologians, Bernardino Cherichini (1478) 
and Giorgio Benigni Salviati. 

In 1543 Cosimo de' Medici undertook to restore the 
university, and to this end Paul III made large con- 
cessions out of the revenues of the Church and 
monasteries. Several colleges were founded, such as 
the DucaJ College, the Ferdinando, and the Puteano 
(Pozzi for the Piedmontese). The university at this 
time became famous especially by its cultivation of 
the natural sciences. Among its noted scientists were : 
Cesalpino (botany, medicine, philosophy); Galileo 
GaUlei (mathematics and astronomy); Borelli (me- 
''chanics and medicine); Luca Ghini, first director of 
the botanical gardens (1544) ; Andrea Vesalio, Realdo 
Colombo, Gabriele Falloppo; Giovanni Risischi, and 
Lambeccari in anatomy; Baccio Baldini, Vidio Vidi, 
Girolamo Mercuriale, Rodrigo Fonseca (seventeenth 
century), Fil. Cavriami, Marcello Malpighi in medi- 
cine. In view of its progressive spirit, Pisa may be 
called the cradle of modem science. The professors 
of jurisprudence were rather conservative, out there 
were not wanting able thinkers, such as the two 
Torellis, Francesco Vegio, Asinio, Giacomo Mandelli, 
the two Facchinis, and the Scotsman Dempster; 
Nicola Bonaparte, who introduced into Pisa the 
critical-histoncal study of Roman Law inaugurated by 

Cujas, Giuseppe Averani, Stefano Fabrucd, historian 
of the university, Bernardo Tanucci, afterwards min- 
ister of Charles III of Naples. * 
At the beginning of the eighteenth century the 
university was again in a precarious condition; but 
the new Lorenzian dynasty sought to strengthen it 
by increasing the scientific institutes, and revising the 
statutes; thus after 1744 the rector was no longer 
elected by the scholars or from their ranks, but mui 
to be one of the professors. In the eighteenth century 
Valsecchi and Berti won distinction in theology; 
Andrea Guadegni, Bart. Franc. Pellegrini^ Migliorotto 
Maccioni,'FIaminio Dal Borgo, Gian Mana Lampredi. 
Sandonnini (canonist), the criminalists della Pura and 
Ranuccia in jurisprudence; Politi, Corsini, Antonioli, 
Sarti, in letters; Guido Grandi, Claudio Fromond, 
Anton Nicola Branchi, Lorenzo Pignotti, Lorenzo 
Tilli, and Giorgio Santi in natural science; An|;elo 
Gatti, Antonio Matani, Franc. Torrigiani in medicme; 
Bro|:iani and Berlinghieri in anatomy. In 1808 the 
regulations of the French universities were introduced, 
but were superseded by others in 1814. The pro- 
fessors were then dividea into the faculties of theology, 
law (comprising philosophy and literature), ana 
medicine. But the number of the chairs increased) 
in 1840 there were six faculties. In 1847 the '' Annali 
delle UniversitJl toscane" were published. 

In 1851, for political reasons, the Universities of 
Pisa and Siena were united, the faculties of jurispru- 
dence and theology located at Siena, and those of 
philosophy and medicine at Pisa. The former regime 
was re-established in 1859 with such modifications as 
the Law of Casati required. In 1873 all chairs of 
theology were suppressed throughout Italy. Noted 
professors in law were Lorenzo Quartieri, Federioo, 
del Rosso, Valeri, Poggi, Salvagnoli, Franc. Ferrara. 
P. Emilio Imbriani, and Franc. Carrara (criminalist). 
Science and letters were represented by the physicist 
Gerbi ; the chemist Piria; the mathematician Betti ; the 
physicians Puccinotti, Pacini, Marcacci, Ranzi (path- 
ology) ; the criminalist Rosellini, the Latinist Ferrucci ; 
and Francesco de Sanctis, literary critic. Besides the 
usual faculties, Pisa has schools of engineering, agri- 
culture, veterinary medicine and pharmacy, and a 
normal high school. In 1910-11 there were 159 in- 
structors and 1160 students. 

Fabroni, Hisloria Aead. Piaance (Piaa, 1791); dalBoroo, Dia- 
aertazione epistoUire auW origine delV unit, di Piaa (Pisa, 1765); 
Cai.isse, Cenni atorici atdV Univeraitd di Piaa in Annuario dwa 
Uniteraitd di Piaa (1899-1900); Buonamici, Della acuola Piaana 
del diritto romano etc. (Pisa, 1874) ; Idem, / giureconaviii di Piaa al 
tempo deUa acuola Bologneat (Rome, 1888); Fedeu, I documenti 
pontificii riguardanti V Univeraitd di Piaa (Pisa, 1908). 

U. Benigni. 

Pisa, Council of. — Preliminaries. — ^The Great 
Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378). 
and none of the means employed to bring it to an end 
had been successful. Compromise or arbitral agree- 
ment between the two parties had never been seri- 
ously attempted; surrender had failed lamentably 
owing to the obstinacy of the rival popes, all equ^y 
convinced of their rights; action, that is the interfer- 
ence of princes and armies, had been without result. 
During these deplorable divisions Boniface IX, Inno- 
cent VII, and Gregory XII had in turn replaced 
Urban VI (Bartholomew Prignano) in the See of 
Rome, while Benedict XIII had succeeded Clement 
VII (Robert of Geneva) in that of Avignon. 

The cardinals of the reigning pontiffs being greatly 
dissatisfied, both with the pusillanimity and nepotism 
of Gregonr XII and the obstinacy and bad will of 
Benedict AlII, resolved to make use of a more effica- 
cious means, namely a general council. The French 
king, Charles V, had recommended this, at the be- 
ginning of the schism, to the cardinals assembled at 
Anagni and Fondi in revolt against Urban VI, and on 
his deathbed he had expressed the same wish (1380). 
It had been upheld by several councils, by the cities 




of Ghent and Florence, by the Universities of Oxford 
and Paris, and by the most renowned doctors of 
the time, for example: Henry of Langenstein 
(^'Epistola pacis", 1379, "Epistola concilii pacis", 
1381); Conrad of Gelnhausen ("Epistola Concor- 
di»", 1380); Gerson (Sermo coram Anglicis); and 
especially the latter's master, Pierre d'Ailly, the emi- 
nent Bishop of Cambrai, who wrote of himself: "A 
principio schismatis materiam concilii generalis 
primus . . . instanter proseoui non timui (Apo- 
logia Concilii Pisani, apud Tschackert). Encour- 
a|^ by such men, by the known dispositions of 
King Qiarles V4 and of the University of Paris, four 
membei-s of the Sacred College of Avignon went to 
Leghorn where they arranged an interview w^ith those 
of Rome, and where they were soon joined by others. 
The two bodies thus united were resolved to seek 
the union of the Church in spite of everything and 
thenceforth to adhere to neither of the competitors. 
On 2 and 5 July, 1408, they addressed to the princes 
and prelates an encyclical letter summoning them to a 
general council at Pisa on 25 March, 1409. To oppose 
this project Benedict convoked a council at Perpignan 
while Gregory assembled another at Aquileia, but 
these assemblies met with little success, hence to the 
Council of Pisa were directed all the attention^ un- 
rest, and hopes of the Catholic world. The Univer- 
sities of Paris, Oxford, and Cologne, manv prelates, 
and the most distinguished doctors, Uke d'Ailly and 
Gerson, openly approved the action of the revolted 
cardinals. The princes on the other hand were divided, 
but most of them no longer relied on the good will of 
the rival popes and were determined to act without 
them, despite them, and, if needs were, against them. 
Meeting of the Council. — On the feast of the Annun- 
ciation, 4 patriarchs, 22 cardinals, and 80 bishops 
assembled in the cathedral of Pisa under the presidency 
of Cardinal de Malesset, Bishop of Palestrina. Among 
the clergy were the representatives of 100 absent 
bishops, 87 abbots with the proxies of those who could 
not come to Pisa, 41 priors and generals of religious 
orders, 300 doctors of theolo^ or canon law. The 
ambassadors of all the Christian kingdoms com- 

Cleted this august assembly. Judicial procedure 
egan at once. Two cardinal deacons, two bishops, 
and two notaries gravely approached the church doors, 
opened them, and in a loud voice, in the Latin tongue, 
.called upon the rival pontiffs to appear. No one re- 
plied. "Has anyone been appointed to represent 
them?" they added. Again there was silence. The 
delegates returned to their places and requested that 
Gregory and Benedict be declared ^ilty of contu- 
macy. On three consecutive days this ceremony was 
repeated without success, and throughout the month of 
Niay testimonies were heard against the claimants, 
but the formal declaration of contumacy did not take 
place until the fourth session. In defence of Gregory, 
a German embassy unfavourable to the project of the 
assembled cardinals went to Pisa (15 April) at the 
instance of Robert of Bavaria, King of the Romans. 
John, Archbishop of Ri^a, brought before the council 
several excellent objections, but in general the Ger- 
man delegates spoke so blunderingly that they 
aroused hostile manifestations and were compelled to 
leave the city as fugitives. The hne of conduct 
adopted by Carlo Malatesta, Prince of Rimini j' was 
more clever. Robert by his awkward friendliness in- 

t'ured Gregory's otherwise most defendable cause; 
mt Malatesta defended it as a man of letters, an orator, 
a politician, and a knight, though he did not attain 
the desired success. Benedict refused to attend the 
council in person, but his delegates arrived very late 
(14 June), and their claims aroused the protests and 
laughter of the assembly. The people of Pisa over- 
whelmed them with threats and insults. The Chancel- 
lor of Aragon was listened to with little favour, while 
the Archbishop of Tarragona made a declaration 
XII.— 8 

of war more daring than wise. Intimidated by 
rough demonstrations, the ambassadors, amoilg them 
Boniface Ferrer, Prior of the Grande Chartreuse, 
secretly left the city and returned to their master. 

The pretended preponderance of the French dele- 
gates has been often attacked, but the French element 
did not prevail either in numbers, influence, or bold- 
ness of ideas. The most remarkable characteristic of 
the assembly was the unanimity which reigned among 
the 500 members during the month of June, especially 
noticeable at the fifteenth general session (5 June, 
1 409) . When the usual formality was completed with 
the request for a definite condemnation of Peter de 
Luna and Angelo Corrario, the Fathers of Pisa re- 
turned a sentence until then unexampled in the his- 
tory of the Church. All were stirred when the 
Patriarch of Alexandria, Simon de Cramaud, addressed 
the august meeting: "Benedict XIII and Gregory 
XII", said he, ''are recognised as schismatics, the 
approvers and makers of schism, notorious heretics, 
guilty of perjury and violation of solemn promises, 
and openly scandalising the universal Church. In 
consequence, they are declared unworthy of the 
Sovereign Pontificate, and are ipso facto deposed from 
their functions and dignities, and even driven 
out of the Church. It is forbidden to theih hence- 
forward to consider themselves to be Sovereign 
Pontiffs, and all proceedings and promotions made by 
them are annulled. The Holy See is declared vacant 
and the faithful are set free from their promise of 
obedience." This grave sentence was greeted with 
joyful applause, the Te Deum was sung, and a solemn 
procession was ordered next day, the feast of Corpus 
Christi. All the members appended their signatures 
to the decree of the council, and every one thought 
that the schism was ended forever. (Jn 15 June the 
cardinals met in the archiepiscopal palace of Pisa to 
proceed with the election of a new pope. The con- 
clave lasted eleven days. Few obstacles intervened 
from outside to cause delay. Within the council, it 
is said, there were intrigues for the election of a French 
pope, but, through the influence of the energetic and 
ingenious Cardinal Cossa, on 26 June, 1409. the votes 
were unanimously cast in the favour ol Cardinal 
Peter Philarghi, who took the name of Alexander V 
(q. T.). His election was expected and desired, as 
testified by universal joy. The new pope announced 
his election to all the sovereigns of Christendom, 
from whom he received expressions of lively sympathy 
for himself and for the position of the Cnurch. He 
presided over the last four sessions of the council, 
confinned all the ordinances made by the cardinals 
after their refusal of obedience to the antipopes, 
united the two sacred colleges, and subsequently 
declared that he would work energetically for reform. 

Judgment of the Council of Pisa. — The right of the 
cardinals to convene a general council to put an end 
to the schism seemed to themselves indisputable. 
This was a consequence of the natural principle that 
demands for a large corporation the capacity of dis- 
covering within itself a means of safety: Salus pomdi 
suprema lex estOf i. e., the chief interest is the safety 
of the Church and the preservation of her indispen- 
sable unity. The tergiversations and perjuries of the 
two pretenders seemed to justify the united sacred 
colleges. "Never", said they, "shall we succeed in 
ending the schism wh|le these two obstinate persons 
are at the head of the opposing parties. There is no 
undisputed pope who can summon a general council. 
As the pope is doubtful, the Holy See must be consid- 
ered vacant. We have therefore a lawful inandate 
to elect a pope who will be undisputed, and to con- 
voke the universal Church that her adhesion may 
strengthen our decision " . Famous universities urged 
and upheld the cardinals in this conclusion. And 
yet, from the theological and judicial point of view, 
their reasoning might seem false, dangerous, anq 




revolutionaiy. For if Gregoiy and Benedict were 
doubtful, so were the cardinals whom they had 
created. If the fountain of their authority was Un- 
certain, so was their competence to convoke the uni- 
versal Church and to elect a pope. Plainly, this is 
arguing in a circle. How then could Alexander V, 
electedby them, have indisputable rights to the recog- 
nition of the whole of Christendom? Further, it was 
to be feared that certain spirits would make use of 
this temporary expedient to transform it into a 
general rule, to proclaim the superiority of the sacred 
college and of the council to the pope, and to legalize 
henceforth the appeals to a future council, which had 
already commenced under King Philip the Fair. The 
means used by the cardinals could not succeed even 
temporarily. The position of the Church became 
still more precarious; instead of two heads there 
were three wandering popes, persecuted and exiled 
from their capitals. Yet, masmuch as Alexander was 
not elected in opposition to a generally recognized 

Contiff, nor by scnismatic methods, his position was 
etter than that of Clement VII and Benedict XIII, 
the popes of Avignon. An almost general opinion 
asserts that both he and his successor, John XXIII, 
were true popes. If the pontiffs of Avignon had a 
colourable title in their own obedience, such a title 
can be made out still more clearly for Alexander V 
in the eyes of the universal Church. In fact the 
Pisan pope was acknowledged bv the majority of the 
Church, 1. e. by France, England, Portugal, Bohemia, 
Prussia, a few countries of Germany, Italy, and the 
Coimty Venaissin, while Naples, Poland, Bavaria, 
and part of Germany continued to obey Gregory, and 
Spain and Scotland remained subject to Benedict. 

Theologians and canonists are severe on the Council 
of Pisa. On the one hand, a violent partisan of 
Benedict's. Boniface Ferrer, calls it "a conventicle 
of demons . Theodore Urie, a supporter of Gregory, 
seems to doubt whether they gathered at Pisa with 
the sentiments of Dathan and Abiron or those of 
Moses. St. Antoninus, Cajetan, Turrecremata, and 
Ra3mald openly call it a conventicle, or at &ny rate 
cast doubt on its authority. On the other hand, the 
Galilean school either approves of it or pleads extenu- 
ating circumstances. Koel Alexander asserts that 
the council destroyed the schism as far as it could. 
Bossuet says in his turn: ''If the schism that de- 
vastated the Church of God was not exterminated at 
Pisa, at anv rate it received there a mortal blow and 
the Council of Constance consummated it.'' Protest- 
ants, faithful to the consequences of their principles, 
applaud this council unreservedly, for they see m it 
"the first step to the deliverance of the world", and 
greet it as the dawn of the Reformation (Gregorovius). 
Perhaps it is wise to say with Bellarmine that this 
assembly is a general council which is neither ap- 
proved nor disapproved. On account of its illegalities 
and inconsistencies it cannot be quoted as an oecu- 
menical council. And yet it would be unfair to brand 
it as a conventicle, to compare it with the '' robber 
council" of Ephesus. the pseudo-council of Basle, or 
the Jansenist council of Pistoia. This synod is not a 
pretentious, rebellious, and sacrilegious coterie. The 
number of the fathers, their quality, authority^ in- 
telligence and their zealous and generous intentions, 
the almost unanimous accord with which they came 
to their decisions, the royal support they met with, 
remove every suspicion of Intrigue or cabal. It 
resembles no other council, and has a place by itself 
in the history of the Church, as unlawful in the man- 
ner in which it was convoked, unpractical in its choice 
of means, not indisputable in its results, and having 
no claim to represent the Universal Church. It is 
the original source of all the ecclesiastico-historical 
events that took place from 1409 to 1414, and opens 
the way for the Council of Constance. 

D'AcuiRY, SpicUegiutn, I (Parii, 1723), 853. eee names of the 

members of the Council, I. 844; d'Aillt in Operibtu 6era<mi%, ed. 
Elueb Ddpin (1706); St. Antoninus. Summa Hi»toriAli», III, 
xxii, c. V, |2; Bsuabmins. Dtconcil., I (Paris, 1608), viii, 13; Bb8b, 
Johannet QertonunddiektrehenpiUitUehen Parteien Frankreieha 9or 
demKomil m Fua (Marburgi 18Q0) ; Buemetxbieder, i>a«(ren«^ 
ral Ko^uU im ffroMenaberuUdnditchen Sehianui (Paderbom, 1004); 
Bouix, D« Papa, I, 497; Chronicon S. Dionyni, IV, 52. 216-38; 
Qbrson. Opera Omnia, ed. Elusa Dupin, II (1706). 123 sqq.; 
HAROoqxN, C<mcftiid. VlII, 85; Hbfblb. Hittoire dea ConciUa, 
Lbclbbcq, X, 255; Mansi, CoUectio ConcUiorum, XXVI, 1000- 
1240, XXVII. 114-368; Mabt^nb and Ddrand. AmplUnma Col^ 
lectio, VII, 804; Idbm, Thesaunu, II, 1374-1476; Muuabblu, 
De atuAor. Rom. porUifida, II, 414 ; Nibm. Dt Sehitmate, ed. Eblbb. 
Ill (Leipsig, 1800), 26-40. 262 sqq. ; Pastob. HiHoire det Papet, I, 
200-3; Salbmbibb. Le grand achieme d' Occident (Paris. 1000). 251- 
74. tr. MrrcHBtL (London, 1007) ; Iobm, Petrue ab AUiaeo (Lille. 
1886), 76 sqq.; Tibaboschi, Storia liU. ital., II, 370; Tschackbbt, 
Peter ton AiU% (Gotha, 1877), see especially Appendix, p. 20; Va- 
LOis, La France et le grand Schieme d'Occident, IV, 75 sqq. ; Wbu- 
bIcxbb, DeuUche Reichetagaakten, VI, 496 sqq. ; Bubm btsbzbdbb, 
lAterarieehe Polemik eu Beginn dee groaaen abendlandiaehen Sdiie- 
mae; Ungadruckte texte und Unterauchungen (Vienna and Leipsic, 
1009) ; Die ktrehenreehllichen Sehriften Patera von Luna, tr. Ebhlb 
in ArchitfltrlAieratur.undKirchengeaehiehU, VII (lOOOJ. 387. 514; 
ScHiim. Zur OeeehicMe dea Koneila ton Piaa in Rdm. Quartalachr. 

(^805). L, Salembieb. 

PiBattio, NiccoLA. See Niccola Pisano. 

Piscataway IndianB, a tribe of Algonquian lin- 
guistic stock formerly occupying the pemnsula of 
lower Maryland between the Potomac River and 
Chesapeake Bay and northward to the Patapsco, 
including the present District of Columbia, and not- 
able as -being the first tribe whose Christianization 
was attempted under English auspices. Tlie name 
by which they were commonly known to the Mary- 
land colonists Pascatse in the Latin form — was 
properly that of their principal village, on Piscataway 
Creek near its mouth, within the present Prince 
George county. After their removal to the north 
they were, known as Conoy, a corruption of their 
Iroquois name. There seems to be no good ground 
for the assertion of Smith (1608) that they were sub- 
ject to the Powhatan tribes of Virginia. Besides 
Piscataway, which was a palisaded village or ''fort'', 
they had about thirty other settlements, among 
which may be named Yaocomoco, Potopaco (Port 
Tobacco), Patuxent, Mattapanient (Mattapony), 
Mattawoman, and Nacochtank (Lat. Anacastan, now 
Anacostia, D. C). The original relation of these 
towns to one another is not very clear, but under the 
Maryland Government their chiefs or ''kings'' all 
recognized the chief of Piscataway as their "em- 
peror'', and held the succession sObiect to the ratifica- 
tion of the colonial "assembly . Their original 
population was probably nearly 2500. 

The recorded history of the Piscataway begins in 
1608, when Captain John Smith of Virginia sailed 
up the Potomac and touched at several of their 
villages, including Nacochtank, where "the people 
did their best to content us". In 1822 the same town 
was destroyed by a band of plunderers from Vir- 
ginia, but afterward rebuilt. On 25 March, 1634, 
the Catholic English colony of Lord Baltimore, includ- 
ing the Jesuit Fathers Andrew White and John Altham, 
and two lay brothers, landed on St. Clement's 
(Blackistone s) Island and established friendly rela- 
tions with the people of Yaocomoco, as well as with 
the great chief of Piscataway, as also the chief of 
Potomac town on the Vir^nia side. The first altar 
was set up in an Indian wigwam. Owing to the at- 
tacks of the powerful Susquehanna at the head of 
the bay the people of Yaocomoco were about to 
remove, apparently to combine with those of Piscat- 
away, and the English settlers bargained with them 
for the abandoned site. 

The Jesuits at once set to work to study the lan- 
guage and customs of the Indians in order to reach 
them with Christianity. Father White, superior of 
the mission, whose valuable "Relatio" is almost 
our only monument to the Maryland tribes, composed 
a grammar, dictionary, and catechism in the Pis- 
cataway dialect, of which the last, if not the others. 


naBBtilliDexiHtrnnein Rome in 1932. Another catc- 
rhism was coraiiilitl lulrr by Father Roger Rigbio 
at Patuxent. The Indians Roncrally were well- 
disposed to the new teBching, and, other Jesuits hav- 
inff arrived, miasiona were established at St. Mary's 
(Yaocomoco), Maltapony, Kent Island, and, in 

Kittamaquund, "Bi 

; Beaver", V 

s sometimes known 

of the governor and several of the colonial officers 
who attended for the purpose. Father White, with 
public ceremony, baptized and gave Christian names 
to the great chief, his wife, and daughter, and to the 
chief councillor and hia son, afterward uniting the 
chief and hia wife in Christian marriage. A year 
later the mismonaries were invited to Naoochtank. 
and in 1642 Father White baptized the chief and 
several others of the Potomac tribe. 

About this time the renewed inroads of the Sus- 
quehanna compelled the removal of the mission from 
FiscAtaway to Potopaco, whpre the woman chief and 
over 130 others were Christians. The work pros- 

Kred until 1644, when Cl^bome with the help of the 
iritan refi^ees who hod been accorded a safe shel- 
tiT in the Catholic colony, seized the government, 
deposed the governor, and sent the missionaries as 
pnaoners to England. They returned in I64S and 
again took up the work, which was again interrupted 
by the confusion of the civil war in England until 
toe establishment of -the Cromnellian government in 
1652 outlawed Catholicism in its own colony and 
brought the Piscataway mission to an end. 
Under the new Government the Piscataway rap- 

sented to-day by a few negro mongrels who claim the 

Id habit and ceremony the Piscataway probably 
closely Ksembled the kindred Powhatan Indians of 
Virginia as described by Smith and Strachey. but 
except for Father White's valuable, though brief, 
"Relatio" we have alrnost no record on the subject. 
Their houses, probably communal, were oval wig- 
wams of poles covered with mats or bark, and with 
the fire-hole in the centre and the smoke-hole in the 
roof ^mve. The principal men had bed platforms, 
but the common people slept upon skins upon the 
ground. Their women maae pottery and baskets, 
while the men made dug-out canoes and carried the 
bows and arrows. They cultivated com, pumpkins, 
and a species of tobacco. The ordinary dress con- 
sisted simply of a breech-cloth for the men and a short 
deerskin apron for the women, while children went 
entirely naJted. They panted their faces with bright, 
colours in various patterns. They had descent ui the 
female line, believed in good and "bad spirits, ana paid 
special reverence I ..•»... .. 

1 and fire. Father Wiit< 

kindly and rather unwarlike disposition, and physi- 
cally were dark, very tall, muscular, and well propo> 

Arckita d/ Mnryland (29 vols., BftlUmon. 1883-1600); Boi. 
MAN. HUlOTM s/ Margland (2 VDla.. BsJdmora, 1B37); Brihto.i, 
Tlu Unapt and Ihrir Ltatadi (Waiam Olam) (Pliiladflphia 

Le Lnpct Potomac io Amrr- 

- , „— . 1889); JV™ York CalBniat 

Albrniy, 1853-87). •. v. Cotuji;.- PUealawa^. 

eta.; Shea. CoAMc IruOan Mimani (Nfw Yark, ISM); SuiTH. 
Omiral Hilton, oj Virainia (Londoa, 1620; Ricbmonii, ISiei, 

forbidden the possession of guns for their own de- 
fence, their plantations destroyed by the cattle 
and hogs of the settlers and their pride broken by 

; restrictions, they sank to the condition 
<^ helpless dependents whose numbers constantly 
diminished. In 1666 they addressed a pathetic 
petition to the assembly; We can flee no further. 
Let us know where to hve, and how to be secured for 
the future from the hogs and cattle". As a result 
reservations were sooft afterward established for each 
of twelve villages then occupied by them. Encroach- 
ments still continued, however^ and the conquest of 
the Susquehanna by tne Iroquois in 1675 only brought 

massacred by the Iroquois, who sent word to the 
assembly that they intended to exterminate the 
whole tribe. Peace was finally arranaed in 1685. 
In, 1692 each principal town was put under a nominal 
yearly tribute of a bow and two arrows, their chi^s 
to be chosen and to hold at the pleasure of the asaem- 
bly. At last, in 1697, the "emperor" and principal 
chiefs, with nearly the entire tnbe excepting appar- 
ently those on the Chaptico river reservation, aban- 
doned their homes and fled into the backwoods of 
Virginia. At this time they seemed to have num- 
bered under four hundred and this small remnant 
was in 1704 atlll further reduced by a wasting epi- 
demic. Refusing all offers to return, they opened 
negotiations with the Iroquois for a settlement under 
their protection, and, permisaion being given, they 
began a slow migration northward, stopping for long 
periods at various points along the Susquehanna 
imtil in 1766 we find them living with other remnant 
tribes at or near Chenango (now Binghamton, New 
York) and numbering only about 120 souls. Thence 
they drifted west witn the Delawares and made their 
last appearance in history at a council at Detroit in 
1793. Thooe who remained in Maiyland are repre- 

the name was used 
to denote a baptis- 
mal font or the 
ciatem into which 
the water flowed 
from the head of 
the person bap- 
tised; or an ex- 
cavation, some 
two or three feet 
deep and about 
one foot wide, cov- 
ered with a atone 
slab, to receive the 
water from the 
washing of the 
priest's hands, the 
water used (or 
washing the palls, 
purifiers, and cor- 
porals, the bread 
crumbs, cotton, 
etc. used after 

and for the ashes 

of sacred things no 

longer fit for use. 

It was conatructed „ 

near the altar, at (Xiii Comm 

the south wall of the sanctuary, in the sacristy, or 

some other suitable place. It is found also in the form 

of a small column or niche of atone or metal. 

Rock, Chi:rdi of Our Fallini. IV (London. 1H04), IM: Bin- 
Tsmiu, Dtnkviardiakritcn, IV. I. 112; ThtU. prakl. Quarlaltckri/l 

(iB7B).33. Francis J' 





Pi8e» Charles Constantine, priest, poet, and prose 
writer, b. at Annapolis, Maryland, 22 Nov., 1801; d. 
at Brooklyn, New York, 26 May, 1866. He was edu- 
cated at Georgetown College, and was for sdme time 
a member of the Society of Jesus. He taught rhetoric 
at Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Md., 
where John Hughes, afterwards Archbishop of New 
York, was among his pupils. In 1825 he was or- 
dained to the priesthood and officiated for some time 

at the cathedral in 
Baltimore. He after- 
wards served at St. 
Patrick's church, 
Washington, as as- 
sistant pastor, and 
while there was 
elected (11 Dec, 
1832) chaplain to the 
United States Senate 
— the only CathoUc 
priest hitherto ap- 

S tinted to that office, 
e was a personal 
friend of President 
Tyler. In 1848 he 
became pastor of St. 
Peter's Church. New 
York: he had pre- 
viously been assistant 
pastor in the same church under the vicar-general. 
Dr. Powers. In 1849 he was appointed pastor of 
St. Charles Borromeo's, Brooklyn, where he officiated 
until his death. Dr. Pise wrote several works in 
prose and verse, among them being "A History 
of the Catholic Church^' (5 vols., 1829), "Father 
Rowland" (1829), "Aletheia, or Letters on the 
Truth of the Catholic Doctrines" (1845), "St. Ig- 
natius and His First (Companions" (1845). "Chris- 
tianity and the Church" (1850). His "(Jlara". a 
poem of the fifteenth centunr, and "Montezuma", a 
drama^ were never published. He contributed to the 
magazme literature of the day, was a distinguished 
lecturer and preacher, and a writer of Latin verse. 

Shea. History of the Catholic Church in the United States, IV 
(New York. 1892). jj^^^ ^ ^^^^ 

Pifidia, a coimtry in the southwestern part of Asia 
Minor, between the high Phrygian tableland and the 
maritime plain of PamphiUa. 1 his district, formed by 
the lofty ridges of the western Taurus range, was in 
pre-Christian times the abode of stalwart, half- 
civilized, and unruly tribes, never entirely subdu^. 
Ancient writers describe them as a restless, plunder- 
loving population. St. Paul, no doubt, had in mind 
Pisidia, which he had traversed twice (Acts, xiii, 
13-14 : note here that, according to the more probable 
text, in the latter verse we should read Pisidian 
Antioch"; xiv, 20-23), perhaps thr^ times (Acts, 
xvi, 6), when in II Cor., xi, 26, he mentions the 
"perils of waters" and "perils of robbers" he had 
confronted. Independent until 36 b. c, the Pisidians 
were then conquered by the Galatian king, Amyntas. 
and soon after, together with their conquerors, forced 
to acknowledge Roman suzerainty. Joined first to 
one province, then to another, it received a governor 
of its own in 297 a. d. The principal cities were 
Cremna, Adada (the modem name of which, Kara 
Bavlo, preserves the memory of St. Paul), Serge, Ter- 
messos, Pednalissos, Sagalassos. Heaps of imposing 
ruins are all that is now left. 

CoNYBEARB AND HowiMJN, The Life and Epistles of St. Paul 
(Iy>ndon. 1876): Fouard, Saint Paul and His Missions, tr. 
Griffith (New York, 1894); Rambay, Historical Geography of 
Asia Minor (London, 1890) ; Idem, The Church in the Roman 
Empire (London, 1894); Idem, InscriiAions en langue Pisidienne 
in Revue des Universitfe du Midi (189r,), .3r>.'J-60: Kiepert, 
Manuel de glographie andennt (French tr., Paris. 1887); Lanc- 
KORONSKI, SfdJte Pamphyliens und PiHdien)^ (Vicuna, 1892). 

Charles L. Souvay. 

Pifltis, Sophia. See Gnosticism. 

Pifltoia, Synod of, held 18 to 28 September, 1786, 
by Scipio de' Ritci, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato. It 
marks the most daring effort ever made to secure for 
Jansenism and allied errors a foothold in Ital3r. Peter 
Leopold, created Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1763, 
emulated the example of his brother, Emperor Joseph 
II, in assuming to control religious affairs in his 
domain. Imbued with Regalism and Jansenism he 
extended a misguided zeal for reform to minutest 
details of discipline and worship. In two instructions 
of 2 August, 1785, and 26 January, 1786, he sent to 
each of the bishops of Tuscany a series of fiftynseven 
'* points of view of His Royal Highness'' on doctrinal, 
disciplinary, and Uturgical matters, directing that dio- 
cesan synods be held every two years to enforce reform 
in the Church and "to restore to the bishops their 
native rights abusively usurped by the Roman Court". 
Of the eighteen Tuscan bishops but three convoked 
the synod; and of these his only partisan was Scipio 
de' Ricci in whom he found a kindred spirit. Bom in 
1714 of an eminent family, de' Ricci gave early prom- 
ise of worth and eminence. Made Bishop of Pistoia 
and Prato; the most populous of the Tuscan dioceses, 
19 June, 1780, he planned and energetically pursued, 
with the encouragement of Pius VI, the work of much- 
needed reform, but influenced by the times, his zeal 
came to be marked by reckless audacity. He con- 
demned devotion to the Sacred Heart, discouraged the 
use of relics and images, undervalued indulgences, im- 
provised liturgy, and founded a press for Jansenistic 
propaganda. On 3 1 July, 1786, de ' Ricci, in convoking 
the synod, invoked the authority of Pius VI who had 
previously recommended a synod as the normal means 
of diocesan reform. With characteristic energy and 
prevision he prepared for the council by inviting from 
without his aiocese, theologians and canonists noto- 
rious for Galilean and Jansenistic tendencies and 
issued to his clergy pronouncements which reflected 
the dominant errors of the times. On 18 September, 
1786, the synod was opened in the church of St. Leo- 
pold in Pistoia and continued through seven sessions 
until 28 September. De' Ricci presided, and at his 
right sat the royal commissioner, Giuseppe Paribenii 
professor at the University of Pisa, ana a regalist. 
The promoter was Pietro Tamburini, professor at the 
University of Pavia, conspicuous for his learning and 
for Jansenistic sympathies. At the opening session 
234 members were present ; but at the fifth session 246 
attended, of whom 180 were pastors, 13 canons, 12 
chaplains, 28 simple priests of the secular clergy, and 
13 regulars. Of these many, including even the pro- 
moter, were extra-diocesans irregularly intruded by 
de' Ricci because of their S3rmpathy with his designs. 
Several Pistorian priests were not invited while the 
clergy of Prato, where feeling against the bishop yras 
particularly strong, was all but ignored. 

The points proposed by the grand duke and the 
innovations of the oishop were discussed with warmth 
and no little acerbity. The Regalists pressed their 
audacity to heretical extremes, and evoked protests 
from the papaJ adherents. Though these objections 
led to some modifications, the propositions of Leopold 
were substantially accepted, the four Galilean Articles 
of the Assembly of the French Clergy of 1682 were 
adopted, and the reform programme of de' Ricci car- 
ried out virtually in its entirety. The theological 
opinions were strongly Jansenistic. Among the vaga- 
nes proposed were : the right of civil authority to 
create matrimonial impediments; the reduction of all 
religious orders to one body with a common habit and 
no perpetual vows; a vernacular liturgy with but one 
altar in a church etc. Two hundred and thirty-three 
members signed the acts in the final session of 28 
September, when the synod adjourned intending to 
reconvene in the following April and September. In 




F^niaiy, 1787, the Sret edition (thirty-five hundred Rotondo, (he rormer baptiatrv; it is B,a (Kitagonal 

copin) of the Acts and Decreea anpeared, bearing the Ht.ructure, the work of Andrea PisaDO (1333-50), with 

roy alimprijnatur. De Ricci, wiehing the Holy See to derwrations by Cellino di Neae; the font itself is & 

believe that the work was approved by hia clergy, square base with four wells, Hunnounted by a statue of 

summoned his priests to pastoral retreat in April with Kt, John the Baptist by Andrea Vacd. The church 

s view to obtaining their signatures to an acceptance of S. Giovanni Fuoricivjtas is Hurrounded, on the upper 

of the synod. 'Only twenty-seven attended, and of part, by two rows of arches; it is a work of the twelfth 

these twenty refusM to sian. Leopold meantime century; within, there is the pulpit, with its Bculpturea 

flummoned all the Tuscan bishopa to meet at Florence, by Fra Gulielmo d'Asnello, and the holy-water font, 

23 April, 1787, to pave the way for acceptance of the representing the theological virtuea, by Giovanni Pi- 

Pistorian decrees at a provincial council; but the sano. Thfi name of PisWia appears for the first time 

assembled bishops vigorously opposed his project, and in history in connexion with the conspiracy of Cati- 

after nineteen stormy sessions he dismissed the assem- linp (62 b, c), but it was only after the sixth century 

bly and abandoned hope of the council. De Ricci that it became important; it was governed, first, by 

became discredited, — -'.— i u'- ~ -. . ■ . ... ...... . . ™ 

the imperial throne 
Us see. Pius VI 

id, after Leopold's accession to its bishops, later by stewards of the Marouis of Tus- 
1790, was compelled to resign cany. It was the first to establish its independence, 
' ined four bishops, assisted after the death of Countess Matilda, and its municipal 


by theologians of the secular clergy. 
Pistorian enactments, and deputeu a congregation ui 
cardinals and bishops to pass judgment on them. 
• They condemned the synod and stigmatized eighty- 
five of its propostitions as erroneous and dangerous. 
Pius VI on 28 August, 1794, dealt the death-blow tc 
the influence of the synod and of Jansenism in Italy in 
' ' " "" "Auctorem 

statuteaare the most ancient of their kind in Italy. _. 
was a Ghibelline town, and had subjugated several 
cities and castles; but, after the death of Frederick 11, 
the Florentines compelled it to become Guelph. 
About 1300, the Houses of the Cancellieri (Guetpns), 
and Panciatichi (Ghibellincs), slniggled with each 
other for supremacy. The former having trium^ihed 
it soon divided into 
Bianehi and Neri, 
which made it easy 
for Caatruccio Caa- 
to subject 


1, 1862), XXXII, 48-60. 

John B. Peterbo.n. 

of PietAia is situated at the foot of the Apenn 
the valley of the Ombrone. The chief industries of 
the town are the manufacture of paper and objects 
in straw. The cathedral dates tram the fifth cen- 
tury, but was damaged bv fire several times prior to 
the thirteenth century, when Nicold Pisano defligned 

domination, in 
Florence assisted the 
Pistoians t« drive 
Castru cciofromtheir 
town, but that aid 
soon weighed upon 
them, and they re- 
volted (1343), taking 
part with Pisa. In 
1351 Pistoia be- 
came definitively 
subject to Florence. 
Clement IX was a 

pRATO is also a 
city in the Province 
of Florence, situated 
in the fertile valley 
of the Biseniio, 
which supports 
many industries, among them flour mills, woolen 
and silk manufactories, quarritw, iron, and cop- 
per works. The Cicognani college of Prato is fa- 
The cathedral, wliich was erected before the 
tenth century, was restored in the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, according to plans of Giovanni 
Pisano: it ccntains paintings by Fra Filippo Lippi and 
"by Gaddi, a pulpit that is a masterpiece of Donaiello, 
and the mausoleums of Carlo de' Medici and of Vin- 
cenzo Danti. In the chapel of la Cintola there is pre- 
The city served a girdle that, according to the legend, w 

byOur Lady to St. Thomas. Prato is first mentioned 
in history, in 1007, as being in rebellion against 
Florence; after that it had several wars with Florence 
and Pistoia. In 1350, it was bought by the Floren- 
tines, to prevent it from fallinE into the hands of thp 
In 1512, it was saclced by the Spaniards. 

its present form ; the outer walls are inlaid with bands Fra Arlotto, author of the first Biblical concordance, 

of black and white marble; the tribune was painted by was a native of Prato, as were also Fra Bartolommco 

PaseiKnano and ^ Sorri; the paintings by Aleaaio della Porta and several personages of the Inghirami 

d'Anm«a and by Buonaccorso di Cino (1347), which family. Pistoia claims to have received the Gospel 

were in the centre aisle, have disappeared. Other from St. Romulus, the first Bishop of Fiesole. The 

things to be admired, are the ancient pulpit, the ceno- first mention of a Bishop of Pistoia is in 492, though 

tapha of Cino da Pistoia and Cardinal Forteguerri, the name of this prelate, like that of another Bishop 

by Verrocchio, thealtarof S, Atto, with its silver work, of Pis(.oia, referred to in 516, is unknown. The first 

the baptismal font by Femicci, and the equipments historically known bishop is Joannes (700); Leo 

of the sacristy. Opposite the cathedral is S.Giovanni (10C7), important in the scniam of Henry IV; Jacobus 

puTORnn 1 

(1118-41); the Blessed Atto (1135-53); Bonus (1189), 
author of " De cohabi tat ione clericoniiD et mulierum " ; 
the Ven, Giovanni Vivenzi (1370); Matteo Dianianti 
(1400); Donato de'Medici (14,1G) Nicold Pandolfini 
(1475), who later became a cardinal ; three PiiccL, Car- 
dinal iiuienxo (lol6), Cardinal Antonio {1519) and 
Roberto (1541); Aiessandro de'Mcdici (1573) becamB 
Leo XI. In 1653, Prato WEts made a diocese, and 
unit«d, aqae principaliler, with Ratoia; aa early as 
1400, Florence askM for the creation of a dioceae at 
Prato, on account of 
the diBsenHions of the 
collegiate church of 
Prato with the Bish- 
ops of Piatoia; and 
in 1460, it had been 
made a prelatvra 
titJliua, and given, tis 
a rule, to some car- 
dinal , in eommetuiam . 
Other bishops of 
theae sees were the 
Ven. Gerardo Ge- 
rardi (1679-90), un- 
der whom Prato 
founded its eemi- 
nary; Leone Strozza 
(1690), Abbot of 
Vallorabrosa, found- 
ed the seminary of 
Pistoia, enlarged by 
Michele C. Visdo- 
mini(1702) ; Scipione 
lUcci (1780), famous 
on account of the 
Synod of Pistoia 
which he convened 
in 1786, and which I^ub VI afterwanis condemned. 
The diocese is a sufTr^an of Florence; has 194 par- 
ishes, with 200,100 inhabitants, 5 religious houses ol 
men, and 19 of women, and 7 educational establieh- 
ments for girls. 

CArFELU!!^. Li Chiaa d'Ibdia. XVII; Rosati. Mfmorir. pa 

EdIuchI by Qi 

U. Bbnioni. 

Pistoriui, JoBANN, controversialist and historian, 

b. at Nidda in Hesse, 14 February, 1546; d. at Frei- 
burg, 18 July, 1608. He is sometimes called Niddanus 
from the name of his birthplace. His father was a 
well-known Protestant minister, Johano Pistoriua the 
Elder (d. 1583 at Nidda), who from 1541 was super- 
intendent or chief minister of Nidda, and took part in 
several religious disputations between Catholics and 
Protestants. Pistonus the Younger studied theology, 
law, and medicine at Marburg and Wittenberg 1559- 
67. He received the degree of Doctor of Medicine, 
and in 1575 was appointed court physician to the 
Margrave Karl II of Baden-Durlach, who frequently 
BOU^t his advice in political and theological matters. 
In search of more consistent beliefs, .Piatorius turned 
from Lutheranism to Calvinism; through his in- 
fluence the Margrave Ernst Fricdrich of I)aden-Dur- 
lach made the same change. As time went on. how- 
ever, Pislorius became diasatiafied with Calvinism 
also. In 1584 he became a privy councillor of Mar- 
gr.ivc James III of Baden-Hochben; at Emmen- 
dingcn; after further investigation he entered the 
Catholic Church in 1588. At his request the Mar- 
grave James brought about the religions disputations 
of Baden, 1589, and Emmendingen, 1590. After the 
second disputation the court preacher Zehender and 
the margrave himself became Catholics, James III, 
however, died on 17 August, 1.590, and bring suc- 
ceeded by his Protestant brother Ernst Fried rich, 
Pistoriua was obliged (o leave. He went to Frcibunt. 
became a pricat in 1591, then *icar-geni'riil of C'"i- 


stance until 1594; after this he was an imperial coun- 
cillor, cathedral provost of Brealau. Apostolic pru' 

thonotary, and in 1601 confessor to the Emperor 
Rudolph II, After his death his library came into 
the possession of the Jesuits of Molsfaeim and later 
was transferred to the theological seminary at Stras- 

Pistorius Dublished a detailed account of the con- 
version of Margrave James III: " Jakobs Marggrafen 
£U Baden , . , christliche, erhebliche und wol- 
fundirte Motifen" 
(Cologne, 1501). His 
numerous writings 
against Protestant- 
ism, while evinana 
clearness, skill, ana 
thorough knowladge 
of his opponents, es- 
pecially of Luther, 
are marked by con- 
troversial sharpnesb 
and coarseness. The 
most important are: 
' ' Analomia Lutheri " 
(Cologne, 1595-8); 
Merkieichen des al- 
ten und neuen Glau- 
bens" (Munster, 
1599); "Wegweiser 
vor alle verflihrte 
Christen" (MUnst«r,. 
1599). Pistorius was 
attacked violently 
by the Protestants; 
e. g., by Huber, 
Spangenbert, Ment- 
ser, HorstiuB, and Christoph Agncola. Replies 
to the "Anatomia Lutheri were written by the 
Protestant theologians of Wittenberg and Hesse. 
Pistorius also busied himself with cabalistic studies, 
and published "Artis cabbalisticte, h, e. recon- 
dita; theologis) et philosophia; scriptorum tomus 
UQUs" (Basle, 1587). As court historiographer to the 
Margrave of Baden, he invcatigated the genealogy 
of the princely house of Zahringen; he ajso issued two 
works on historical sources: "Polonies; iustorife cor- 
pus, i, e. Polonicanim rerum latini veteres et recen- 
tiores scriptorcs quotquot eistant" (Basle, 1582), 
and " Rerum Gernkamcarum veteres jam primum 
publicati Bcriptorea aliquot insignes medii atvi ad 
Carolum V" (Frankfort, 1583-1607), 

RjH, Dit CoiKitilai inl drr Rtjarmalim (Freiburi, 1860), 

II. 488-607; III, Bl sqq.i Qah io AUatm. deul. Biof.. XXVI, 
IW-201; HcBTKB. NBmtitrialBT. lit (Innabruck, 1907); Janhkn, 
HUl. 0/ Uu Gtrman Ptspit at the ttnie of Du Uiidit AflM. X (tr. 
CaitBTtE. London, leoel, lie-4S: Scrkidun, Johaitn Piiioriu 
ail Prom i" Eliaii in HiH. JoKrburh. XXIX (1908). 790-804; 
[ZellI. Mnrtara/ Jakob III. ton Baden in Hiil.-pal. BJdUir, 
XXXVIII(I8£6): von Wiecb, ZurOucA, rf<j MarAvro/m Ja»6 

III. mm Badra und Harhhrra la ZliiKh. /Or Gacll. dei Otrrrkrint, 
new wries, VII (1892). 656-700; VIII (1893), 710; XII (1897), 

^®^^^' Friedbich Laochbbt. 

Pitara], John Baptist. Sec Santa Ft, Anca- 

Pithou, PiERRB, writer, b. at Troyea, 1 Nov., 1530; 
d. at Nogent^«ur-Seine, 1 Nov., 1596. His father, a 
distinguished lawyer, had secretly embraced Calvin- 
ism. Pierre studied the clasaics m Paria under Tur- 
n^be, an<l aflj>rwards with his brother. Francois Pithou, 
attended lectures in law at Bourges and Valence under 
Cujas, who often a^d: Fithai fralree. clarissima Iv- 
mina. In 1560 he was admitted to practise at the 
Paris bar; but on the outbreak of the second war of 
religion, he withdrew to Troyea. Not being admitted 
to the bar at Troves on account of his Calvinist be- 
lief, he withdrew to Sedan which was a Protestant 
district, m'd, ;ii ilnTff|ui'at ot the Due de Bouillon. W 


codified the legal ciutome into the form of laws. He 
then proceeded to Ba^le, where he published Otto de 
FreiBingen'8"Vie|deFrMdricBftrborous8e"and Wam- 
frid'a"Hi8toriaMiBcellaJiea". After the Edict of Paci- 
fication of 1 570 he returned to France, escaped during 
the Maasacre of St. Bartholomew, and, in 1573, joined 
the Catholic Church. In the etruggles between the 
future Henry IV and the League, hu was an ardent ad- 
herent of Henry; he collaborated in the production of 
the "Satire M£nipp^", and being skilled in canon 
law, made a study, in an anonymouB letter publiehed 
1593, of the 


French bishope to 
without consult- 
ing the pope. In 
an epoch - mak- 
ing work "Lee U- 
bcrt£s de l'£gUee 
gallicane". Tor 
the first time the 
raaidiiiB of Gal- 
hcaniiun were 
really codified, in 
eighty-three arti- 
cles. The first 
edition was ded- 
icated to Henry 
IV, The permis- 
sion to publish 
the edition of 
1651 under Louis 
XIV contains 

"We wish to show 
our favour to a work of ao great importance for the 
rights of our crown". Pithou's book was the bBsis of 
the Four Articles of 1682, D'Agueseeau declared that 
the book was "the palladium of France", President 
Bdnault, that "the maxims of Pithou have in a sense 
the force of laws". An edict of 1719, and a decree of 
the Parliament of Dauphin^ on 21 April, 176S, or- 
dered the enforcement of certain articles in Pithou's 
book, as if these eighty-three articlee were legal enact- 
ments. They were reprinted by Dupin in 1824, 

Henry IV appointed Pithou procurator general of 
the Pariiainent of Paris ; but he soon resigned the post, 
preferring to return to his juristic and literary studies. 
He edited Salvian, Quintilian, Petronius, PhaKiruB, 
the Capitularies of Charlemagne, and the "Cor- 
pus iuns canonici". His brother Frangois (1541- 
1621), who became a Catholic in 1678, wrote in 1687 a 
treatise on " TheKreatnessof the rights, and of thepre- 
eminence of the kings and the kingdom of France", 
and was distinguished for his fanatical hostility to the 
Jesuits. Pierre Hthou, more equitable, saved the 
Jesuits from some of the dangers that threatened them 
for a short time after the attempted assassination of 
Henry IV by Chfttel, 

Qboslit, Vit di Pirrrt PiUum (Piria. ITaa); DuriH, LibtrUi 
i(e fEgliie aaUicant (Piuia. 1S24), pralan. 

PiUfliuio. See Sovana and Pitiquano, Dio- 

Pitoni, Joseph, muaii^xui, u. a- ^»cu, iciubis, 
Ital^, 18 March, 1657; d. at Rome, 1 Feb., 1743, aod 
buned in the church of San Marco, wherehe had been 
choirmaster, in the Pitoni family vault. His biog- 
rairfiy, by his pupil Girolamo Chiti, is in the library of 
the Corsini palace. At five years he began to study 
music at Rome. Not yet ^xteen, he composed pieces 
which were sung in the church of the Holy Apostles, 
At that age he was in charge of the choir at Monte Ho- 
tondo; at seventeen at the Cathedral of Assisi. At 
twenty (1677) he returned to Rome, and was maestro 


di cappdia in many churches; in 1708 he was Bp- 
point«d director of St. John Lateran. In 1719 he be- 
came choirmaster of St. Peter's, and remained in that 
office for twenty-four years. In the Accademia di S, 
CeciUa he was one of the four esaminatori dei maestri. 
Pitoni acquired such a marvellous f aciht^, that for his 
compositions, which were of great musical value, he 
could write every part separately, without making a 
score. The number of his compositions, says Chiti, is 
infinite. Many of them are written for three and four 
choirs. He also be^an a Mass for twelve choirs; but 
his advanced age did not allow him to finish it. He 
left a work "Notizie dei maestri di Cappella u di 
Roma che oltramontani". 

Diaiimarii of Munc /ran USO-18S0 (Londoir. 1880); ErTNUi. 
Qt«U«t.Jiii«Bi,VlI(190a),482-M;BAim, Afmwri. . , . diO.P. 
da PaUttriia. II (Itoms, 1828}, SS, nots G02. G«r. tr. K*NDLU 
[Vieuu, 1S34). 

A. Wai/teb, 

Pib«, JEAN-BAPTtSTB-FRAKgots, cardinal, famous 
archsologist and theologian, b. 1 August, 1812^ at 
Champforgeuil in the Department of Sa6ne-et-Loire, 
France; d. 9 Feb., 18S9, m Rome. He was educated 
at Autun, ordained priest on 11 December, 1836, and 
occupied the chair of rhetoric at the pelU timiriaire of 
Autun from 1836 to IS41. From bis early youth he 
manifested a> indefatigable diUgence which, combined 
with biilh mt talents and a remarkable memory , made 
him one of the most learned men of his time. The 
first fruit of his scholarship was his decipherment, in 
1839, of the fragments of a sepulchral monument, dis- 
covered in the cemetery of Saint-Pierre at Autun and 
known as the "Inscription of Autun", It probably 
dates back to the third century, was composed by a 
certain Pectorius and placed over the grave of his 
parents. The initials of the first five versee of the 
eleven-line inscription form the symbolical word Ix^' 
(fish), and tha whole inscription is a splendid testi- 
mony of the early belief in baptism, the Holy Kucha- 
riit, prayer for the dead, communion of saints, and life 
everlastmg. He published the inscription in Spidle- 
gium Solesmense^' (III, 554-641, 

In 1840 Pitra applied to Abbot Gufranger of So- 
lesmes for admission into the Benedictine order but, 
to accommodate the Bishop of Autun, he remiuned an- 
other year as professor at the petit siminaire of Autun. 
He finally began hisnoviliateat Solesmes on 1 5 January, 
1842, and made hie profession on 10 Februaty, 1843, 
A month later, he was appointed prior of St-Glermun 
in Paris, During his sojourn there he was one of the 
chief collaborators of Abb6 Migne in the latteHs colos- 
sal " Cursus patrologis " . Pitra drew up the list of the 
authoiB whose writings were to find a place in the 
work, and collaborated in the edition of the Greek 
writers up to Photius, and of the Latin up to Innocent 
III. At the same time he contributed extensively to 
the newly founded periodical "Auxiliaire catholique". 
In 1845 he had to break his connexion with the great 
work o